Intracellular Ca2+ Levels (intracellular + ca2+_level)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Iso-S -petasin, a hypotensive sesquiterpene from Petasites formosanus, depresses cardiac contraction and intracellular Ca2+ transients in adult rat ventricular myocytes

Lucy B. Esberg
ABSTRACT Petasites formosanus is an indigenous species of the medicinal plant Petasites which has been used to treat hypertension. Both S -petasin and its isoform iso-S -petasin have been shown to be the effective ingredients in P. formosanus. However, their effect on heart function has not been revealed. This study was to examine the effect of iso-S -petasin on cardiac contractile function at the myocyte level. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from adult rat hearts and were stimulated to contract at 0.5 Hz under 1.0 mm extracellular Ca2+. Contractile properties were evaluated using an lonOptix MyoCam system including peak shortening (PS), time to PS (TPS), time to 90% re-lengthening (TR90) and maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening (±dL/dt). Intracellular Ca2+ properties were assessed by fura-2 and presented as Ca2+ -induced Ca2+ release (CICR) and intracellular Ca2+ decay. Acute application of iso-S -petasin (10,7 to 10,4 M) elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition in PS and CICR, with maximal inhibitions of 51.0% and 31.0%, respectively. iso-S -petasin also induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of ± dL/dt without affecting TPS, TR90, baseline intracellular Ca2+ level or intracellular Ca2+ decay. Elevation of extracellular Ca2+ from 1.0 mm to 2.7 mm significantly antagonized the iso-S -petasin-induced depression in PS and CICR. These results demonstrated a direct depressant action of iso-S -petasin on ventricular contraction, which may work in concert with its antihypertensive action to reduce the cardiac load. The iso-S -petasin-induced decrease in CICR may play a role in its cardiac depressant effect. [source]

Glutamate-induced internalization of Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels protects retinal neurons against excitotoxicity

Fengxia Mizuno
Glutamate-induced rise in the intracellular Ca2+ level is thought to be a major cause of excitotoxic cell death, but the mechanisms that control the Ca2+ overload are poorly understood. Using immunocytochemistry, electrophysiology and Ca2+ imaging, we show that activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors induces a selective internalization of Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels in salamander retinal neurons. The effect of glutamate on Cav1.3 internalization was blocked in Ca2+ -free external solution, or by strong buffering of internal Ca2+ with BAPTA. Downregulation of L-type Ca2+ channel activity in retinal ganglion cells by glutamate was suppressed by inhibitors of dynamin-dependent endocytosis. Stabilization of F-actin by jasplakinolide significantly reduced the ability of glutamate to induce internalization suggesting it is mediated by Ca2+ -dependent reorganization of actin cytoskeleton. We showed that the Cav1.3 is the primary L-type Ca2+ channel contributing to kainate-induced excitotoxic death of amacrine and ganglion cells. Block of Cav1.3 internalization by either dynamin inhibition or F-actin stabilization increased vulnerability of retinal amacrine and ganglion cells to kainate-induced excitotoxicity. Our data show for the first time that Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels are subject to rapid glutamate-induced internalization, which may serve as a negative feedback mechanism protecting retinal neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. [source]

Gating of the expressed T-type Cav3.1 calcium channels is modulated by Ca2+

L. Lacinová
Abstract Aim:, We have investigated the influence of Ca2+ ions on the basic biophysical properties of T-type calcium channels. Methods:, The Cav3.1 calcium channel was transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells. Current was measured using the whole cell patch clamp technique. Ca2+ or Na+ ions were used as charge carriers. The intracellular Ca2+ was either decreased by the addition of 10 mm ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid (EGTA) or increased by the addition of 200 ,m Ca2+ into the non-buffered intracellular solution. Various combinations of extra- and intracellular solutions yielded high, intermediate or low intracellular Ca2+ levels. Results:, The amplitude of the calcium current was independent of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. High levels of intracellular Ca2+ accelerated significantly both the inactivation and the activation time constants of the current. The replacement of extracellular Ca2+ by Na+ as charge carrier did not affect the absolute value of the activation and inactivation time constants, but significantly enhanced the slope factor of the voltage dependence of the inactivation time constant. Slope factors of voltage dependencies of channel activation and inactivation were significantly enhanced. The recovery from inactivation was faster when Ca2+ was a charge carrier. The number of available channels saturated for membrane voltages more negative than ,100 mV for the Ca2+ current, but did not reach steady state even at ,150 mV for the Na+ current. Conclusions:, Ca2+ ions facilitate transitions of Cav3.1 channel from open into closed and inactivated states as well as backwards transition from inactivated into closed state, possibly by interacting with its voltage sensor. [source]

NCS-1 differentially regulates growth cone and somata calcium channels in Lymnaea neurons

Kwokyin Hui
Abstract Local voltage-gated calcium channels, which regulate intracellular Ca2+ levels by allowing Ca2+ influx, play an important role in guiding and shaping growth cones, and in regulating the outgrowth and branching of neurites. Therefore, elucidating the mechanisms that regulate the biophysical properties of whole-cell calcium currents in the growth cones and somata of growing neurons is important to improving our understanding of neuronal development and regeneration. In this study, taking advantage of the large size of the pedal A (PeA) neurons in Lymnaea stagnalis, we compared the biophysical properties of somata and growth cone whole-cell calcium channel currents using Ba2+ and Ca2+ as current carriers. We found that somata and growth cone currents exhibit similar high-voltage activation properties. However, Ba2+ and Ca2+ currents in growth cones and somata are differentially affected by a dominant-negative peptide containing the C-terminal amino acid sequence of neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1). The peptide selectively reduces the peak and sustained components of current densities and the slope conductance in growth cones, and shifts the reversal potential of the growth cone currents to more hyperpolarized voltages. In contrast, the peptide had no significant effect on the somata calcium channels. Thus, we conclude that NCS-1 differentially modulates Ca2+ currents in the somata and growth cones of regenerating neurons, and may serve as a key regulator to facilitate the growth cone calcium channel activity. [source]

Expression of functional NR1/NR2B-type NMDA receptors in neuronally differentiated SK-N-SH human cell line

Marina Pizzi
Abstract The present study demonstrates that human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells, differentiated by retinoic acid (RA), express functional NMDA receptors and become vulnerable to glutamate toxicity. During exposure to RA, SK-N-SH cells switched from non-neuronal to neuronal phenotype by showing antigenic changes typical of postmitotic neurons together with markers specific for cholinergic cells. Neuronally differentiated cells displayed positive immunoreactivity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and active acetylcholine release in response to depolarizing stimuli. The differentiation correlated with the expression of NMDA receptors. RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis identified NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B, in RA-differentiated cultures. The NR1 protein immunolocalized to the neuronal cell population and assembled with the NR2B subunit to form functional N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Glutamate or NMDA application, concentration-dependently increased the intracellular Ca2+ levels and acetylcholine release in differentiated cultures, but not in undifferentiated SK-N-SH cells. Moreover, differentiated cultures became vulnerable to NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. The glutamate effects were enhanced by glycine application and were prevented by the NMDA receptor blocker MK 801, as well as by the NR2B selective antagonist ifenprodil. These data suggest that SK-N-SH cells differentiated by brief treatment with RA may represent an unlimited source of neuron-like cells suitable for studying molecular events associated with activation of human NR1/NR2B receptors. [source]

Gq/11-induced intracellular calcium mobilization mediates Per2 acute induction in Rat-1 fibroblasts

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 9 2006
Naoyuki Takashima
Phase resetting is one of the essential properties of circadian clocks that is required for the adjustment to a particular environment and the induction of Per1 and Per2 clock genes is believed to be a primary molecular event during this process. Although the intracellular signal transduction pathway underlying Per1 gene activation has been well characterized, the mechanisms that control Per2 up-regulation have not yet been elucidated. In our present study, we demonstrate that Gq/11 coupled receptors mediate serum-induced immediate rat Per2 (rPer2) transactivation in Rat-1 fibroblasts via intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Stimulation of these cells with a high concentration of serum was found to rapidly increase the intracellular Ca2+ levels and strongly up-regulated rPer2 gene. rPer2 induction by serum stimulation was abrogated by intracellular Ca2+ chelation and depletion of intracellular Ca2+ store, which suggests that the calcium mobilization is necessary for the up-regulation of rPer2 gene. In addition, suppression of Gq/11 function was observed to inhibit both Ca2+ mobilization and rPer2 induction. Further, we demonstrated that endothelin-induced acute rPer2 transactivation via Gq/11-coupled endothelin receptors is also suppressed by a Gq/11 specific inhibitor. These findings together suggest that serum and endothelin utilize a common Gq/11-PLC mediated pathway for the transactivation of rPer2, which involves the mobilization of calcium from the intracellular calcium store. [source]

Influence of cardiac-specific overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 1 on lifespan and aging-associated changes in cardiac intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, protein damage and apoptotic protein expression

AGING CELL, Issue 6 2007
Qun Li
Summary A fall in circulating levels of cardiac survival factor insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) contributes to cardiac aging. To better understand the role of IGF-1 in cardiac aging, we examined the influence of cardiac IGF-1 overexpression on lifespan, cardiomyocyte intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, protein damage, apoptosis and expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in young and old mice. Mouse survival rate was constructed by the Kaplan,Meier curve. Intracellular Ca2+ was evaluated by fura-2 fluorescence. Protein damage was determined by protein carbonyl formation. Apoptosis was assessed by caspase-8 expression, caspase-3 and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) assay. Pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins including Bax, p53, pp53, Bcl2, Omi/HtrA2, apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) were assessed by Western blot. Aging decreased plasma in IGF-1 levels, elevated myocyte resting intracellular Ca2+ levels, reduced electrically stimulated rise in intracellular Ca2+ and delayed intracellular Ca2+ decay associated with enhanced protein carbonyl formation, caspase-8 expression and caspase-3 activity in FVB mice, all of which with the exception of elevated resting intracellular Ca2+ were attenuated by IGF-1. Aging up-regulated expression of Bax, Bcl2 and ARC, down-regulated XIAP expression and did not affect p53, pp53 and Omi/HtrA2. The IGF-1 transgene attenuated or nullified aging-induced changes in Bax, Bcl2 and XIAP. Our data suggest a beneficial role for IGF-1 in aging-induced survival, cardiac intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, protein damage and apoptosis possibly related to pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. [source]

The effect of short-term low-temperature treatments on gene expression in Arabidopsis correlates with changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels

ABSTRACT The role of changes in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) in low-temperature signal transduction in plants has lately been supported by several studies. An analysis to determine whether the low-temperature-induced increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) could be correlated with a downstream response such as gene expression was carried out. The induction of the low-temperature-regulated gene LTI78 was used as an end point marker of the signal transduction pathway. It was found that this gene is induced by very brief low-temperature exposures and that the induction does not depend on a continuous exposure to low temperature. By altering the cooling rate, different patterns of the Ca2+ response were obtained which could be correlated with different patterns of LTI78 induction. Furthermore, reducing the Ca2+ transients by pre-treatment with the Ca2+ channel blocker La3+ also led to a reduced level of gene induction. The results show that brief exposures to low temperature results in the onset of a signalling pathway that leads to the induction of gene expression. This indicates the involvement of changes in [Ca2+]cyt in low-temperature signalling leading to LTI78 expression but the presence of multiple signalling pathways is suggested. [source]

Improved Outcomes in Islet Isolation and Transplantation by the Use of a Novel Hemoglobin-based O2 Carrier

J. G. Avila
During isolation, islets are exposed to warm ischemia. In this study, intraductal administration of oxygenated polymerized, stroma-free hemoglobin-pyridoxalated (Poly SFH-P) was performed to improve O2 delivery. Rat pancreata subjected to 30-min warm ischemia were perfused intraductally with collagenase in oxygenated Poly SFH-P/RPMI or RPMI (control). PO2 was increased by Poly SFH-P (381.7 ± 35.3 mmHg vs. 202.3 ± 28.2, p = 0.01) and pH maintained within physiological range (7.4,7.2 vs. 7.1,6.6, p = 0.009). Islet viability (77%± 4.6 vs. 63%± 4.7, p = 0.04) was improved and apoptosis lower with Poly SFH-P (caspase-3: 34,714 ± 2167 vs. 45,985 ± 1382, respectively, p = 0.01). Poly SFH-P improved islet responsiveness to glucose as determined by increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and improved insulin secretion (SI 5.4 ± 0.1 vs. 3.1 ± 0.2, p = 0.03). Mitochondrial integrity was improved in Poly SFH-P-treated islets, which showed higher percentage change in membrane potential after glucose stimulation (14.7%± 1.8 vs. 9.8 ± 1.4, respectively, p < 0.05). O2 delivery by Poly SFH-P did not increase oxidative stress (GSH 7.1 ± 2.9 nm/mg protein for Poly SFH-P vs. 6.8 ± 2.4 control, p = 0.9) or oxidative injury (MDA 1.8 ± 0.9 nmol/mg protein vs. 6.2 ± 2.4, p = 0.19). Time to reach normoglycemia in transplanted diabetic nude mice was shorter (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 7 ± 2.5 days, p = 0.02), and glucose tolerance improved in the Poly SFH-P group (AUC 8106 ± 590 vs. 10,863 ± 946, p = 0.03). Oxygenated Poly SFH-P improves islet isolation and transplantation outcomes by preserving mitochondrial integrity. [source]

Effects of sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingosylphosphorylcholine on intracellular Ca2+ and cell death in prostate cancer cell lines

A. C. M. Mulders
Summary The sphingolipid metabolites sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) can be involved in cellular growth and apoptosis, by both receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We investigated the role of S1P and SPC in intracellular Ca2+ elevation, cell proliferation and cell death in DU 145 and PC3 hormone-refractory prostate cancer cell lines. S1P and SPC increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, most likely in a receptor-independent manner. Surprisingly, both S1P and SPC did not stimulate but rather reduced cell growth through induction of apoptosis. Therefore, antagonists targeted against S1P, SPC and their receptors do not appear to be promising new approaches in the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. [source]

Potassium channels in gastrointestinal smooth muscle

F. Vogalis
1 Electromechanical coupling in smooth muscle serves to coordinate the contractile activity of the syncytium. Electrical activity of smooth muscle of the gut is generated by ionic conductances that regulate and in turn are regulated by the membrane potential of smooth muscle cells. This activity determines the extent of Ca2+ entry into smooth muscle cells, and thus, the timing and intensity of contractions. 2 Potassium channels play an important role in regulating the excitability of the syncytium. The different types of K+ channel are characterized by different sensitivities to membrane potential, to intracellular Ca2+ levels and to modulation by agonists. 3 This review highlights the different types of K+ channels found in gut smooth muscle and describes their possible roles in regulating the electrical activity of the muscle. [source]

Rituxan (anti-CD20 antibody)-induced translocation of CD20 into lipid rafts is crucial for calcium influx and apoptosis

E. Janas
Summary Rituxan, a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody, is the first antibody approved for immunotherapy in non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma and other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Additionally, efficacy of Rituxan treatment has been reported in nonmalignant autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Crosslinking of CD20 molecules by Rituxan induces therapeutic B-cell depletion. CD20 is a B-lymphocyte specific integral membrane protein, proposed to function as a store-operated calcium channel, which is activated upon receptor-stimulated calcium depletion of intracellular stores. Crosslinking of CD20 by antibodies has been reported to induce a redistribution of CD20 molecules to specialized microdomains at the plasma membrane known as lipid rafts. Here, we report that in the absence of Rituxan, CD20 exhibits a low affinity to lipid rafts. However, binding of Rituxan significantly increases the affinity of CD20 for lipid rafts resulting in its redistribution to a fraction resistant to Triton X-100 solubilization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that disturbing the raft integrity by cholesterol extraction results in dissociation of CD20 from a Triton X-100 resistant fraction followed by complete inhibition of Rituxan-induced calcium entry and apoptosis. The integrity of lipid rafts seems to play a crucial role for CD20-induced caspase activation. These data show, for the first time, that Rituxan-induced translocation of CD20 to lipid rafts is important for increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and downstream apoptotic signalling. [source]

Interaction of hydrogen sulfide with ion channels

Guanghua Tang
Summary 1. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signalling gasotransmitter. It targets different ion channels and receptors, and fulfils its various roles in modulating the functions of different systems. However, the interaction of H2S with different types of ion channels and underlying molecular mechanisms has not been reviewed systematically. 2. H2S is the first identified endogenous gaseous opener of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Through the activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, H2S lowers blood pressure, protects the heart from ischemia and reperfusion injury, inhibits insulin secretion in pancreatic , cells, and exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and anti-apoptotic effects. 3. H2S inhibited L-type Ca2+ channels in cardiomyocytes but stimulated the same channels in neurons, thus regulating intracellular Ca2+ levels. H2S activated small and medium conductance KCa channels but its effect on BKCa channels has not been consistent. 4. H2S-induced hyperalgesia and pro-nociception seems to be related to the sensitization of both T-type Ca2+ channels and TRPV1 channels. The activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 by H2S is believed to result in contraction of nonvascular smooth muscles and increased colonic mucosal Cl, secretion. 5. The activation of Cl, channel by H2S has been shown as a protective mechanism for neurons from oxytosis. H2S also potentiates N -methyl- d -aspartic acid receptor-mediated currents that are involved in regulating synaptic plasticity for learning and memory. 6. Given the important modulatory effects of H2S on different ion channels, many cellular functions and disease conditions related to homeostatic control of ion fluxes across cell membrane should be re-evaluated. [source]

Inhibitory effects of glucosamine on lipopolysaccharide-induced activation in microglial cells

Hyon-Ah Yi
Summary 1.,The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of glucosamine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cellular activation in microglia and to evaluate the inhibitory mechanisms involved. 2.,Lipopolysaccharide (100 ng/mL) was used for the activation of primary cultured rat microglial or BV2 microglial cells. Changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels and outward K+ currents were measured using fura-2/AM and whole-cell patch-clamp methods, respectively. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, mRNA was analysed by reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction. 3.,Lipopolysaccharide transformed cell morphology into an amoeboid shape in vitro and induced microglial activation in vivo, as measured by immunohistochemical staining, but glucosamine inhibited this activation. Glucosamine also inhibited LPS-induced Ca2+ influx, outward K+ currents and TNF-, mRNA expression, which are typically representative of microglial activation. 4.,The results suggest that the inhibitory mechanisms of glucosamine on LPS-induced microglial activation include inhibition of Ca2+ influx and outward K+ currents, as well as downregulation of the microglial activator gene TNF-,. [source]