Intracavernosal Injection (intracavernosal + injection)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The Effectiveness of Psychological Interventions for the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Including Comparisons to Sildenafil Treatment, Intracavernosal Injection, and Vacuum Devices

THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 11 2008
Tamara Melnik PhD
ABSTRACT Introduction., In contrast to the impressive advances in somatic research of erectile dysfunction (ED), scientific literature shows contradictory reports on the results of psychotherapy for the treatment of ED. Aim., Authors conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions for the treatment of ED compared to oral drugs, local injection, vacuum devices, or other psychological intervention. Method., Distinct sources of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched: electronic databases (between 1966 and 2007), cross checking of references, and contact with scientific societies. Main Outcome Measures., For dichotomous outcomes the pooled relative risks were calculated and for continuous outcomes mean differences between interventions. Statistical heterogeneity was addressed. Results., Eleven RCTs involving 398 men met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions., There is evidence that group therapy improves ED. Focused sex group therapy showed greater efficacy than control group. Men randomized to receive psychotherapy plus sildenafil showed significant improvement of ED and were less likely than those receiving only sildenafil to drop out. Regarding to the effectiveness of psychological interventions for the treatment of ED compared to local injection and vacuum devices no difference was found. Melnik T, Soares BGO, and Nasello AG. The effectiveness of psychological interventions for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: Systematic review and meta-analysis, including comparisons to sildenafil treatment, intracavernosal injection, and vacuum devices. J Sex Med 2008;5:2562,2574. [source]


Subarachnoid Hemorrhage as Complication of Phenylephrine Injection for the Treatment of Ischemic Priapism in a Sickle Cell Disease Patient

THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
Hugo H. Davila MD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Ischemic priapism (IP) is a urologic condition, which necessitates prompt management. Intracavernosal injection of phenylephrine is a usual treatment modality utilized for the management of these patients. Aim., We present a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage following intracavernosal injection of phenylephrine for IP in a patient with sickle cell disease. Methods., We analyzed the degree of subarachnoid hemorrhage in our patient after intracavernosal injection of phenylephrine. The patient had an acute rise in blood pressure during corporal irrigation. This was followed by the onset of severe headache. Computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the diagnosis of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Main Outcome Measure., Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with intracavernosal injection of phenylephrine. Result., A 23-year-old African American male with a history of sickle cell disease presented with a painful penile erection. The patient was started on intravenous fluids, oxygen by nasal canula, and analgesic medication. After this, a blood gas was obtained from his left corpora cavernosa. This was followed by normal saline irrigation and injection of phenylephrine. The patient complained of a sudden, severe "terrible headache" immediately following the last injection, and noncontrast CT scan of the head was obtained and a subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted. The patient was admitted for observation and no significant changes were noted. Conclusions., Intracavernosal injection of phenylephrine for the management of IP can be associated with several possible complications. We present our single case complicated with the formation of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient was treated conservatively and had no long-term neurologic sequelae. Davila HH, Parker J, Webster JC, Lockhart JL, and Carrion RE. Subarachnoid hemorrhage as complication of phenylephrine injection for the treatment of ischemic priapism in a sickle cell disease patient. J Sex Med 2008;5:1025,1028. [source]


The Effectiveness of Psychological Interventions for the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Including Comparisons to Sildenafil Treatment, Intracavernosal Injection, and Vacuum Devices

THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 11 2008
Tamara Melnik PhD
ABSTRACT Introduction., In contrast to the impressive advances in somatic research of erectile dysfunction (ED), scientific literature shows contradictory reports on the results of psychotherapy for the treatment of ED. Aim., Authors conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions for the treatment of ED compared to oral drugs, local injection, vacuum devices, or other psychological intervention. Method., Distinct sources of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched: electronic databases (between 1966 and 2007), cross checking of references, and contact with scientific societies. Main Outcome Measures., For dichotomous outcomes the pooled relative risks were calculated and for continuous outcomes mean differences between interventions. Statistical heterogeneity was addressed. Results., Eleven RCTs involving 398 men met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions., There is evidence that group therapy improves ED. Focused sex group therapy showed greater efficacy than control group. Men randomized to receive psychotherapy plus sildenafil showed significant improvement of ED and were less likely than those receiving only sildenafil to drop out. Regarding to the effectiveness of psychological interventions for the treatment of ED compared to local injection and vacuum devices no difference was found. Melnik T, Soares BGO, and Nasello AG. The effectiveness of psychological interventions for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: Systematic review and meta-analysis, including comparisons to sildenafil treatment, intracavernosal injection, and vacuum devices. J Sex Med 2008;5:2562,2574. [source]


Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Restores Erectile Function in Aged Rats: Modulation the Integrity of Smooth Muscle and Nitric Oxide-Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Signaling Activity

THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 6 2008
Xiao-Yong Pu MD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is one of the growth factors that have a wide range of biologic effects. We have confirmed that gene transfer of IGF-1 to the penis could improve erectile capacity. However, there are some limitations in gene therapies, such as toxicity or a risk of insertional mutagenesis. Protein treatment may be another choice for decreasing these risks. Aim., To investigate whether intracavernosal injection of IGF-1 protein can restore erectile function in the aging rat. Main Outcome Measures., Erectile responses, morphological changes, and nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) signaling pathways-related marker were determined. Methods., Ten young (4 months) and 30 old (24 months) Sprague-Dawley male rats were enrolled in this study. The old rats were divided into three groups: vehicle-only (N = 10), IGF-1 1 g/kg (N = 10) and IGF-1 10 g/kg treatment group (N = 10). After 4 and 8 weeks of single IGF-1 injection treatment, intracavernous pressure (ICP) responses with electrical stimulation to the cavernous nerve were evaluated. The percent of smooth muscle in corpus cavernosum tissue, the expression of mRNA and protein of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were also evaluated. The activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and concentration of guanosine 3,,5,-cyclic-monophosphate (cGMP) that act upon the major NO-cGMP signaling pathways in penile tissue were also analyzed. Results., After IGF-1 treatment, the ICP responses was significantly increased as the young control group in both the IGF-1 1 g/kg and the IGF-1 10 g/kg group compared with the vehicle-only group at 4 and 8 weeks (P < 0.05). Masson's trichrom staining showed the percentage of cavernosal smooth muscle was increased in IGF-1 treatment group. IGF-1 increased e-NOS expression. NOS activities and cGMP concentrations were also significantly increased in IGF-1 treatment rats. Conclusions., IGF-1 improved erectile function in aged rats via restoration the integrity of smooth muscle of corpus cavernosum and modulation of NO-cGMP pathways. Pu, X-Y, Wang X-H, Gao W-C, Yang Z-H, and Li S-L. Insulin-like growth factor-1 restores erectile function in aged rats: Modulation the integrity of smooth muscle and nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling activity. J Sex Med 2008;5:1345,1354. [source]


Subarachnoid Hemorrhage as Complication of Phenylephrine Injection for the Treatment of Ischemic Priapism in a Sickle Cell Disease Patient

THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
Hugo H. Davila MD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Ischemic priapism (IP) is a urologic condition, which necessitates prompt management. Intracavernosal injection of phenylephrine is a usual treatment modality utilized for the management of these patients. Aim., We present a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage following intracavernosal injection of phenylephrine for IP in a patient with sickle cell disease. Methods., We analyzed the degree of subarachnoid hemorrhage in our patient after intracavernosal injection of phenylephrine. The patient had an acute rise in blood pressure during corporal irrigation. This was followed by the onset of severe headache. Computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the diagnosis of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Main Outcome Measure., Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with intracavernosal injection of phenylephrine. Result., A 23-year-old African American male with a history of sickle cell disease presented with a painful penile erection. The patient was started on intravenous fluids, oxygen by nasal canula, and analgesic medication. After this, a blood gas was obtained from his left corpora cavernosa. This was followed by normal saline irrigation and injection of phenylephrine. The patient complained of a sudden, severe "terrible headache" immediately following the last injection, and noncontrast CT scan of the head was obtained and a subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted. The patient was admitted for observation and no significant changes were noted. Conclusions., Intracavernosal injection of phenylephrine for the management of IP can be associated with several possible complications. We present our single case complicated with the formation of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient was treated conservatively and had no long-term neurologic sequelae. Davila HH, Parker J, Webster JC, Lockhart JL, and Carrion RE. Subarachnoid hemorrhage as complication of phenylephrine injection for the treatment of ischemic priapism in a sickle cell disease patient. J Sex Med 2008;5:1025,1028. [source]


Pharmacological and Functional Characterization of Novel EP and DP Receptor Agonists: DP1 Receptor Mediates Penile Erection in Multiple Species

THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 2 2008
Nadia Brugger PhD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Despite the widespread use of prostaglandin E1 as an efficacious treatment for male erectile dysfunction for more than two decades, research on prostanoid function in penile physiology has been limited. Aim., To characterize the pharmacological and physiological activity of novel subtype-selective EP and DP receptor agonists. Methods., Radioligand binding and second messenger assays were used to define receptor subtype specificity of the EP and DP agonists. Functional activity was further characterized using isolated human and rabbit penile cavernosal tissue in organ baths. In vivo activity was assessed in rabbits and rats by measuring changes in cavernous pressure after intracavernosal injection of receptor agonists. Main Outcome Measures., Receptor binding and signal transduction, smooth muscle contractile activity, erectile function. Results., In organ bath preparations of human cavernosal tissue contracted with phenylephrine, EP2- and EP4-selective agonists exhibited variable potency in causing relaxation. One of the compounds caused mild contraction, and none of the compounds was as effective as PGE1 (EC50 = 0.23 M). There was no consistent correlation between the pharmacological profile (receptor binding and second messenger assays) of the EP agonists and their effect on cavernosal tissue tone. In contrast, the DP1-selective agonist AS702224 (EC50 =29 nM) was more effective in relaxing human cavernosal tissue than either PGE1, PGD2 (EC50 = 58 nM), or the DP agonist BW245C (EC50 =59 nM). In rabbit cavernosal tissue, PGE1 and PGD2 caused only contraction, while AS702224 and BW245C caused relaxation. Intracavernosal administration of AS702224 and BW245C also caused penile tumescence in rabbits and rats. For each compound, the erectile response improved with increasing dose and was significantly higher than vehicle alone. Conclusions., These data suggest that AS702224 is a potent DP1-selective agonist that causes penile erection. The DP1 receptor mediates relaxation in human cavernosal tissue, and stimulates pro-erectile responses in rat and rabbit. Thus, rabbits and rats can be useful models for investigating the physiological function of DP1 receptors. Brugger N, Kim NN, Araldi GL, Traish AM, and Palmer SS. Pharmacological and functional characterization of novel EP and DP receptor agonists: DP1 receptor mediates penile erection in multiple species. J Sex Med 2008;5:344,356. [source]


Age-Related Changes in Phosphorylation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Rat Penis

THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 3 2005
Biljana Musicki PhD
ABSTRACT Aim., Aging is associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) attributed to reduced nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and nitric oxide bioavailability. However, the mechanism for this effect has not been fully investigated. We evaluated (i) whether age-related ED involves dysregulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS) phosphorylation; and (ii) whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) exerts erectile effects and operates via eNOS phosphorylation in aged rats. Methods., Male Fischer 344 "young" (4-month-old) and "aged" (19-month-old) rats were used. Electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve (CNS) was performed to generate penile erection. Erectile response in the presence of rhVEGF165 was evaluated by intracavernosal pressure monitoring 25 minutes after intracavernosal injection of VEGF. Penes were excised at baseline, with or without rhVEGF treatment, and after CNS for Western immunoblot of phospho-eNOS (Ser-1177 and Thr-495), phospho-Akt, and eNOS. Results., Erectile response was significantly reduced in aged rats compared with young rats. Phospho-eNOS (Ser-1177) and phospho-Akt were significantly reduced, while phospho-eNOS (Thr-495) was significantly increased, in the aged penis at baseline and after CNS. rhVEGF significantly improved erection and reversed downregulated Ser-1177, but not upregulated Thr-495 phosphorylation, on eNOS in aged penes. eNOS protein was significantly increased in aged penes. Conclusions., Age-related ED is associated with eNOS inactivation through a decrease in phosphorylation of its positive regulatory site (Ser-1177) and an increase in phosphorylation of its negative regulatory site (Thr-495) in the penis. Altered phosphorylation/constitutive activation of eNOS by fluid shear stress may be a major determinant of compromised vascular homeostasis of the aged penis. The finding that VEGF rapidly induces erection and partly corrects alterations in eNOS phosphorylation in the aged rat penis suggests impaired eNOS activation by deficient endogenous VEGF and supports the potential for growth factor therapy in the treatment of age-related ED. [source]


A comparison of the International Index of Erectile Function and erectile dysfunction studies

BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 7 2003
W. Kassouf
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the ability of the five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) to diagnose the vascular aetiology and severity of erectile dysfunction (ED), and to compare it with pharmacological testing and duplex Doppler ultrasonography, as such questionnaires are widely used by the pharmaceutical industry to categorize the severity of ED and to assess the efficacy of drug therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS In all, 80 patients (mean age 45.2 years, sd 14.0; mean duration of ED 3.5 years) were reviewed by an examiner unaware of their IIEF scores during testing. Penile blood flow was assessed in each patient after an intracavernosal injection with prostaglandin-E1 (10 g), with self-stimulation in privacy. The peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity and resistive index were measured for the vascular diagnosis. Visual ratings of erectile responses were also used for analysis. RESULTS Of the 80 patients, 30 had a normal vascular response, 38 arterial insufficiency and 12 were diagnosed with venous leakage. There was no significant difference in the IIEF scores among patients with a normal vascular response, arterial insufficiency or venous leakage. Analysis of visual ratings of erections showed no difference in IIEF scores among the different groups of patients. CONCLUSION The IIEF was designed and developed specifically for assessing and evaluating sexual function in clinical trials. However, as shown here, the IIEF cannot and should not be used as a tool to diagnose or compare specific vascular causes of ED. [source]


ORIGINAL RESEARCH,ED PHARMACOTHERAPY: Post-Radical Prostatectomy Pharmacological Penile Rehabilitation: Practice Patterns Among the International Society for Sexual Medicine Practitioners

THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 7 2009
Patrick Teloken MD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Despite the fact that there is minimal evidence-based data supporting it, the concept of pharmacological penile rehabilitation following radical prostatectomy (RP) is receiving great attention. Aim., To define attitudes and practice patterns of clinicians who were members of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) and/or its affiliated societies. Methods., Members of the ISSM and its regional affiliates were invited to participate in a web-based survey. Main Outcome Measures., Demographic factors, current practice status, and opinions regarding post-RP erectile dysfunction and penile rehabilitation. The statistical methods used included chi-square, Student's t -tests, and logistic regression analysis. Results., Three hundred-one physicians from 41 countries completed the questionnaire (82% were urologists). Sixty-five percent of the responders had formal sexual medicine specialty training, 44% had uro-oncology specialty training, and 60% performed RPs. Eighty-seven percent performed some form of rehabilitation. As part of the primary rehabilitation strategy, 95% used phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5), 30% used vacuum device, 75% used intracavernosal injections, and 9.9% used intraurethral prostaglandin. Fifty-four percent commenced rehabilitation immediately/just after urethral catheter removal, and 37% within the first 4 months after RP. Neither the number of years in medical practice, clinician age, nor country/region of practice differed between rehabilitation performers and nonperformers. With regard to the primary reason for avoiding rehabilitation: 50% responded said it is the cost; 25% said the fact that it is not evidence-based; and 25% said they were not familiar with the concept. Performing rehabilitation was positively associated with urologic oncology training (P = 0.03), performing RP (P < 0.001), and seeing over 50 post-RP patients per year (P = 0.011). Conclusions., Among ISSM members post-RP penile rehabilitation is widely practiced, commenced early, and based predominantly on PDE5 inhibitors and intracavernosal injections. Clinicians who perform RP or see over 50 such patients per year are the most likely to perform rehabilitation. Cost represents the most common reason for rehabilitation neglect. Teloken P, Mesquita G, Montorsi F, and Mulhall J. Post-radical prostatectomy pharmacological penile rehabilitation: Practice patterns among ISSM practitioners. J Sex Med 2009;6:2032,2038. [source]