Intracellular Bacterium (intracellular + bacterium)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Infection with the Intracellular Bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes, Overrides Established Tolerance in a Mouse Cardiac Allograft Model

T. Wang
Infections and TLR signals at the time of transplantation have been shown to prevent the induction of tolerance, but their effect on allografts after tolerance has been established is unclear. We here report that infection with Listeria monocytogenes precipitated the loss of tolerance and the MyD88- and T cell-dependent rejection of accepted cardiac allografts in mice. This loss of tolerance was associated with increases in the numbers of graft-infiltrating macrophages and dendritic cells, as well as CD4+FoxP3, and CD8+ T cells. Rejection was also associated with increased numbers of graft-infiltrating alloreactive as well as Listeria-reactive IFN,-producing T cells. Rejection of the established grafts required both IL-6 and IFN▀, cytokines produced during acute Listeria infection. However, IL-6 and IFN▀ alone, even when present at higher concentrations than during Listeria infection, were insufficient to break tolerance, while the combination of IL-6 and IFN▀ was sufficient to break tolerance. These and in vitro observations that IL-6 but not IFN▀ enhanced T cell proliferation while IFN▀ but not IL-6 enhanced IFN, production support a hypothesis that these cytokines play nonredundant roles. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that the proinflammatory effects of infections can induce the loss of tolerance and acute rejection of accepted allografts. [source]

Molecular link of different stages of the trematode host of Neorickettsia risticii to Acanthatrium oregonense

Kathryn E. Gibson
Summary Neorickettsia risticii, the obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes Potomac horse fever, has been detected in various developmental stages of digenetic trematodes in the environment. Neorickettsia risticii -infected gravid trematodes were identified as Acanthatrium oregonense, based on morphologic keys. However, whether immature trematodes harbouring N. risticii are also A. oregonense was unknown. The objective of this study was to infer the life cycle of N. risticii -positive trematode hosts and transstadial transmission of the bacterium by molecularly characterizing the relationship among adult and immature stages of trematodes confirmed infected with N. risticii. Sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA genes up to 1922 bp in size were obtained from infected adult gravid trematodes, sporocysts and cercariae, and metacercariae. The sequences from the different immature stages of trematode are closely related to those of adult trematodes, some with 100% sequence identity; thus, they likely are life stages of A. oregonense. Comparisons with known 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of other digenetic trematodes indicated that all tested stages of the N. risticii -positive trematodes belong to the family Lecithodendriidae, supporting the morphological identification. [source]

Listeria monocytogenes: epidemiology, human disease, and mechanisms of brain invasion

Douglas A. Drevets
Abstract Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular bacterium that has predilection for causing central nervous systemic infections in humans and domesticated animals. This pathogen can be found worldwide in the food supply and most L. monocytogenes infections are acquired through ingestion of contaminated food. The main clinical syndromes caused by L. monocytogenes include febrile gastroenteritis, perinatal infection, and systemic infections marked by central nervous system infections with or without bacteremia. Experimental infection of mice has been used for over 50 years as a model system to study the pathogenesis of this organism including the mechanisms by which it invades the brain. Data from this model indicate that a specific subset of monocytes, distinguished in part by high expression of the Ly-6C antigen, become parasitized in the bone marrow and have a key role in transporting intracellular bacteria across the blood-brain barriers and into the central nervous system. This Minireview will summarize recent epidemiologic and clinical information regarding L. monocytogenes as a human pathogen and will discuss current in vitro and in vivo data relevant to the role of parasitized monocytes and the pathogenetic mechanisms that underlie its formidable ability to invade the central nervous system. [source]

L-selectin and E-selectin expressed on monocytes mediating Ehrlichia chaffeensis attachment onto host cells

Jian-zhi Zhang
Abstract Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that exhibits monocytic host cell tropism. Ehrlichiae must enter the host cell, and then establish infection. The tropism of E. chaffeensis for monocytes suggests that the cell contains some specific surface components that mediate E. chaffeensis attachment and entry into host cells. In this study, host cell surface components that play a role in ehrlichial attachment were identified using a human monocyte/macrophage cell line, THP-1. E. chaffeensis attachment to THP-1 cells was partially blocked in the presence of antibodies to E-selectin and L-selectin, but not by antibodies to P-selectin, integrin ,m, integrin ,x, or normal mouse IgG as determined by real time polymerase chain reaction. Conversely, in HeLa cells that do not exhibit surface expression of E-selectin and L-selectin, antibodies to these cell surface proteins did not inhibit E. chaffeensis attachment. These findings indicate that E-selectin and L-selectin are cell surface proteins that might act as co-receptors and contribute to E. chaffeensis attachment and entry into THP-1. [source]

Chlamydia pneumoniae infections prevent the programmed cell death on THP-1 cell line

C.Romano Carratelli
Abstract Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular bacterium which frequently causes airway infection in humans and has been implicated in chronic inflammatory disease and atherosclerosis. Here we show that infection with C. pneumoniae protects THP-1 cells against the apoptosis which spontaneously occurs in macrophages in the absence of an activation signal. Analysis by flow cytometry at different post-infection times revealed that 50▒7% of THP-1 cells were apoptotic at 48 h after onset of the experiments, whereas C. pneumoniae -infected cultures (multiplicity of infection, MOI = 30) displayed only 18▒4% of cells in apoptosis. At MOI = 20 and MOI = 10 the cells susceptible to apoptosis at 48 h were 28▒5% and 35▒6% respectively. Moreover, the results show that heat-inactivated bacteria do not give significant protection against apoptosis, even at higher MOI (MOI = 30), while UV-treated Chlamydia did provide a degree of protection against apoptosis. These data suggest that the anti-apoptotic effect of C. pneumoniae requires a heat-labile component released during infection, and that the effect is not lipopolysaccharide-dependent. [source]

Molecular and infection biology of the horse pathogen Rhodococcus equi

Kristine Von Bargen
Abstract The soil actinomycete Rhodococcus equi is a pulmonary pathogen of young horses and AIDS patients. As a facultative intracellular bacterium, R. equi survives and multiplies in macrophages and establishes its specific niche inside the host cell. Recent research into chromosomal virulence factors and into the role of virulence plasmids in infection and host tropism has presented novel aspects of R. equi infection biology and pathogenicity. This review will focus on new findings in R. equi biology, the trafficking of R. equi -containing vacuoles inside host cells, factors involved in virulence and host resistance and on host,pathogen interaction on organismal and cellular levels. [source]

Pyrosequencing and characterization of immune response genes from the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (L.)

D. C. Jaworski
Abstract Ticks continue to be a threat to animal and human health, and new and novel control strategies are needed for ticks and tick-borne pathogens. The characterization of the tick,pathogen interface and the tick immune response to microbial infections is fundamental toward the formulation of new control strategies for ticks and the pathogens they transmit. Our overall hypothesis for this research is that the tick immune system manages the maintenance of pathogens. Therefore, discovery of tick immune response genes may provide targets for novel control strategies directed toward reducing vector competency and pathogen transmission. In these studies, 454 pyrosequencing, a high-throughput genomic sequencing method was used to discover tick genes expressed in response to bacterial and fungal infections. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analysed from Dermacentor variabilis ticks that had been injected with bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus) or fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans) and ticks that were naturally infected with the intracellular bacterium, Anaplasma marginale. By this approach, ESTs were assembled into 5995 contigs. Contigs fell into the five main functional categories of metabolism, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, cellular processes and human diseases. We identified more than 30 genes that are likely to encode for proteins involved in tick immune function. We further analysed by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) the expression of 22 of these genes in each of our bacterial or fungal treatment groups and found that seven were up-regulated. Up-regulation of these seven genes was confirmed for bacterial, but not fungal treatment by quantitative PCR (qPCR). One of these products was novel, encoding a new tick defensin. Our results clearly demonstrate the complexities of the tick immune system and mark new directions for further study and characterization of proteins that modulate microbial infections in the American dog tick. [source]

Global gene expression profile of Orientia tsutsugamushi

Bon-A Cho
Abstract Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the causative agent of Scrub typhus. The control mechanisms for bacterial gene expression are largely unknown. Here, the global gene expression of O. tsutsugamushi within eukaryotic cells was examined using a microarray and proteomic approaches for the first time. These approaches identified 643 genes, corresponding to approximately 30% of the genes encoded in the genome. The majority of expressed genes belonged to several functional categories including protein translation, protein processing/secretion, and replication/repair. We also searched the conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) in the O. tsutsugamushi genome which is unique in that up to 40% of its genome consists of dispersed repeated sequences. Although extensive shuffling of genomic sequences was observed between two different strains, 204 CSBs, covering 48% of the genome, were identified. When combining the data of CSBs and global gene expression, the CSBs correlates well with the location of expressed genes, suggesting the functional conservation between gene expression and genomic location. Finally, we compared the gene expression of the bacteria-infected fibroblasts and macrophages using microarray analysis. Some major changes were the downregulation of genes involved in translation, protein processing and secretion, which correlated with the reduction in bacterial translation rates and growth within macrophages. [source]

Microreview: Type IV secretion in the obligatory intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Yasuko Rikihisa
Summary Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that infects neutrophils, the primary host defence cells. Consequent effects of infection on host cells result in a potentially fatal systemic disease called human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Despite ongoing reductive genome evolution and deletion of most genes for intermediary metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis, Anaplasma has also experienced expansion of genes encoding several components of the type IV secretion (T4S) apparatus. Two A. phagocytophilum T4S effector molecules are currently known; Anaplasma translocated substrate 1 (Ats-1) and ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein A (AnkA) have C-terminal positively charged amino acid residues that are recognized by the T4S coupling protein, VirD4. AnkA and Ats-1 contain eukaryotic protein motifs and are uniquely evolved in the family Anaplasmataceae; Ats-1 contains a mitochondria-targeting signal. They are abundantly produced and secreted into the host cytoplasm, are not toxic to host cells, and manipulate host cell processes to aid in the infection process. At the cellular level, the two effectors have distinct subcellular localization and signalling in host cells. Thus in this obligatory intracellular pathogen, the T4S system has evolved as a host-subversive survival factor. [source]

Helicobacter pylori is invasive and it may be a facultative intracellular organism

Andre Dubois
Summary The pathogenicity of many bacteria colonizing the gastrointestinal tract often depends on their ability to gain access to cells that are normally non-phagocytic. Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach of over half the world population and is the main cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. It is generally considered to be a non-invasive pathogen present only in the lumen of the stomach and attached to gastric epithelial cells although a number of in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that H. pylori is in fact invasive. In addition, H. pylori can repopulate the extracellular environment after complete elimination of extracellular bacteria with gentamicin, suggesting it may be considered a facultative intracellular bacterium. This review examines the validity of these observations and describes the evidence suggesting that the intracellular presence of H. pylori plays a role in the induction of diseases, in immune evasion, and in life-long persistence of the bacterium in the stomach of a majority of humans. [source]

Determination of the physical environment within the Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion using ion-selective ratiometric probes

Scott Grieshaber
Summary Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium with a biphasic life cycle that takes place entirely within a membrane-bound vacuole termed an inclusion. The chlamydial inclusion is non-fusogenic with endosomal or lysosomal compartments but intersects a pathway involved in transport of sphingomyelin from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. The physical conditions within the mature chlamydial inclusion are unknown. We used ratiometric imaging with membrane-permeant, ion-selective fluorescent dyes for microanalyis of the physical environment within the inclusion. Determination of H+, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ concentrations using CFDA (carboxy fluorescein diacetate) or BCECF-AM (2,,7, -bis (2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester, SBFI-AM, PBFI-AM and fura-PE3-acetomethoxyester (Fura-PE3-AM), respectively, indicated that all ions assayed within the lumenal space of the inclusion approximated the concentrations within the cytoplasm. Stimulation of purinergic receptors by addition of extracellular ATP triggered a dynamic Ca2+ response that occurred simultaneously within the cytoplasm and interior of the inclusion. The chlamydial inclusion thus appears to be freely permeable to cytoplasmic ions. These results have implications for nutrient acquisition by chlamydiae and may contribute to the non-fusogenicity of the inclusion with endocytic compartments. [source]