Intracellular Changes (intracellular + change)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis in the Jamaican Gray Anole, Anolis lineatopus (Reptilia: Polychrotidae)

ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2010
Justin L. Rheubert
Rheubert, J.L., Wilson, B.S., Wolf, K.W. and Gribbins, K.M. 2010. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis in the Jamaican Gray Anole, Anolis lineatopus (Reptilia: Polychrotidae). ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 484,494. Abstract As the number of spermatozoal characters being described in reptiles increases, it is important to detail the ontogeny of the features leading to the mature morphology of the spermatozoa which may give rise to more comprehensive data matrices for future phylogenetic analyses within the Reptilia. Therefore, spermiogenically active testes from Anolis lineatopus were investigated ultrastructurally to describe the intracellular changes that occur throughout spermiogenesis. The primary events of spermiogenesis (acrosome formation, nuclear condensation, and elongation) seen in A. lineatopus are similar to those previously described for other amniotes. Characters including a round perforatorium tip, stopper-like perforatorial base plate, open pits of nucleoplasm during condensation, and protein layers within the acrosome complex corroborate trends from previous studies in squamates. However, uniquely defined in A. lineatopus are the excessive amounts of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes that contribute to cellular secretions during mid elongation of the spermatids and the lack of a manchette. During acrosome formation, the acrosome granule is found in a basal rather than an apical position, which has been observed in previous studies. These similarities and differences observed during spermiogenesis may be helpful in elucidating the development of mature spermatozoal characters as well as aid in future phylogenetic analyses. [source]

Oxidative stress in glial cultures: Detection by DAF-2 fluorescence used as a tool to measure peroxynitrite rather than nitric oxide

GLIA, Issue 2 2002
Sanjoy Roychowdhury
Abstract 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) is widely used as a fluorescent probe to detect endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO). Recent reports that refer to the high sensitivity of DAF-2 toward NO prompted us to test its efficiency and specificity in a mixed murine primary glial culture model, in which the NO-synthesizing enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed by stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-, (IFN-,). Cultures were loaded with DAF-2DA and the fluorescence was measured using confocal microscopy. NO production in the cultures was determined using the ozone/chemiluminescence technique. Due to the extremely high photosensitivity of DAF-2, low laser intensities were used to avoid artifacts. No difference in DAF-2 fluorescence was observed in NO-producing cultures compared to control cultures, whereas the NO/peroxynitrite-sensitive dye 2,7-dihydrodichlorofluorescein (DCF) showed a significant fluorescence increase specifically in microglia cells. A detectable gain in fluorescence was seen when NO-containing buffer was added to the DAF-2DA,loaded cells with a minimum NO concentration at 7.7 ,M. An additional gain of DAF-2 fluorescence was obtained when the cells were depleted of glutathione (GSH) with L-buthionine S,R-sulfoximine (BSO). Hence, we monitored the change in DAF-2 fluorescence intensity in the presence of NO and O in a cell-free solution. The fluorescence due to NO was indeed larger when O was added, implying a higher sensitivity of DAF-2 for peroxynitrite. Nevertheless, our results also indicate that measurement of DCF fluorescence is a better tool for monitoring intracellular changes in the levels of NO and/or peroxynitrite than DAF-2. GLIA 38:103,114, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Differential activation of stress-responsive signalling proteins associated with altered loading in a rat skeletal muscle

Inho Choi
Abstract Skeletal muscle undergoes a significant reduction in tension upon unloading. To explore intracellular signalling mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we investigated twitch tension, the ratio of actin/myosin filaments, and activities of key signalling molecules in rat soleus muscle during a 3-week hindlimb suspension and 2-week reloading. Twitch tension and myofilament ratio (actin/myosin) gradually decreased during unloading but progressively recovered to initial levels during reloading. To study the involvement of stress-responsive signalling proteins during these changes, the activities of protein kinase C alpha (PKC,) and three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs),c-Jun NH2 -terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), and p38 MAPK,were examined using immunoblotting and immune complex kinase assays. PKC, phosphorylation correlated positively with the tension (Pearson's r,=,0.97, P,<,0.001) and the myofilament ratio (r,=,0.83, P,<,0.01) over the entire unloading and reloading period. Treatment of the soleus muscle with a PKC activator resulted in a similar paralleled increment in both PKC, phosphorylation and the ,-sarcomeric actin expression. The three MAPKs differed in the pattern of activation in that JNK activity peaked only for the first hours of reloading, whereas ERK and p38 MAPK activities remained elevated during reloading. These results suggest that PKC, may play a pivotal role in converting loading stress to intracellular changes in contractile proteins that determine muscle tension. Differential activation of MAPKs may also help alleviate muscle damage, modulate energy transport and/or regulate the expression of contractile proteins upon altered loading. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Calmodulin activity and cAMP signalling modulate growth and apical secretion in pollen tubes

ClŠudia Rato
Summary Our present understanding implicates both calmodulin (CaM) and 3,,5,-cyclicAMP (cAMP) in the regulation of pollen tube growth. However, downstream molecules of these signalling pathways and the cellular processes they modulate remain largely unknown. In order to elucidate the role of CaM, we mapped its activity in growing pollen tubes. 2-chloro-(,-amino-Lys75)-[6-4-(N,N, -diethylaminophenyl)-1,3,5-triazin-4-yl]-calmodulin (TA-CaM) and fluorescein-calmodulin (FL-CaM), fluorescent analogues of CaM, were loaded into pollen tubes and CaM activity was mapped by fluorescence ratio imaging. It was found that CaM activity exhibits a tip-focused gradient, similar to the distribution of cytosolic-free calcium ([Ca2+]c). In long pollen tubes, apical CaM activity was also found to oscillate with a period similar to [Ca2+]c (40,80 sec). This oscillatory behaviour was not observed in small pollen tubes or in tubes that had stopped growing. Changes in CaM activity within the dome of the pollen tube apex resulting from the photolysis of caged photolysis of RS-20 (a peptide antagonist of CaM) induced re-orientation of the growth axis, suggesting that CaM is also involved in the guidance mechanism. CaM activity was strongly modulated by intracellular changes in cAMP (induced by activators and antagonists of adenylyl cyclase). These results indicate that the action of this protein is dependent not solely on [Ca2+]c but also on a cross-talk with other signalling pathways. A putative target of this cross-talk is the secretory machinery as observed in pollen tubes loaded with the FM (N -(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(4-dibutylamino)styryl)pyridinium dibromide 1-43 dye and exposed to different antagonists and activators of these molecules. Our data thus suggest that pollen tube growth and orientation depend on an intricate cross-talk between multiple signalling pathways in which CaM is a key element. [source]

Control of Cell Volume in Skeletal Muscle

Juliet A. Usher-Smith
Abstract Regulation of cell volume is a fundamental property of all animal cells and is of particular importance in skeletal muscle where exercise is associated with a wide range of cellular changes that would be expected to influence cell volume. These complex electrical, metabolic and osmotic changes, however, make rigorous study of the consequences of individual factors on muscle volume difficult despite their likely importance during exercise. Recent charge-difference modelling of cell volume distinguishes three major aspects to processes underlying cell volume control: (i) determination by intracellular impermeant solute; (ii) maintenance by metabolically dependent processes directly balancing passive solute and water fluxes that would otherwise cause cell swelling under the influence of intracellular membrane-impermeant solutes; and (iii) volume regulation often involving reversible short-term transmembrane solute transport processes correcting cell volumes towards their normal baselines in response to imposed discrete perturbations. This review covers, in turn, the main predictions from such quantitative analysis and the experimental consequences of comparable alterations in extracellular pH, lactate concentration, membrane potential and extracellular tonicity. The effects of such alterations in the extracellular environment in resting amphibian muscles are then used to reproduce the intracellular changes that occur in each case in exercising muscle. The relative contributions of these various factors to the control of cell volume in resting and exercising skeletal muscle are thus described. [source]