Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Terms modified by Intracellular

  • intracellular accumulation
  • intracellular acidification
  • intracellular activity
  • intracellular adhesion
  • intracellular adhesion molecule
  • intracellular antigen
  • intracellular application
  • intracellular atp
  • intracellular atp level
  • intracellular bacteria
  • intracellular bacterial pathogen
  • intracellular bacterium
  • intracellular ca2+
  • intracellular ca2+ concentration
  • intracellular ca2+ elevation
  • intracellular ca2+ level
  • intracellular ca2+ mobilization
  • intracellular ca2+ property
  • intracellular ca2+ release
  • intracellular ca2+ signalling
  • intracellular ca2+ store
  • intracellular ca2+ transient
  • intracellular calcium
  • intracellular calcium concentration
  • intracellular calcium homeostasi
  • intracellular calcium increase
  • intracellular calcium ion
  • intracellular calcium level
  • intracellular calcium mobilization
  • intracellular calcium release
  • intracellular calcium store
  • intracellular camp
  • intracellular camp level
  • intracellular change
  • intracellular cl
  • intracellular compartment
  • intracellular component
  • intracellular concentration
  • intracellular content
  • intracellular cyclic amp
  • intracellular cytokine
  • intracellular cytokine expression
  • intracellular cytokine production
  • intracellular cytokine staining
  • intracellular delivery
  • intracellular deposition
  • intracellular distribution
  • intracellular domain
  • intracellular dynamics
  • intracellular effects
  • intracellular environment
  • intracellular enzyme
  • intracellular event
  • intracellular expression
  • intracellular form
  • intracellular free ca2+ concentration
  • intracellular free calcium concentration
  • intracellular function
  • intracellular glutathione
  • intracellular growth
  • intracellular gsh
  • intracellular gsh depletion
  • intracellular gsh level
  • intracellular hyphae
  • intracellular inclusion
  • intracellular infection
  • intracellular iron
  • intracellular level
  • intracellular lifestyle
  • intracellular lipid droplet
  • intracellular localization
  • intracellular location
  • intracellular locations
  • intracellular loop
  • intracellular mechanism
  • intracellular mediator
  • intracellular membrane
  • intracellular metabolism
  • intracellular metabolite
  • intracellular metabolite concentration
  • intracellular molecule
  • intracellular movement
  • intracellular na+
  • intracellular na+ concentration
  • intracellular niche
  • intracellular organelle
  • intracellular parasite
  • intracellular pathogen
  • intracellular pathway
  • intracellular ph
  • intracellular ph homeostasi
  • intracellular ph.
  • intracellular pool
  • intracellular process
  • intracellular processing
  • intracellular production
  • intracellular protein
  • intracellular reactive oxygen species
  • intracellular receptor
  • intracellular recording
  • intracellular region
  • intracellular regulator
  • intracellular replication
  • intracellular response
  • intracellular retention
  • intracellular ro
  • intracellular ro level
  • intracellular signal
  • intracellular signal transduction
  • intracellular signal transduction pathway
  • intracellular signaling
  • intracellular signaling cascade
  • intracellular signaling molecule
  • intracellular signaling pathway
  • intracellular signalling
  • intracellular signalling pathway
  • intracellular site
  • intracellular solution
  • intracellular space
  • intracellular staining
  • intracellular store
  • intracellular structure
  • intracellular survival
  • intracellular symbiont
  • intracellular target
  • intracellular trafficking
  • intracellular translocation
  • intracellular transport
  • intracellular uptake
  • intracellular vesicle
  • intracellular water

  • Selected Abstracts

    P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction in the diagnosis and follow up of immunotherapy of wasp venom allergy,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 5 2010
    Marjoke M. Verweij
    Abstract Background: P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is known to govern IgE-mediated basophil activation. Intracellular phosphorylated p38 MAPK (Pp38 MAPK) in IgE-activated basophils can be quantified flow cytometrically. Objectives: To study whether Pp38 MAPK constitutes a potential novel read-out for flow-assisted diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy and to investigate whether this marker allows follow-up of successful venom immunotherapy (VIT). Methods: Fifty-two patients with documented wasp venom allergy and seven wasp-stung asymptomatic control individuals were enrolled. Wasp venom-induced basophil activation was analyzed flow cytometrically with anti-IgE, anti-CD63, and anti-Pp38 MAPK to assess their activation status before starting immunotherapy. To assess whether p38 MAPK constitutes a candidate marker for monitoring VIT, we repeated the basophil activation test (BAT) in 25 patients on the fifth day of a build-up immunotherapy. In addition, we investigated whether the Pp38 MAPK-based BAT could contribute in the decision of discontinuing VIT in a cross-sectional analysis in 13 patients receiving treatment for 3 years and 14 patients receiving treatment for 5 years. Results: Patients exhibited a dose-dependent basophil activation with phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and upregulation of downstream CD63. In contrast, stung controls demonstrated a dose-dependent but "abrogated" signal transduction in basophils with less and shorter duration of the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and without subsequent upregulation of CD63. When repeated after 5 days of VIT and when investigated cross-sectionally after 3 years or 5 years of maintenance therapy, no effect of VIT on the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was demonstrable. Conclusions: This study discloses that not only basophils from patients, but also from the stung control individuals, respond to wasp venom stimulation with phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, although to a lesser extend. No clear effect of VIT on the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was shown. Thus, although p38 MAPK provides an additional tool in the diagnosis of wasp venom allergy, it does not contribute to the decision whether to stop successful VIT. 2010 International Clinical Cytometry Society [source]

    Cooling Abolishes Neuronal Network Synchronization in Rat Hippocampal Slices

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2002
    Sam P. Javedan
    Summary: ,Purpose: We sought to determine whether cooling brain tissue from 34 to 21C could abolish tetany-induced neuronal network synchronization (gamma oscillations) without blocking normal synaptic transmission. Methods: Intracellular and extracellular electrodes recorded activity in transverse hippocampal slices (450,500 ,m) from Sprague,Dawley male rats, maintained in an air,fluid interface chamber. Gamma oscillations were evoked by afferent stimulation at 100 Hz for 200 ms. Baseline temperature in the recording chamber was 34C, reduced to 21C within 20 min. Results: Suprathreshold tetanic stimuli evoked membrane potential oscillations in the 40-Hz frequency range (n = 21). Gamma oscillations induced by tetanic stimulation were blocked by bicuculline, a ,-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A -receptor antagonist. Cooling from 34 to 21C reversibly abolished gamma oscillations in all slices tested. Short, low-frequency discharges persisted after cooling in six of 14 slices. Single-pulse,evoked potentials, however, were preserved after cooling in all cases. Latency between stimulus and onset of gamma oscillation was increased with cooling. Frequency of oscillation was correlated with chamber cooling temperature (r = 0.77). Tetanic stimulation at high intensity elicited not only gamma oscillation, but also epileptiform bursts. Cooling dramatically attenuated gamma oscillation and abolished epileptiform bursts in a reversible manner. Conclusions: Tetany-induced neuronal network synchronization by GABAA -sensitive gamma oscillations is abolished reversibly by cooling to temperatures that do not block excitatory synaptic transmission. Cooling also suppresses transition from gamma oscillation to ictal bursting at higher stimulus intensities. These findings suggest that cooling may disrupt network synchrony necessary for epileptiform activity. [source]

    A clonal cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative eruption in a patient with evidence of past exposure to hepatitis E

    Freddye M. Lemons-Estes CDR, MC USN
    The patient was a 52-year-old white man who had worked in remote areas of the world during the past 2 years, including an extended period in rural areas of Central Africa and in Central and South America. He had no acute illnesses during the 2-year period except for rare, mild, upper respiratory tract infections. For approximately 1 year, however, he had developed recurrent, papular-vesicular, slightly painful lesions on the fingers and palms, that spontaneously healed over weeks to months ( Fig. 1). The patient had no other concurrent illnesses and no abnormal laboratory findings, except for positive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies for hepatitis E virus (HEV) using a recombinant expressed HEV antigen (Genelabs Technologies, Inc., San Antonio). Prolonged treatment with minocycline did not appear to moderate the lesions. At approximately 2.5 years after the development of his first cutaneous lesion, however, the patient reported that he had had no new lesions for over 3 months. Figure 1. Vesicular ,lesion on the finger which regressed over a period of weeks A biopsy specimen showed an intraepidermal vesicle with prominent epidermal necrosis and reticular degeneration ( Fig. 2). Within the epidermis, there was a dense infiltrate of lymphoid cells. The majority of these cells were pleomorphic with prominent nucleoli and frequent mitotic figures ( Fig. 3). Sheets of atypical cells were found in the subjacent dermis. The infiltrate extended down into the reticular dermis. With extension into the dermis, the infiltrate became more polymorphous with more small lymphoid cells, large numbers of eosinophils, and some plasma cells located more deeply. Figure 2. Intraepidermal ,blister showing reticular degeneration and marked epidermotrophism of large atypical cells with extension into the dermis with a mixed infiltrate containing eosinophils and plasma cells (30) Figure 3. Intraepidermal ,infiltrate of large atypical cells with extension into the dermis with a mixed infiltrate containing eosinophils and plasma cells (400) Immunohistochemical stains for CD3 (DAKO), CD4 (Becton Dickinson), CD8 (Becton Dickinson), CD15 (LeuM1, Becton Dickinson), CD20 (L-26, DAKO), CD30 (Ber-H2, DAKO), CD45RO (UCHL1, DAKO), S-100 protein (DAKO), T-cell intracellular antigen (TIA) (Coulter), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) (DAKO), KP-1 (CD68, DAKO), MAC-387 (DAKO), Epstein,Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane antigen-1 (LMP-1, DAKO), and EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2, DAKO) were performed on formalin-fixed tissue using the ABC method with DABA as the chromagen. CD3 showed diffuse membrane staining of the large atypical lymphoid cells, as well as the majority of the small lymphoid cells ( Fig. 4). CD4 showed positive membrane staining of the large atypical lymphoid cells and the majority of the small lymphoid cells. CD8 showed only scattered light membrane staining of small lymphoid cells. CD15 was negative, and CD20 showed foci of groups of small lymphoid cells mainly within the reticular dermis. CD30 showed positive membrane and paranuclear staining of the large atypical cells, most abundant within the epidermis and papillary dermis ( Fig. 5). CD45RO showed positive membrane staining of the large atypical cells and the majority of the small lymphoid cells. S-100 protein showed increased dendritic cells within the surrounding viable epidermis and the subjacent papillary dermis ( Fig. 6). TIA showed granular staining in the large atypical lymphoid cells and only rare staining in small lymphoid cells ( Fig. 7). EMA staining was essentially negative. KP-1 showed only scattered positive cells mainly in the lower papillary and the reticular dermis. MAC-387 showed membrane staining in the viable epidermis ( Fig. 8). LMP-1 and EBNA2 for EBV were negative within the lymphoid cells as well as within the overlying epidermis. Figure 4. Immunohistochemical ,staining for CD3 showing diffuse staining of lymphoid cells within the epidermis and dermis (150) Figure 5. Immunohistochemical ,staining for CD30 showing membrane and paranuclear staining of large atypical lymphoid cells within the epidermis and papillary dermis (a, 150 b, 400) Figure 6. Immunohistochemical ,staining for S-100 protein within the epidermis and in the papillary dermis (a, 150 b, 300) Figure 7. Immunohistochemical ,granular staining of large atypical lymphoid cells for TIA (200) Figure 8. Immunohistochemical ,staining for MAC-387 showing epidermal staining (100) Gene rearrangement studies showed a ,-T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. The monoclonal band was detected with VJ1, VJ2, and D1J2 primer sets. The T-cell receptor , rearrangement assay has a sensitivity of 61% and a specificity of 94% for the detection of a monoclonal rearrangement in T-cell lymphomas for which amplifiable DNA can be recovered. Electron microscopy was performed on formalin-fixed material, positive-fixed with 2.5% phosphate-buffered glutaraldehyde and further with 1% osmium tetroxide by standard techniques. Intracellular, 50,60-nm, cytoplasmic, spherical, viral-like particles were identified ( Fig. 9). Figure 9. Electron ,microscopy showing 50,60-nm diameter, intracellular, viral-like particles (arrows) (70,000) [source]

    Morphology and ultrastructure of the swimming larvae of Crambe crambe (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida)

    Mara J. Uriz
    Abstract. We describe the morphology and ultrastructure of the free-swimming larvae of the sponge Crambe crambe, one of the most abundant encrusting sponges on shallow rocky bottoms of the western Mediterranean. Larvae of C. crambe are released in July and August. The larva is uniformly flagellated except at the posterior zone. Flagellated cells are extraordinarily slender, elongate, and sinuous and form a pseudo-stratified layer. Their distal zone contains abundant mitochondria, some small vesicles, a Golgi complex, and the basal apparatus of the flagellum. Abundant lipid droplets are present throughout the cell. The nucleus is most often in a basal position. The flagellum projects from the bottom of an asymmetrical socket formed by cytoplasmic expansions. The basal body extends in a conical tuft and a laminar rootlet in close association with the Golgi system. The cells at the posterior pole are flat and polygonal on the surface, with long overlapping pseudopodia in the typical shape of a pinacoderm. Sparse collagen is present throughout the whole larva including the flagellated layer. Archeocytes and sclerocytes are abundant in the posterior region. Typical collencytes and spherulous cells seem to be absent. Intracellular and extracellular rod-like bacteria with conspicuous fimbria occur exclusively in the posterior region of the larva. The asymmetrical cytoplasmic prolongations, which surround the flagellum, and the basal apparatus of the flagellum are suggested as the sites of stimulus reception and triggering of locomotor responses, respectively. This ultrastructural study of the larva of C. crambe has shown features directly linked to its behavior and ecology. [source]

    Vitamin D Receptor Expression in Human Muscle Tissue Decreases With Age,

    HA Bischoff-Ferrari
    Abstract Intracellular 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human skeletal muscle tissue. However, it is unknown whether VDR expression in vivo is related to age or vitamin D status, or whether VDR expression differs between skeletal muscle groups. Introduction: We investigated these factors and their relation to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in freshly removed human muscle tissue. Materials and Methods: We investigated biopsy specimens of the gluteus medius taken at surgery from 20 female patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (mean age, 71.6 14.5; 72% > 65 years) and biopsy specimens of the transversospinalis muscle taken at surgery from 12 female patients with spinal operations (mean age, 55.2 19.6; 28% > 65 years). The specimens were obtained by immunohistological staining of the VDR using a monoclonal rat antibody to the VDR (Clone no. 9A7). Quantitative VDR expression (number of VDR positive nuclei) was assessed by counting 500 nuclei per specimen and person. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were assessed at day of admission to surgery. Results: All muscle biopsy specimens stained positive for VDR. In the univariate analyses, increased age was associated with decreased VDR expression (r = 0.5: p = 0.004), whereas there were no significant correlations between VDR expression and 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. VDR expression did not differ between patients with hip and spinal surgery. In the multivariate analysis, older age was a significant predictor of decreased VDR expression after controlling biopsy location (gluteus medius or the transversospinalis muscle), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (linear regression analysis: ,-estimate = ,2.56; p = 0.047). Conclusions: Intranuclear immunostaining of the VDR was present in muscle biopsy specimens of all orthopedic patients. Older age was significantly associated with decreased VDR expression, independent of biopsy location and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. [source]

    Effects of lipopolysaccharide on platelet-derived growth factor isoform and receptor expression in cultured rat common bile duct fibroblasts and cholangiocytes

    Tae-Hyeon Kim
    Abstract Background and Aim:, Little is known about the role of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in biliary fibrosis in the setting of bacterial colonization of the biliary tree. We therefore sought to investigate whether exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters PDGF isoform and receptor expression in cultured rat common bile duct fibroblasts (CBDF) and normal rat cholangiocytes (NRC). Methods:, Collagen content in cells and media was assessed by colorimetric assay and gel electrophoresis. mRNA levels of PDGF-A and -B, and PDGF-Receptors (PDGF-R) , and , were measured by relative quantitative real-time PCR. Protein levels of PDGF-AA, AB and BB were measured by ELISA, and PDGF-R, and PDGF-R, by Western blot. Results:, In CBDF, LPS increased total soluble collagen synthesis and secretion. PDGF-R, and , mRNA and protein were also increased by LPS treatment in CBDF. Lipopolysaccharide treatment elicited an increase in PDGF-A and -B mRNA levels in CBDF. In NRC, levels of PDGF-A mRNA increased in a dose-dependent fashion following LPS treatment, whereas PDGF-B mRNA showed no response. PDGF-AA secretion was higher by CBDF than by NRC. PDGF-BB levels were also higher in CBDF than in NRC. While PDGF-BB levels did not respond to LPS treatment in CBDF, there was a dose-dependent response of this isoform to LPS in NRC. Intracellular and secreted PDGF-AB increased with LPS treatment in NRC. Conclusions:, These results support a model in which chronic bacterial colonization of the biliary tree induces fibrosis through PDGF-dependent mechanisms. [source]

    Intracellular and cell-free (infectious) HIV-1 in rectal mucosa

    Mariantonietta Di Stefano
    Abstract The intestinal mucosa contains most of the total lymphocyte pool and plays an important role in viral transmission, but only slight attention has been given to the immunological and virological aspects of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection at this site. In this study, before initiating or changing antiretroviral therapy, paired blood samples and rectal biopsies (RB) were obtained from 26 consecutive HIV-infected subjects. HIV-1 isolation and biological characterization, DNA, and HIV-1 RNA titration were assessed, as were in vitro tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-,) and interleukin-, (IL-1,) spontaneous production. The rate of HIV-1 isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and RBs was 75% and 58%, respectively. All RB-derived isolates were nonsyncytium inducing (NSI), independent of the phenotype of blood-derived isolates. Proviral DNA and detectable HIV-1 RNA levels were measured in 100% and 77% of RBs, respectively. A statistical correlation was observed between HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA levels in rectal mucosa (P,=,0.0075), whereas no correlation was found between these levels in blood samples (P,>,0.05). Antiretroviral treatment did not seem to influence HIV-1 detection in RBs. Higher levels of in vitro proinflammmatory cytokine production were found in the RBs of most infected patients when compared with healthy controls. Therefore, the rectal mucosa is an important HIV-1 reservoir that demonstrates a discordant viral evolution with respect to blood. Both the virus type and the mucosa pathway of immunoactive substances might have important implications for therapeutic decision-making and monitoring and could influence the bidirectional transmission of HIV-1 in mucosal surfaces. J. Med. Virol. 65:637,643, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Gene Expression Profiles of Intracellular and Membrane Progesterone Receptor Isoforms in the Mediobasal Hypothalamus During Pro-Oestrus

    B. Liu
    Progesterone action is mediated by its binding to specific receptors. Two progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms (PRA and PRB), three membrane progesterone receptor (mPR) subtypes (mPR,, mPR, and mPR,) and at least one progesterone membrane-binding protein [PR membrane component 1 (PRmc1)] have been identified in reproductive tissues and brain of various species. In the present study, we examined gene expression patterns for PR isoforms, mPR subtypes and PRmc1 in the rat mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) during pro-oestrus. The mRNA level for each receptor subtype was quantified by a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the time points: 13.00 h on dioestrous day 2; 09.00, 13.00, 17.00 and 22.00 h on pro-oestrus; and 13.00 h on oestrus. For PR, one primer set amplified PRA+PRB, whereas a second primer set amplified PRB. As expected, PRA+PRB mRNA expression was greater than PRB in MBH tissue. PRB mRNA levels increased throughout the day on pro-oestrus, with the highest levels being observed at 17.00 h. PRB mRNA levels in the MBH were increased by 2.4- and 3.0-fold at 13.00 and 17.00 h, respectively, on pro-oestrus compared to 13.00 h on dioestrous day 2. There were differential mRNA expression levels for mPRs and PRmc1 in the MBH, with the highest expression for PRmc1 and the lowest for mPR,. The mPR, mRNA contents at 13.00 and 17.00 h on pro-oestrus were increased by 1.5-fold compared to that at 13.00 h on dioestrous day 2. The mPR, mRNA levels at 13.00 and 17.00 h on pro-oestrus were 2.5- and 2.4-fold higher compared to that at 13.00 h on dioestrous day 2, respectively. PRA+PRB, mPR, and PRmc1 mRNA levels did not vary on pro-oestrus. These findings suggest that the higher expression of PRB, mPR, and mPR, in the MBH on pro-oestrous afternoon may influence both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms of progesterone action during the critical pre-ovulatory period. [source]

    Intracellular [H+]: a determinant of cell volume in skeletal muscle

    Michael I. Lindinger
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Analysis of intracellular methotrexate polyglutamates in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Effect of route of administration on variability in intracellular methotrexate polyglutamate concentrations

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 6 2010
    Mara L. Becker
    Objective Intracellular methotrexate (MTX) polyglutamates (MTXGlu) have been shown to be potentially useful biomarkers of clinical response in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The present study was undertaken to measure intracellular MTXGlu concentrations in a cohort of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to determine the predictors of MTXGlu variability in these patients. Methods Blood samples were obtained from patients with JIA who were being treated with a stable dose of MTX for ,3 months. Clinical data were collected by chart review. Concentrations of MTXGlu1,7 in red blood cell lysates were quantitated using an innovative ion-pairing chromatography procedure, with detection by mass spectrometry. Results Patients with JIA from a single center (n = 99; mean SD age 117.8 56.5 months, 69 female) were included in the analysis. The mean SD dose of MTX was 0.51 0.25 mg/kg per week, with a median treatment duration of 18 months (interquartile range 3,156 months). MTX was administered subcutaneously in 66 patients (67%). Fifty-six patients (57%) had active arthritis at the time of the clinic visit. Total intracellular MTXGlu (MTXGluTOT) concentrations varied 40-fold, with a mean SD total concentration of 85.8 48.4 nmoles/liter. Concentrations of each MTXGlu subtype (MTXGlu1,7) were measured individually and as a percentage of MTXGluTOT in each patient. MTXGlu3 was the most prominent subtype identified, comprising 42% of MTXGluTOT, and the interindividual variability in the concentration of MTXGlu3 was the most highly correlated with that of MTXGluTOT (r = 0.96). The route of MTX administration was significantly associated with MTXGlu1,5 subtypes; higher concentrations of MTXGlu1 + 2 were observed in patients receiving oral doses of MTX, whereas higher concentrations of MTXGlu3,5 were observed in patients receiving subcutaneous doses of MTX (P < 0.0001). Conclusion In this cohort of patients with JIA, the MTXGluTOT concentration varied 40-fold. Individual MTXGlu metabolites (MTXGlu1,7), which have, until now, not been previously reported in patients with JIA, were detected. The route of MTX administration contributed to the variability in concentrations of MTXGlu1,5. [source]

    Intracellular and plasma steady-state pharmacokinetics of raltegravir, darunavir, etravirine and ritonavir in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected patients

    Rob Ter Heine
    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT , The combination of raltegravir, etravirine and ritonavir boosted darunavir is a potent antiretroviral regimen for patients who have been heavily pre-treated for HIV-infection. All these agents have to exert their action intracellularly. However, only little is known about the cellular pharmacology of these agents. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS , We investigated the steady-state plasma and cellular pharmacokinetics of raltegravir, etravirine, darunavir and ritonavir and the observed distinct intracellular accumulation ratios indicated that these antiretroviral drugs have different affinity for the cellular compartment. AIM To study the steady-state plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetics of raltegravir, etravirine, darunavir and ritonavir in heavily pre-treated patients. METHODS Patients on a salvage regimen containing raltegravir, etravirine, darunavir and ritonavir were eligible for inclusion. During a 12 h dosing interval plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected. Drug concentrations were measured using a validated LC-MS/MS assay and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using non-linear mixed effect modelling. RESULTS Irregular absorption was observed with raltegravir and darunavir, which may be caused by enterohepatic cycling. Relative bioavailability of ritonavir was low, when compared with other ritonavir regimens. Raltegravir plasma pharmacokinetics showed wide interpatient variability, while intracellular raltegravir concentrations could not be detected (<0.001 mg l,1 in cell lysate). The intracellular to plasma ratios for etravirine, darunavir and ritonavir were 12.9, 1.32 and 7.72, respectively, and the relative standard error of these estimates were 16.3%, 12.3% and 13.0%. CONCLUSIONS The observed distinct intracellular accumulation indicated that these drugs have different affinity for the cellular compartment. The relatively high intracellular accumulation of etravirine may explain its efficacy and its previously described absence of PK,PD relationships in the therapeutic concentration range, when compared with other non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Lastly, the intracellular concentrations of ritonavir seem sufficient for inhibition of viral replication in the cellular compartment in PI-naive patients, but not in patients with HIV harbouring PI resistance. [source]

    Na+/H+ exchangers and the regulation of volume

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1-2 2006
    R. T. Alexander
    Abstract The regulation of volume is fundamental to life. There exist numerous conditions that can produce perturbations of cell volume. The cell has developed mechanisms to directly counteract these perturbations so as to maintain its physiological volume. Directed influx of the major extracellular cation, sodium, serves to counteract a decreased cell volume through the subsequent osmotically coupled movement of water to the intracellular space. This process, termed regulatory volume increase is often mediated by the ubiquitous sodium/hydrogen ion exchanger, NHE1. Similarly, the maintenance of intravascular volume is essential for the maintenance of blood pressure and consequently the proper perfusion of vital organs. Numerous mechanisms exist to counterbalance alterations in intravascular volume, not the least of which is the renal absorption of sodium filtered at the glomerulus. Two-thirds of filtered sodium and water are absorbed in the renal proximal tubule, a mechanism that intimately involves the apical sodium/hydrogen ion exchanger, NHE3. This isoform is fundamental to the maintenance and regulation of intravascular volume and blood pressure. In this article, the effects of cell volume on the activity of these different isoforms, NHE1 and NHE3, will be described and the consequences of their activity on intracellular and intravascular volume will be explored. [source]

    Effects of immersion water temperature on whole-body fluid distribution in humans

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2004
    J. M. Stocks
    Abstract Aim:, In this study, we quantified acute changes in the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments during upright neutral- and cold-water immersion. We hypothesized that, during short-term cold immersion, fluid shifts would be wholly restricted to the extracellular space. Methods:, Seven males were immersed 30 days apart: control (33.3 SD 0.6 C); and cold (18.1 SD 0.3 C). Posture was controlled for 4 h prior to a 60-min seated immersion. Results:, Significant reductions in terminal oesophageal (36.9 0.1 ,36.3 0.1 C) and mean skin temperatures (30.3 0.3 ,23.0 0.3 C) were observed during the cold, but not the control immersion. Both immersions elicited a reduction in intracellular fluid [20.17 6.02 mL kg,1 (control) vs. 22.72 9.90 mL kg,1], while total body water (TBW) remained stable. However, significant plasma volume (PV) divergence was apparent between the trials at 60 min [12.5 1.0% (control) vs. 6.1 3.1%; P < 0.05], along with a significant haemodilution in the control state (P < 0.05). Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration increased from 18.0 1.6 to 58.7 15.1 ng L,1 (P < 0.05) during cold immersion, consistent with its role in PV regulation. We observed that, regardless of the direction of the PV change, both upright immersions elicited reductions in intracellular fluid. Conclusion:, These observations have two implications. First, one cannot assume that PV changes reflect those of the entire extracellular compartment. Second, since immersion also increases interstitial fluid pressure, fluid leaving the interstitium must have been rapidly replaced by intracellular water. [source]

    Simultaneous flow cytometric detection of basophil activation marker CD63 and intracellular phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in birch pollen allergy,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2009
    Nicolaas E. Aerts
    Abstract Background: Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK is a crucial step in IgE-receptor signaling in basophils. The relation of p38 MAPK to the well-validated diagnostic cell surface marker CD63 has not been evaluated in a clinical allergy model. Methods: Expression of CD63 and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK were analyzed flow cytometrically in anti-IgE-gated basophils from 18 birch pollen allergic patients, five grass pollen allergic patients, and five healthy individuals, after 3 and 20 min of stimulation with recombinant major birch pollen allergen (rBet v 1). Additional time points and the influence of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 were studied in birch pollen allergic patients. Results: Phospho-p38 MAPK and CD63 were expressed dose-dependently in birch pollen allergic patient basophils within 1 minute of rBet v 1 stimulation. P38 MAPK phosphorylation was fastest and subsided gradually while CD63 expression remained elevated for at least 20 min. Inhibition of p38 MAPK significantly inhibited CD63 upregulation. With optimal stimulation of the cells (1 ,g/mL), sensitivity and specificity for the discrimination between patients and a group of control individuals (grass pollen allergic patients and healthy controls) were 94% and 100% for CD63 at 3 and 20 min and for phospho-p38 MAPK at 3 min. Conclusion: Antigen-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation in human basophils essentially contributes to CD63 upregulation. It is a sensitive and specific intracellular marker for allergy diagnosis and offers new insight into the mechanisms of basophil activation. 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society [source]

    Immunocytochemical study of activin type IB receptor (XALK4) in Xenopus oocytes

    Akimasa Fukui
    Studies have shown that the activin type IB receptor is specific for activin/nodal signaling. Activin is produced by follicle cells in the ovary, and is incorporated into the oocytes. Antisera against three peptides were prepared, encompassing the extracellular, intracellular and serine/threonine kinase domains of the Xenopus type IB activin receptor (XALK4). Immunocytochemistry was done using these antisera to investigate the distribution of XALK4 in the Xenopus ovary. All three antisera stained the mitochondrial cloud of Xenopus previtellogenic oocytes. Purified antibody against the intracellular domain also recognized the mitochondrial cloud. Immunoelectron microscopy localized XALK4 on the endoplasmic reticulum of the mitochondrial cloud, although not on mitochondria. [source]

    Microglia and inflammation: Impact on developmental brain injuries

    Li-Jin Chew
    Abstract Inflammation during the perinatal period has become a recognized risk factor for developmental brain injuries over the past decade or more. To fully understand the relationship between inflammation and brain development, a comprehensive knowledge about the immune system within the brain is essential. Microglia are resident immune cells within the central nervous system and play a critical role in the development of an inflammatory response within the brain. Microglia are critically involved with both the innate and adaptive immune system, regulating inflammation and cell damage within the brain via activation of Toll-like receptors, production of cytokines, and a myriad of other intracellular and intercellular processes. In this article, microglial physiology is reviewed along with the role of microglia in developmental brain injuries in humans and animal models. Last, microglial functions within the innate and adaptive immune system will be summarized. Understanding the processes of inflammation and microglial activation is critical for formulating effective preventative and therapeutic strategies for developmental brain injuries. MRDD Research Reviews 2006;12:105,112. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Neurotrophic activities of trk receptors conserved over 600 million years of evolution

    Gad Beck
    Abstract The trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases is crucial for neuronal survival in the vertebrate nervous system, however both C. elegans and Drosophila lack genes encoding trks or their ligands. The only invertebrate representative of this gene family identified to date is Ltrk from the mollusk Lymnaea. Did trophic functions of trk receptors originate early in evolution, or were they an innovation of the vertebrates? Here we show that the Ltrk gene conserves a similar exon/intron order as mammalian trk genes in the region encoding defined extracellular motifs, including one exon encoding a putative variant immunoglobulin-like domain. Chimeric receptors containing the intracellular and transmembrane domains of Ltrk undergo ligand-induced autophosphorylation followed by MAP kinase activation in transfected cells. The chimeras are internalized similarly to TrkA in PC12 cells, and their stimulation leads to differentiation and neurite extension. Knock-down of endogenous Ltrk expression compromises outgrowth and survival of Lymnaea neurons cultured in CNS-conditioned medium. Thus, Ltrk is required for neuronal survival, suggesting that trophic activities of the trk receptor family originated before the divergence of molluscan and vertebrate lineages approximately 600 million years ago. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 60: 12,20, 2004 [source]

    Protective effect of CPUX1, a progesterone, on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells,

    Bian-sheng Ji
    Abstract The protective effect of CPUX1, a novel progesterone analog, on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage was investigated in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Following the exposure of PC12 cells to H2O2, there was a reduction in cell survival and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) accompanied by increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular [Ca2+]i levels. Preincubation of cells with CPUX1 prior to H2O2 exposure attenuated all these changes mentioned and had a protective effect against H2O2 -induced toxicity in PC12 cells, indicating that the compound may have potential therapeutic benefit for CNS disorders influenced by oxidative damage. Drug Dev Res 69: 2008 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Identification of quorum-sensing regulated proteins in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by proteomics

    Catalina Arevalo-Ferro
    Summary The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen which is responsible for severe nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients and is the major pathogen in cystic fibrosis. The bacterium utilizes two interrelated quorum-sensing (QS) systems, which rely on N -acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules, to control the expression of virulence factors and biofilm development. In this study, we compared the protein patterns of the intracellular, extracellular and surface protein fractions of the PAO1 parent strain with those of an isogenic lasI rhlI double mutant by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). This analysis showed that the intensities of 23.7% of all detected protein spots differed more than 2.5-fold between the two strains. We only considered those protein spots truly QS regulated that were changed in the mutant in the absence of signal molecules but were rescued to the wild-type situation when the medium was supplemented with AHLs. These protein spots were characterized by MALDI-TOF peptide mapping. Twenty-seven proteins were identified that were previously reported to be AHL controlled, among them several well-characterized virulence factors. For one of the identified proteins, the serine protease PrpL, a biochemical assay was established to verify that expression of this factor is indeed QS regulated. Furthermore, it is shown that the quorum-sensing blocker C-30 specifically interferes with the expression of 67% of the AHL-controlled protein spots of the surface fraction, confirming the high specificity of the compound. Importantly, 20 novel QS-regulated proteins were identified, many of which are involved in iron utilization, suggesting a link between quorum sensing and the iron regulatory system. Two of these proteins, PhuR and HasAp, are components of the two distinct haem-uptake systems present in P. aeruginosa. In agreement with the finding that both proteins are positively regulated by the QS cascade, we show that the lasI rhlI double mutant grows poorly with haemoglobin as the only iron source when compared with the wild type. These results add haemoglobin utilization to the list of phenotypes controlled through QS in P. aeruginosa. The surprisingly high number of AHL-regulated proteins relative to the number of regulated genes suggests that quorum-sensing control also operates via post-transcriptional mechanisms. To strengthen this hypothesis we investigated the role of quorum sensing in the post-translational modification of HasAp, an extracellular protein required for the uptake of free and haemoglobin-bound haem. [source]

    Kinetics of cadmium accumulation in periphyton under freshwater conditions,

    Philippe Bradac
    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the kinetics of cadmium (Cd) accumulation (total and intracellular) in periphyton under freshwater conditions in a short-term microcosm experiment. Periphyton was precolonized in artificial flow-through channels supplied with natural freshwater and then exposed for 26.4 h to nominal Cd concentrations of 5 and 20 nM added to natural freshwater. Labile Cd in water determined with diffusion gradient in thin films was 60 to 69% of total dissolved Cd in the exposure channels and 11% in the control channel. Intracellular Cd concentrations in periphyton increased rapidly and linearly during the first 71 min. Initial intracellular uptake rates were 0.05 and 0.18 nmol of Cd/g of dry weight min in the 5 nM and 20 nM exposures, respectively. The subsequent intracellular uptake was slower, approaching steady state at the end of Cd exposure. Uptake kinetics of Cd was slower when compared to experiments with planktonic algal cultures, probably due to diffusion limitations. Intracellular Cd uptake during the entire exposure was modeled with a nonlinear, one-compartment model from which uptake and clearance rate constants, as well as bioconcentration factors, were obtained. The release of Cd from periphyton after the end of Cd exposure was slow when compared to the initial uptake rates. [source]

    Bioaccumulation of the hepatotoxic microcystins in various organs of a freshwater snail from a subtropical Chinese Lake, Taihu Lake, with dense toxic Microcystis blooms

    Dawen Zhang
    Abstract In this paper, we describe the seasonal dynamics of three common microcystins (MCs; MC-RR, MC-YR, and MC-LR) in the whole body, hepatopancreas, intestine, gonad, foot, remaining tissue, and offspring of a freshwater snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, from Gonghu Bay of Lake Taihu, China, where dense toxic Microcystis blooms occur in the warm seasons. Microcystins were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrum. Microcystin (MC-RR + MC-YR + MC-LR) content of the offspring and gonad showed high positive correlation, indicating that microcystins could transfer from adult females to their young with physiological connection. This study is the first to report the presence of microcystins in the offspring of the adult snail. The majority of the toxins were present in the intestine (53.6%) and hepatopancreas (29.9%), whereas other tissues contained only 16.5%. If intestines are excluded, up to 64.3% of the toxin burden was allocated in the hepatopancreas. The microcystin content in the intestine, hepatopancreas, and gonad were correlated with the biomass of Microcystis and intracellular and extracellular toxins. Of the analyzed foot samples, 18.2% were above the tolerable daily microcystin intake recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for human consumption. This result indicates that public health warnings regarding human ingestion of snails from Taihu Lake are warranted. In addition, further studies are needed to evaluate the occurrence by Microcystis in relation to spatial and temporal changes in water quality. [source]

    Human parathyroid cell proliferation in response to calcium, NPS R-467, calcitriol and phosphate

    M-C. Roussanne
    It remains uncertain how calcium, phosphate and calcitriol regulate parathyroid cell growth. The present study was aimed at examining possible direct effects of these modulators and of the calcimimetic NPS R-467 on parathyroid cell growth in vitro. Cell proliferation was determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation and cell cycle antigen Ki 67 expression in a parathyroid cell culture model derived from uraemic patients. The effect of NPS R-467 on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and intracellular [Ca2+]i response was also examined. Increasing the [Ca2+] in the medium from 05 to 17 mM increased DNA synthesis (P < 0005) and the number of Ki 67-positive cells (P < 0005). However, NPS R-467 (001,1 M) inhibited 3[H]thymidine incorporation by 35% in the presence of 05 mM [Ca2+]e. Exposure of cells to Ca2+ or NPS R-467 led to a rapid increase of intracellular Ca2+, although the pattern of increase differed. Addition of calcitriol (10,10,10,7 M) to the culture medium suppressed [3H]thymidine incorporation dose-dependently. Finally, high levels of phosphate (35 mM) in the medium led to a significant (P < 005) increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation. The observed stimulatory effect of Ca2+ in the medium in vitro appears to be at variance with the inhibitory effect of calcimimetic NPS R-467 in vitro. In an attempt to solve these apparent discrepancies, and based on the notion of a reduced calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) expression in parathyroid tissues of uraemic patients, we hypothesize that Ca2+ may regulate parathyroid cell proliferation via two different pathways, with predominant growth inhibition in cases of high CaR expression or activation, but prevailing stimulation of proliferation in cases of low CaR expression. [source]

    BSc2118 is a novel proteasome inhibitor with activity against multiple myeloma

    Jan Sterz
    Abstract Objectives:, The ubiquitin,proteasome system emerged as a new therapeutic target in cancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of the novel proteasome inhibitor BSc2118 on t(4;14) positive and negative multiple myeloma (MM) cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC). Methods:, Human MM cell lines OPM-2, RPMI-8226, and U266 and primary MM cells from bone marrow aspirates were exposed to BSc2118. Cytotoxicity levels were evaluated using the MTT-test. BSc2118-induced apoptosis was analyzed by annexin-V assay. Further methods used included proteasomal activity determination, cell cycle analysis, western blot, and transcription factor assays. Results:, In OPM-2, RPMI-8226, U266 cell lines and primary MM cells, BSc2118 caused dose-dependent growth inhibitory effects. After 48 h, dose-dependent apoptosis occurred both in cell lines and primary myeloma cells irrespective of t(4;14). A significant G2-M cell cycle arrest occurred after 24 h. Furthermore, we observed a marked inhibition of intracellular proteasome activity, an increase in intracellular p21 levels, and an inhibition of NF-,B activation. The toxicity against PBMNC remained low, suggesting a broad therapeutic range of this agent. Conclusion:, Taken together, BSc2118 shows significant antimyeloma activity and may be considered as a promising agent in cancer drug development. [source]

    Acute action of rotenone on nigral dopaminergic neurons , involvement of reactive oxygen species and disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis

    Peter S. Freestone
    Abstract Rotenone is a toxin used to generate animal models of Parkinson's disease; however, the mechanisms of toxicity in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons have not been well characterized. We have investigated rotenone (0.05,1 ,m) effects on SNc neurons in acute rat midbrain slices, using whole-cell patch-clamp recording combined with microfluorometry. Rotenone evoked a tolbutamide-sensitive outward current (94 15 pA) associated with increases in intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) (73.8 7.7 nm) and intracellular [Na+] (3.1 0.6 mm) (all with 1 ,m). The outward current was not affected by a high ATP level (10 mm) in the patch pipette but was decreased by Trolox. The [Ca2+]i rise was abolished by removing extracellular Ca2+, and attenuated by Trolox and a transient receptor potential M2 (TRPM2) channel blocker, N -(p -amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid. Other effects included mitochondrial depolarization (rhodamine-123) and increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (MitoSox), which was also abolished by Trolox. A low concentration of rotenone (5 nm) that, by itself, did not evoke a [Ca2+]i rise resulted in a large (46.6 25.3 nm) Ca2+ response when baseline [Ca2+]i was increased by a ,priming' protocol that activated voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. There was also a positive correlation between ,naturally' occurring variations in baseline [Ca2+]i and the rotenone-induced [Ca2+]i rise. This correlation was not seen in non-dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Our results show that mitochondrial ROS production is a key element in the effect of rotenone on ATP-gated K+ channels and TRPM2-like channels in SNc neurons, and demonstrate, in these neurons (but not in the SNr), a large potentiation of rotenone-induced [Ca2+]i rise by a small increase in baseline [Ca2+]i. [source]

    Extracellular matrix molecules and synaptic plasticity: immunomapping of intracellular and secreted Reelin in the adult rat brain

    Tania Ramos-Moreno
    Abstract Reelin, a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein, is secreted by several neuron populations in the developing and adult rodent brain. Secreted Reelin triggers a complex signaling pathway by binding lipoprotein and integrin membrane receptors in target cells. Reelin signaling regulates migration and dendritic growth in developing neurons, while it can modulate synaptic plasticity in adult neurons. To identify which adult neural circuits can be modulated by Reelin-mediated signaling, we systematically mapped the distribution of Reelin in adult rat brain using sensitive immunolabeling techniques. Results show that the distribution of intracellular and secreted Reelin is both very widespread and specific. Some interneuron and projection neuron populations in the cerebral cortex contain Reelin. Numerous striatal neurons are weakly immunoreactive for Reelin and these cells are preferentially located in striosomes. Some thalamic nuclei contain Reelin-immunoreactive cells. Double-immunolabeling for GABA and Reelin reveals that the Reelin-immunoreactive cells in the visual thalamus are the intrinsic thalamic interneurons. High local concentrations of extracellular Reelin selectively outline several dendrite spine-rich neuropils. Together with previous mRNA data, our observations suggest abundant axoplasmic transport and secretion in pathways such as the retino-collicular tract, the entorhino-hippocampal (,perforant') path, the lateral olfactory tract or the parallel fiber system of the cerebellum. A preferential secretion of Reelin in these neuropils is consistent with reports of rapid, activity-induced structural changes in adult brain circuits. [source]

    Distribution and signaling of TREM2/DAP12, the receptor system mutated in human polycystic lipomembraneous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy dementia

    Giuseppina Sessa
    Abstract Together with its adaptor protein, the adaptor protein of 12 kDa also known as KARAP and TYROBP (DAP12), triggering r (TREM2) is a stimulatory membrane receptor of the immunoglobulin/lectin-like superfamily, well known in myeloid cells. In humans, however, loss-of-function mutations of TREM2/DAP12 leave myeloid cells unaffected but induce an autosomal recessive disease characterized, together with bone cysts, by a spectrum of pathological lesions in the cortex, thalamus and basal ganglia with clinical symptoms of progressive dementia (polycystic lipomembraneous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy). Nothing was known about the role of TREM2/DAP12 in brain cell biology and physiology. By confocal immunocytochemistry we demonstrate that, in both human and mouse cerebral cortex, TREM2/DAP12, strongly expressed by microglia, is also present in a fraction of neurons but not in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In contrast, in the hippocampal cortex TREM2-expressing neurons are rare. Both in neurons and microglia the receptor appears to be located mostly intracellularly in a discrete compartment(s) partially coinciding with (or adjacent to) the Golgi complex/trans-Golgi network. Four nerve cell lines were identified as expressing the intracellular receptor system. In living human microglia CHME-5 and glioblastoma T98G cells, activation of TREM2 by its specific antibody induced [Ca2+]i responses, documenting its surface expression and functioning. Surface expression of TREM2, low in resting CHME-5 and T98G cells, increases significantly and transiently (60 min) when cells are stimulated by ionomycin, as revealed by both surface biotinylation and surface immunolabeling. Our results provide the first information about the expression, distribution (mostly intracellular) and functioning of TREM2/DAP12 system in nerve cells, a necessary step in the understanding of the cellular mechanisms affected in polycystic lipomembraneous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy. [source]

    Postsynaptic calcium contributes to reinforcement in a three-neuron network exhibiting associative plasticity

    P. M. Balaban
    Abstract We show that activation of a single serotonergic cell is sufficient to trigger long-term associative enhancement of synaptic input to the withdrawal interneuron in a simple network consisting of three interconnected identified cells in the nervous system of terrestrial snail Helix. 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) Ethane- N,N,N,,N,-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) injection in the postsynaptic neuron abolishes the pairing-specific enhancement of synaptic input. Activation of a single modulatory cell that we used to reinforce the synaptic input induced an increase of the intracellular [Ca2+] in the ipsilateral withdrawal interneuron without any changes of its membrane potential or input resistance. Similar changes in intracellular [Ca2+] were observed in the same withdrawal interneuron under bath application of 10,5 m serotonin. Responses to repeated glutamate applications to the soma of synaptically isolated withdrawal interneurons increased after 10 min of serotonin or thapsigargin bath application, but were absent in conditions of preliminary BAPTA intracellular injection, significantly decreased under heparin injection. Thus, activity of a single modulatory cell may mediate reinforcement via an increase of [Ca2+] in the postsynaptic cell in a simple network consisting of neurons with defined behavioural roles. [source]

    The subcellular localization of GABAB receptor subunits in the rat substantia nigra

    Justin Boyes
    Abstract The inhibitory effects of GABA within the substantia nigra (SN) are mediated in part by metabotropic GABAB receptors. To better understand the mechanisms underlying these effects, we have examined the subcellular localization of the GABAB receptor subunits, GABAB1 and GABAB2, in SN neurons and afferents using pre-embedding immunocytochemistry combined with anterograde or retrograde labelling. In both the SN pars compacta (SNc) and pars reticulata (SNr), GABAB1 and GABAB2 showed overlapping, but distinct, patterns of immunolabelling. GABAB1 was more strongly expressed by putative dopaminergic neurons in the SNc than by SNr projection neurons, whereas GABAB2 was mainly expressed in the neuropil of both regions. Immunogold labelling for GABAB1 and GABAB2 was localized in presynaptic and postsynaptic elements throughout the SN. The majority of labelling was intracellular or was associated with extrasynaptic sites on the plasma membrane. In addition, labelling for both subunits was found on the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes at symmetric, putative GABAergic synapses, including those formed by anterogradely labelled striatonigral and pallidonigral terminals. Labelling was also observed on the presynaptic membrane and at the edge of the postsynaptic density at asymmetric, putative excitatory synapses. Double immunolabelling, using the vesicular glutamate transporter 2, revealed the glutamatergic nature of many of the immunogold-labelled asymmetric synapses. The widespread distribution of GABAB subunits in the SNc and SNr suggests that GABAB -mediated effects in these regions are likely to be more complex than previously described, involving presynaptic autoreceptors and heteroreceptors, and postsynaptic receptors on different populations of SN neurons. [source]

    Potentiation of glycine responses by dideoxyforskolin and tamoxifen in rat spinal neurons

    Dominique Chesnoy-Marchais
    Abstract Dideoxyforskolin, a forskolin analogue unable to stimulate adenylate cyclase, and tamoxifen, an antioestrogen widely used against breast cancer, are both known to block some Cl, channels. Their effects on Cl, responses to glycine or GABA have been tested here by using whole-cell recording from cultured spinal neurons. Dideoxyforskolin (4 or 16 m) and tamoxifen (0.2,5 m) both potentiate responses to low glycine concentrations. They also induce blocking effects, predominant at high glycine concentrations. At 5 m, tamoxifen increased responses to 15 m glycine by a factor >4.5, reaching 20 in some neurons. Potentiation by extracellular dideoxyforskolin or tamoxifen persisted after intracellular application of the modulator and was not due to Zn2+ contamination. Potentiation by tamoxifen also persisted in a Ca2+ -free extracellular solution, after intracellular Ca2+ buffering and protein kinase C blockade. Thus, the critical sites of action are not intracellular. The EC50 for glycine was lowered 6.6-fold by 5 m tamoxifen. The kinetics and voltage-dependence of the effects of tamoxifen on glycine responses support the idea that this hydrophobic drug may act from a site located within the membrane. Tamoxifen (5 m) also increased responses to 2 m GABA by a factor of 3.5, but barely affected peak responses to 20 m GABA. The demonstration that tamoxifen affects some of the main inhibitory receptors should be useful for better evaluating its neurological effects. Furthermore, the results identify a new class of molecules that potentiate glycine receptor function. [source]

    Osteopontin and the skin: multiple emerging roles in cutaneous biology and pathology

    Franziska Buback
    Abstract:, Osteopontin (OPN) is a glycoprotein expressed by various tissues and cells. The existence of variant forms of OPN as a secreted (sOPN) and intracellular (iOPN) protein and its modification through post-translational modification and proteolytic cleavage explain its broad range of functions. There is increasing knowledge which receptors OPN isoforms can bind to and which signaling pathways are activated to mediate different OPN functions. sOPN interacts with integrins and CD44, mediates cell adhesion, migration and tumor invasion, and has T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine functions and anti-apoptotic effects. iOPN has been described to regulate macrophage migration and interferon-, secretion in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Both sOPN and iOPN, through complex functions for different dendritic cell subsets, participate in the regulation of Th cell lineages, among them Th17 cells. For skin disease, OPN from immune cells and tumor cells is of pathophysiological relevance. OPN is secreted in autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus, and influences inflammation of immediate and delayed type allergies and granuloma formation. We describe that OPN is overexpressed in psoriasis and propose a model to study OPN function in psoriatic inflammation. Through cytokine functions, OPN supports immune responses against Mycobacteria and viruses such as herpes simplex virus. OPN is also implicated in skin tumor progression. Overexpression of OPN influences invasion and metastasis of melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma cells, and OPN expression in melanoma is a possible prognostic marker. As OPN protein preparations and anti-OPN antibodies may be available in the near future, in-depth knowledge of OPN functions may open new therapeutic approaches for skin diseases. [source]