Intracellular Calcium Release (intracellular + calcium_release)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Functional role of human NK cell receptor 2B4 (CD244) isoforms

Stephen O. Mathew
Abstract 2B4 (CD244), a member of the signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM/CD150), is expressed on all NK cells, a subpopulation of T cells, monocytes and basophils. Human NK cells express two isoforms of 2B4, h2B4-A and h2B4-B that differ in a small portion of the extracellular domain. In the present investigation, we have studied the functions of h2B4-A and h2B4-B. Our study demonstrated that these two isoforms differ in their binding affinity for CD48, which results in differential cytotoxic activity as well as intracellular calcium release by NK cells upon target cell recognition. Analysis of the predicted 3-D structure of the two isoforms showed conformational differences that could account for their differences in binding affinity to CD48. h2B4-A was able to mediate natural cytotoxicity against CD48-expressing K562 target cells and induce intracellular calcium release, whereas h2B4-B showed no effects. NK-92MI, U937, THP-1, KU812, primary monocytes, basophils and NK cells showed expression of both h2B4-A and h2B4-B whereas YT and IL-2-activated NK cells did not show any h2B4-B expression. Stimulation of NK cells through 2B4 resulted in decreased mRNA levels of both h2B4-A and h2B4-B indicating that down-regulation of 2B4 isoforms may be an important factor in controlling NK cell activation during immune responses. [source]

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of melanocortin peptides

J. W. Haycock
,-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (,-MSH) has previously been identified as a potent anti-inflammatory agent in various tissues including the skin. It operates by binding to the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC-1R) which results in the elevation of cyclic AMP. ,-MSH opposes the action of several proinflammatory cytokines including tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,). We have shown that ,-MSH can inhibit TNF-,-stimulated activation of nuclear factor-,B (NF-,B) in human cultured melanocytes, melanoma cells, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells. It also inhibits TNF-,-stimulated upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in many of these cells and can inhibit peroxide-stimulated activation of glutathione peroxidase, suggesting an antioxidant role. ,-MSH is also able to stimulate intracellular calcium release in keratinocytes and fibroblasts (which do not readily show detectible cyclic AMP elevation) but only in the presence of PIA (an adenosine agonist). The carboxyl terminal tripeptides KPV/KP-D-V are reported to be the minimal sequences necessary to convey anti-inflammatory potential, but evidence on how they act is not fully known. Stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells with MC-1R suggests that the KPV peptides operate by this receptor, at least by elevating intracellular calcium. Elevation of cyclic AMP by these tripeptides has not been detected in any cell type studied; however, calcium elevation can inhibit TNF-,-stimulated NF-,B activity (as for cyclic AMP). In conclusion, the MSH peptides convey anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity in many cell types in skin and nerve, by counteracting proinflammatory cytokine signalling. The KPV peptides appear to act functionally via the MC-1R and can also elevate intracellular calcium. [source]

Acamprosate: Recent Findings and Future Research Directions

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2008
Karl Mann
This article explores the mechanisms of action and the potential responder profile of acamprosate, a compound efficacious in relapse prevention of alcoholism. New evidence at the molecular and cellular level suggests that acamprosate attenuates hyper-glutamatergic states that occur during early abstinence and involves iono (NMDA)- and metabotrotropic (mGluR5) glutamate receptors along with augmented intracellular calcium release and electrophysiological changes. Thus mutant mice with enhanced glutamate levels exhibit higher alcohol consumption than wild type mice and respond better to acamprosate, demonstrating that acamprosate acts mainly on a hyper-glutamatergic system. This mode of action further suggests that acamprosate exhibits neuroprotective properties. In rats, cue-induced reinstatement behavior is significantly reduced by acamprosate treatment whereas cue-induced craving responses in alcohol-dependent patients seem not to be affected by this treatment. An ongoing study ("Project Predict") defines specific responder profiles for an individualized use of acamprosate and naltrexone. Neurophysiological as well as psychometric data are used to define 2 groups of patients: "reward cravers" and "relief cravers". While naltrexone should work better in the first group, acamprosate is hypothesized to be efficacious in the latter where withdrawal associated and/or cue induced hyper-glutamatergic states are thought to trigger relapse. Further research should target the definition of subgroups applying endophenotypic approaches, e.g. by detecting a hyperglutamatergic syndrome using MR spectroscopy. [source]

Lipid rafts are required in G,i signaling downstream of the P2Y12 receptor during ADP-mediated platelet activation

Summary., ADP is important in propagating hemostasis upon its secretion from activated platelets in response to other agonists. Lipid rafts are microdomains within the plasma membrane that are rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, and have been implicated in the stimulatory mechanisms of platelet agonists. We sought to determine the importance of lipid rafts in ADP-mediated platelet activation via the G protein-coupled P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors using lipid raft disruption by cholesterol depletion with methyl- , -cyclodextrin. Stimulation of cholesterol-depleted platelets with ADP resulted in a reduction in the extent of aggregation but no difference in the extent of shape change or intracellular calcium release. Furthermore, repletion of cholesterol to previously depleted membranes restored ADP-mediated platelet aggregation. In addition, P2Y12-mediated inhibition of cAMP formation was significantly decreased upon cholesterol depletion from platelets. Stimulation of cholesterol-depleted platelets with agonists that depend upon G,i activation for full activation displayed significant loss of aggregation and secretion, but showed restoration when simultaneously stimulated with the G,z -coupled agonist epinephrine. Finally, G,i preferentially localizes to lipid rafts as determined by sucrose density centrifugation. We conclude that G,i signaling downstream of P2Y12 activation, but not G,q or G,z signaling downstream of P2Y1 or ,2A activation, respectively, has a requirement for lipid rafts that is necessary for its function in ADP-mediated platelet activation. [source]

Evolution and modulation of intracellular calcium release during long-lasting, depleting depolarization in mouse muscle

Leandro Royer
Intracellular calcium signals regulate multiple cellular functions. They depend on release of Ca2+ from cellular stores into the cytosol, a process that in many types of cells appears to be tightly controlled by changes in [Ca2+] within the store. In contrast with cardiac muscle, where depletion of Ca2+ in the sarcoplasmic reticulum is a crucial determinant of termination of Ca2+ release, in skeletal muscle there is no agreement regarding the sign, or even the existence of an effect of SR Ca2+ level on Ca2+ release. To address this issue we measured Ca2+ transients in mouse flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) skeletal muscle fibres under voltage clamp, using confocal microscopy and the Ca2+ monitor rhod-2. The evolution of Ca2+ release flux was quantified during long-lasting depolarizations that reduced severely the Ca2+ content of the SR. As in all previous determinations in mammals and non-mammals, release flux consisted of an early peak, relaxing to a lower level from which it continued to decay more slowly. Decay of flux in this second stage, which has been attributed largely to depletion of SR Ca2+, was studied in detail. A simple depletion mechanism without change in release permeability predicts an exponential decay with time. In contrast, flux decreased non-exponentially, to a finite, measurable level that could be maintained for the longest pulses applied (1.8 s). An algorithm on the flux record allowed us to define a quantitative index, the normalized flux rate of change (NFRC), which was shown to be proportional to the ratio of release permeability P and inversely proportional to Ca2+ buffering power B of the SR, thus quantifying the ,evacuability' or ability of the SR to empty its content. When P and B were constant, flux then decayed exponentially, and NFRC was equal to the exponential rate constant. Instead, in most cases NFRC increased during the pulse, from a minimum reached immediately after the early peak in flux, to a time between 200 and 250 ms, when the index was no longer defined. NFRC increased by 111% on average (in 27 images from 18 cells), reaching 300% in some cases. The increase may reflect an increase in P, a decrease in B, or both. On experimental and theoretical grounds, both changes are to be expected upon SR depletion. A variable evacuability helps maintain a constant Ca2+ output under conditions of diminishing store Ca2+ load. [source]

Respiratory syncytial virus and neutrophil activation

E. L. Bataki
Summary Respiratory syncytial virus infects almost all children by 2 years of age. Neutrophils are the predominant airway leucocytes in RSV bronchiolitis and they are activated in the presence of infection. However it is not clear whether RSV can directly signal to activate neutrophil cytotoxic function. To investigate this we have used a preparation of RSV washed using a new centrifugal diafiltration method to rapidly remove inflammatory molecules produced by the epithelial cells used to propagate the RSV stock. Human neutrophils were isolated from peripheral blood and activated with either the unwashed crude RSV preparations or the purified intact RSV. Neutrophils were also challenged with purified RSV G-glycoprotein. The effect of challenging human neutrophils with these preparations of intact RSV, or the RSV G-glycoprotein, was assessed by measuring the cell surface expression of CD11b and CD18b, the phagocytic oxidative burst, and intracellular release of calcium pools. Neutrophils challenged with the washed RSV exhibited significantly lower activation of surface marker expression (P < 0001) and oxidative burst (P < 0001) than those challenged with unwashed virus or with virus free supernatant. There was no increase in intracellular calcium release on exposure to the washed RSV. Purified G glycoprotein did not stimulate neutrophils, whilst the use of a blocking antibody to the F protein did not prevent unwashed RSV from activating cytotoxic responses. These results suggest that neutrophils have no innate signalling system that recognizes RSV but they are activated at sites of RSV infection as a result of the cytokines and inflammatory molecules released by virally infected cells. [source]