Intracellular Ca2+ Stores (intracellular + ca2+_store)

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Selected Abstracts

Gq/11-induced intracellular calcium mobilization mediates Per2 acute induction in Rat-1 fibroblasts

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 9 2006
Naoyuki Takashima
Phase resetting is one of the essential properties of circadian clocks that is required for the adjustment to a particular environment and the induction of Per1 and Per2 clock genes is believed to be a primary molecular event during this process. Although the intracellular signal transduction pathway underlying Per1 gene activation has been well characterized, the mechanisms that control Per2 up-regulation have not yet been elucidated. In our present study, we demonstrate that Gq/11 coupled receptors mediate serum-induced immediate rat Per2 (rPer2) transactivation in Rat-1 fibroblasts via intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Stimulation of these cells with a high concentration of serum was found to rapidly increase the intracellular Ca2+ levels and strongly up-regulated rPer2 gene. rPer2 induction by serum stimulation was abrogated by intracellular Ca2+ chelation and depletion of intracellular Ca2+ store, which suggests that the calcium mobilization is necessary for the up-regulation of rPer2 gene. In addition, suppression of Gq/11 function was observed to inhibit both Ca2+ mobilization and rPer2 induction. Further, we demonstrated that endothelin-induced acute rPer2 transactivation via Gq/11-coupled endothelin receptors is also suppressed by a Gq/11 specific inhibitor. These findings together suggest that serum and endothelin utilize a common Gq/11-PLC mediated pathway for the transactivation of rPer2, which involves the mobilization of calcium from the intracellular calcium store. [source]

Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Stimulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Release in Osteoblasts: Divergent Regulation by p42/p44 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

Haruhiko Tokuda
Abstract We previously showed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) activates p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase via Ca2+ mobilization, resulting in interleukin-6 (IL-6) synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of bFGF on the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in these cells. bFGF stimulated VEGF release dose dependently in the range between 10 and 100 ng/ml. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, markedly enhanced the bFGF-induced VEGF release. bFGF induced the phosphorylation of both p42/p44 MAP kinase and p38 MAP kinase. PD98059, an inhibitor of upstream kinase of p42/p44 MAP kinase, reduced the VEGF release. SB203580 enhanced the phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAP kinase induced by bFGF. The enhancement by SB203580 of the bFGF-stimulated VEGF release was suppressed by PD98059. The depletion of extracellular Ca2+ by [ethylenebis-(oxyethylenenitrilo)]tetracetic acid (EGTA) or 1,2-bis-(O -aminophinoxy)-ethane- N,N,N,N -tetracetic acid tetracetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM), a chelator of intracellular Ca2+, suppressed the bFGF-induced VEGF release. A23187, a Ca ionophore, or thapsigargin, known to induce Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ store, stimulated the release of VEGF by itself. A23187 induced the phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAP kinase and p38 MAP kinase. PD98059 suppressed the VEGF release induced by A23187. SB203580 had little effect on either A23187-induced VEGF release or the phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAP kinase by A23187. These results strongly suggest that bFGF stimulates VEGF release through p42/p44 MAP kinase in osteoblasts and that the VEGF release is negatively regulated by bFGF-activated p38 MAP kinase. [source]

Acute atrial arrhythmogenesis in murine hearts following enhanced extracellular Ca2+ entry depends on intracellular Ca2+ stores

Y. Zhang
Abstract Aim:, To investigate the effect of increases in extracellular Ca2+ entry produced by the L-type Ca2+ channel agonist FPL-64176 (FPL) upon acute atrial arrhythmogenesis in intact Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts and its dependence upon diastolic Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ stores. Methods:, Confocal microscope studies of Fluo-3 fluorescence in isolated atrial myocytes were performed in parallel with electrophysiological examination of Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts. Results:, Atrial myocytes stimulated at 1 Hz and exposed to FPL (0.1 ,m) initially showed (<10 min) frequent, often multiple, diastolic peaks following the evoked Ca2+ transients whose amplitudes remained close to control values. With continued pacing (>10 min) this reverted to a regular pattern of evoked transients with increased amplitudes but in which diastolic peaks were absent. Higher FPL concentrations (1.0 ,m) produced sustained and irregular patterns of cytosolic Ca2+ activity, independent of pacing. Nifedipine (0.5 ,m), and caffeine (1.0 mm) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) (0.15 ,m) pre-treatments respectively produced immediate and gradual reductions in the F/F0 peaks. Such nifedipine and caffeine, or CPA pre-treatments, abolished, or reduced, the effects of 0.1 and 1.0 ,m FPL on cytosolic Ca2+ signals. FPL (1.0 ,m) increased the incidence of atrial tachycardia and fibrillation in intact Langendorff-perfused hearts without altering atrial effective refractory periods. These effects were inhibited by nifedipine and caffeine, and reduced by CPA. Conclusion:, Enhanced extracellular Ca2+ entry exerts acute atrial arrhythmogenic effects that is nevertheless dependent upon diastolic Ca2+ release. These findings complement reports that associate established, chronic, atrial arrhythmogenesis with decreased overall inward Ca2+ current. [source]

Multiple P2 Receptors Contribute to a Transient Increase in Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration in Atp-Stimulated Rat Brown Adipocytes

Mariko Omatsu-Kanbe
Extracellular ATP in micromolar concentrations evokes a transient elevation in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which arises primarily from a release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores in rat brown adipocytes. We investigated the mechanisms underlying this transient nature of [Ca2+]i elevation during exposure to ATP by using fura-2 fluorescence measurements together with the P2 receptor antagonists pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2,,4,-disulfonic acid (PPADS) and suramin. Extracellular ATP (10 ,M) almost completely depressed the thapsigargin (100 nM)-evoked [Ca2+]i elevation mediated through store-operated Ca2+ entry. The inhibitory effect of ATP was antagonized by PPADS with IC50 of 0.7 ,M. In the presence of PPADS at concentrations of more than 5 ,M, the ATP-induced [Ca2+]i elevation became sustained during the entire duration of the agonist application, although the magnitude of the sustained [Ca2+]i elevation was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by PPADS with an IC50 of 200 ,M. In contrast, the ATP-induced [Ca2+]i elevation was blocked by suramin in a concentration range similar to that required to antagonize the inhibitory effect of ATP on the store-operated pathway. These results suggest that the [Ca2+]i responses to extracellular ATP in rat brown adipocytes are mediated through the activation of at least two distinct P2 receptors exhibiting different sensitivities to PPADS but similar sensitivities to suramin. Extracellular ATP stimulates the PPADS-resistant P2 receptor to mobilize intracellular Ca2+ stores, which is probably followed by the activation of store-operated Ca2+ entry. Extracellular ATP, however, would inhibit this Ca2+ entry process through the stimulation of the PPADS-sensitive P2-receptor, which may underlie the transient nature of [Ca2+]i elevation in response to extracellular ATP. [source]

Nucleotide-induced Ca2+ signaling in sustentacular supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium

GLIA, Issue 15 2008
Thomas Hassenklöver
Abstract Extracellular purines and pyrimidines are important signaling molecules acting via purinergic cell-surface receptors in neurons, glia, and glia-like cells such as sustentacular supporting cells (SCs) of the olfactory epithelium (OE). Here, we thoroughly characterize ATP-induced responses in SCs of the OE using functional Ca2+ imaging. The initial ATP-induced increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i always occurred in the apical part of SCs and subsequently propagated toward the basal lamina, indicating the occurrence of purinergic receptors in the apical part of SCs. The mean propagation velocity of the Ca2+ signal within SCs was 17.10 ± 1.02 ,m/s. ATP evoked increases in [Ca2+]i in both the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+. Depletion of the intracellular Ca2+ stores abolished the responses. This shows that the ATP-induced [Ca2+]i increases were in large part, if not entirely, due to the activation of G protein-coupled receptors followed by Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores, suggesting an involvement of P2Y receptors. The order of potency of the applied purinergic agonists was UTP > ATP > ATP,S (with all others being only weakly active or inactive). The ATP-induced [Ca2+]i increases could be reduced by the purinergic antagonists PPADS and RB2, but not by suramin. Our findings suggest that extracellular nucleotides in the OE activate SCs via P2Y2/P2Y4 -like receptors and initiate a characteristic intraepithelial Ca2+ wave. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Axon-glia communication evokes calcium signaling in olfactory ensheathing cells of the developing olfactory bulb

GLIA, Issue 4 2007
Anne Rieger
Abstract Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) accompany receptor axons in the olfactory nerve and promote axonal growth into the central nervous system. The mechanisms underlying the communication between axons and OECs, however, have not been studied in detail yet. We investigated the effect of activity-dependent neuronal transmitter release on Ca2+ signaling of OECs in acute mouse olfactory bulb slices using confocal Ca2+ imaging. TTX-sensitive axonal activity upon electrical nerve stimulation triggers a rise in cytosolic Ca2+ in OECs, which can be mimicked by application of DHPG, an agonist of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Both stimulation- and DHPG-induced Ca2+ transients in OECs were abolished by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). The mGluR1 -specific antagonist CPCCOEt completely inhibited DHPG-evoked Ca2+ transients, but reduced stimulation-induced Ca2+ transients only partly, suggesting the involvement of another neurotransmitter. Application of ATP evoked CPA-sensitive Ca2+ transients in OECs, which were inhibited by the P2Y1 -specific antagonist MRS2179. Co-application of CPCCOEt and MRS2179 almost completely blocked the stimulation-induced Ca2+ transients, indicating that they were mediated by mGluR1 and P2Y1 receptors. Our results show that OECs are able to respond to olfactory nerve activity with an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ due to glutamate and ATP release. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Recombinant human serotonin 5A receptors stably expressed in C6 glioma cells couple to multiple signal transduction pathways

Mami Noda
Abstract Human serotonin 5A (5-HT5A) receptors were stably expressed in undifferentiated C6 glioma. In 5-HT5A receptors-expressing cells, accumulation of cAMP by forskolin was inhibited by 5-HT as reported previously. Pertussis toxin-sensitive inhibition of ADP-ribosyl cyclase was also observed, indicating a decrease of cyclic ADP ribose, a potential intracellular second messenger mediating ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ mobilization. On the other hand, 5-HT-induced outward currents were observed using the patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. The 5-HT-induced outward current was observed in 84% of the patched 5-HT5A receptor-expressing cells and was concentration-dependent. The 5-HT-induced current was inhibited when intracellular K+ was replaced with Cs+ but was not significantly inhibited by typical K+ channel blockers. The 5-HT-induced current was significantly attenuated by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane- N,N,N,,N,-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) in the patch pipette. Depleting intracellular Ca2+ stores by application of caffeine or thapsigargin also blocked the 5-HT-induced current. Blocking G protein, the inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptor, or pretreatment with pertussis toxin, all inhibited the 5-HT-induced current. IP3 showed a transient increase after application of 5-HT in 5-HT5A receptor-expressing cells. It was concluded that in addition to the inhibition of cAMP accumulation and ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity, 5-HT5A receptors regulate intracellular Ca2+ mobilization which is probably a result of the IP3-sensitive Ca2+ store. These multiple signal transduction systems may induce complex changes in the serotonergic system in brain function. [source]

Interleukin-1, Release in the Supraoptic Nucleus Area During Osmotic Stimulation Requires Neural Function

J. Y. Summy-Long
Interleukin (IL)-1, is present throughout the magnocellular neuroendocrine system and co-depletes with oxytocin and vasopressin from the neural lobe during salt-loading. To examine whether IL-1, is released from the dendrites/soma of magnocellular neurones during osmotic stimulation, microdialysis adjacent to the supraoptic nucleus (SON) in conscious rats was combined with immunocapillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection to quantify cytokine in 5-min dialysates collected before (0,180 min; basal), and after (180,240 min), hypertonic saline injected s.c. (1.5 m NaCl). Osmotic release of IL-1, was compared after inhibiting local voltage-gated channels for Na+ (tetrodotoxin) and Ca2+ (cadmium and nickel) or by reducing intracellular Ca2+ stores (thapsigargin). Immunohistochemistry combined with microdialysis was used to localise cytokine sources (IL-1,+) and microglia (OX-42+). Under conditions of microdialysis, the basal release of IL-1,+ in the SON area was measurable and stable (pg/ml; mean ± SEM) from 0,60 min (2.2 ± 0.06), 60,120 min (2.32 ± 0.05) and 120,180 min (2.33 ± 0.06), likely originating locally from activated microglia (OX42+; IL-1,+; ameboid, hypertrophied) and magnocellular neurones expressing IL-1,. In response to osmotic stimulation, IL-1, increased progressively in dialysates of the SON area by a mechanism dependent on intracellular Ca2+ stores sensitive to thapsigargin and, similar to dendritic secretion of oxytocin and vasopressin, required local voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels for activation by osmoregulatory pathways from the forebrain. During osmotic stimulation, neurally dependent release of IL-1, in the SON area likely upregulates osmosensitive cation currents on magnocellular neurones (observed in vitro by others), to facilitate dendritic release of neurohypophysial hormones. [source]

Effect of otilonium bromide on contractile patterns in the human sigmoid colon

D. Gallego
Abstract Background, The mechanism of action of the spasmolytic compound otilonium bromide (OB) on human colonic motility is not understood. The aim of our study was to characterize the pharmacological effects of OB on contractile patterns in the human sigmoid colon. Methods, Circular sigmoid strips were studied in organ baths. Isolated smooth muscle cells from human sigmoid colon were examined using the calcium imaging technique. Key Results, Otilonium bromide inhibited by 85% spontaneous non-neural rhythmic phasic contractions (RPCs), (IC50 = 49.9 nmol L,1) and stretch-induced tone (IC50 = 10.7 nmol L,1) with maximum effects at micromolar range. OB also inhibited by 50% both on- (IC50 = 38.0 nmol L,1) and off- contractions induced by electrical stimulation of excitatory motor neurons. In contrast, the inhibitory latency period prior to off -contractions was unaffected by OB. OB inhibited acetylcholine-, substance P-, and neurokinin A-induced contractions. The L-type Ca2+ channel agonist BayK8644 reversed the effects of OB on RPCs, on- and off -contractions. Hexamethonium, atropine, the NK2 antagonist, or depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by thapsigargin did not prevent the inhibitory effect of OB on RPCs and electrical contractions. KCl-induced calcium transients in isolated smooth muscle cells were also inhibited by OB (IC50 = 0.2 ,mol L,1). Conclusions & Inferences, Otilonium bromide strongly inhibited the main patterns of human sigmoid motility in vitro by blocking calcium influx through L-type calcium channels on smooth muscle cells. This pharmacological profile may mediate the clinically observed effects of the drug in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. [source]

Complex interplay between glutamate receptors and intracellular Ca2+ stores during ischaemia in rat spinal cord white matter

Mohamed Ouardouz
Electrophysiological recordings of propagated compound action potentials (CAPs) and axonal Ca2+ measurements using confocal microscopy were used to study the interplay between AMPA receptors and intracellullar Ca2+ stores in rat spinal dorsal columns subjected to in vitro combined oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Removal of Ca2+ or Na+ from the perfusate was protective after 30 but not 60 min of OGD. TTX was ineffective with either exposure, consistent with its modest effect on ischaemic depolarization. In contrast, AMPA antagonists were very protective, even after 60 min of OGD where 0Ca2++ EGTA perfusate was ineffective. Similarly, blocking ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca2+ mobilization from internal stores (0Ca2++ nimodipine or 0Ca2++ ryanodine), or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-dependent Ca2+ release (block of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors with 1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 or IP3 receptor block with 2APB; each in 0Ca2+) were each very protective, with the combination resulting in virtually complete functional recovery after 1 h OGD (97 ± 32% CAP recovery versus 4 ± 6% in artificial cerebrospinal fluid). AMPA induced a rise in Ca2+ concentration in normoxic axons, which was greatly reduced by blocking ryanodine receptors. Our data therefore suggest a novel and surprisingly complex interplay between AMPA receptors and Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular Ca2+ stores. We propose that AMPA receptors may not only allow Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space, but may also significantly influence Ca2+ release from intra-axonal Ca2+ stores. In dorsal column axons, AMPA receptor-dependent mechanisms appear to exert a greater influence than voltage-gated Na+ channels on functional outcome following OGD. [source]

Cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and rate of increase of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in the regulation of vascular permeability in Rana in vivo

C. A. Glass
Vascular permeability is assumed to be regulated by the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) of the endothelial cells. When permeability is increased, however, the maximum [Ca2+]c appears to occur after the maximum permeability increase, suggesting that Ca2+ -dependent mechanisms other than the absolute Ca2+ concentration may regulate permeability. Here we investigate whether the rate of increase of the [Ca2+]c (d[Ca2+]c/dt) may more closely approximate the time course of the permeability increase. Hydraulic conductivity (Lp) and endothelial [Ca2+]c were measured in single perfused frog mesenteric microvessels in vivo. The relationships between the time courses of the increased Lp, [Ca2+]c and d[Ca2+]c/dt were examined. Lp peaked significantly earlier than [Ca2+]c in all drug treatments examined (Ca2+ store release, store-mediated Ca2+ influx, and store-independent Ca2+ influx). When Lp was increased in a store-dependent manner the time taken for Lp to peak (3.6 ± 0.9 min during store release, 1.2 ± 0.3 min during store-mediated Ca2+ influx) was significantly less than the time taken for [Ca2+]c to peak (9.2 ± 2.8 min during store release, 2.1 ± 0.7 min during store-mediated influx), but very similar to that for the peak d[Ca2+]c/dt to occur (4.3 ± 2.0 min during store release, 1.1 ± 0.5 min during Ca2+ influx). Additionally, when the increase was independent of intracellular Ca2+ stores, Lp (0.38 ± 0.03 min) and d[Ca2+]c/dt (0.30 ± 0.1 min) both peaked significantly before the [Ca2+]c (1.05 ± 0.31 min). These data suggest that the regulation of vascular permeability by endothelial cell Ca2+ may be regulated by the rate of change of the [Ca2+]c rather than the global [Ca2+]. [source]

Different Ca2+ signalling cascades manifested by mastoparan in the prothoracic glands of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and the silkworm, Bombyx mori

Skarlatos G. Dedos
Abstract Application of the tetradecapeptide mastoparan to the prothoracic glands (PGs) of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and the silkworm, Bombyx mori, resulted in increases in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). In M. sexta, Gi proteins are involved in the mastoparan-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i. However, there is no involvement of Gi proteins in the mastoparan-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i in prothoracic gland cells from B. mori. Unlike in M. sexta prothoracic glands, in B. mori prothoracic glands mastoparan increases [Ca2+]i even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Pharmacological manipulation of the Ca2+ signalling cascades in the prothoracic glands of both insect species suggests that in M. sexta prothoracic glands, mastoparan's first site of action is influx of Ca2+ through plasma membrane Ca2+ channels while in B. mori prothoracic glands, mastoparan's first site of action is mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. In M. sexta, the combined results indicate the presence of mastoparan-sensitive plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, distinct from those activated by prothoracicotropic hormone or the IP3 signalling cascade, that coordinate spatial increases in [Ca2+]i in prothoracic gland cells. We propose that in B. mori, mastoparan stimulates Ca2+ mobilization from ryanodine-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores in prothoracic gland cells. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 65:52,64, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Loperamide mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ stores in insulin-secreting HIT-T15 cells

Li-Ping He
We have investigated the effects of loperamide on intracellular Ca2+ stores and membrane K+ channels in insulin-secreting hamster insulinoma (HIT-T15) cells. In cell-attached patch-clamp mode, loperamide (3,250 ,M) activated large single-channel currents. The loperamide-activated currents were tentatively identified as Ca2+ -activated K+ channel (KCa) currents based on their single-channel conductance (145 pS), apparent reversal potential, and insensitivity to tolbutamide. Smaller single-channel currents with a conductance (32 pS) indicative of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels) were also recorded, but were insensitive to loperamide. Surprisingly, the loperamide-activated currents persisted in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Yet under these conditions, we still measured loperamide-induced Ca2+ increases. These effects are dose dependent. Loperamide had no effects in the inside-out patch configuration, suggesting that loperamide does not directly activate the channels with large conductance, but does so secondarily to release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Carbachol (100 ,M), an agonist of muscarinic receptors, which mediates IP3 -dependent intracellular Ca2+ release, enhanced the effects of loperamide on KCa channels. Both the putative KCa currents and Ca2+ signals induced by loperamide (with ,0' [Ca2+]o) were abolished when the intracellular Ca2+ stores had been emptied by pretreating the cells with either carbachol or thapsigargin, an endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase inhibitor that blocks reuptake of calcium. These data indicate that loperamide in insulin-secreting , -cells evokes intracellular Ca2+ release from IP3 -gated stores and activates membrane currents that appear to be carried by KCa, rather than KATP channels. British Journal of Pharmacology (2003) 139, 351,361. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705263 [source]