Interpretation

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Interpretation

  • accurate interpretation
  • alternative interpretation
  • archaeological interpretation
  • automatic interpretation
  • biblical interpretation
  • biological interpretation
  • broad interpretation
  • careful interpretation
  • causal interpretation
  • cautious interpretation
  • chemical interpretation
  • clinical interpretation
  • conflicting interpretation
  • conventional interpretation
  • correct interpretation
  • critical interpretation
  • cultural interpretation
  • current interpretation
  • data interpretation
  • detailed interpretation
  • different interpretation
  • ecological interpretation
  • environmental interpretation
  • evolutionary interpretation
  • existing interpretation
  • final interpretation
  • functional interpretation
  • geometrical interpretation
  • good interpretation
  • historical interpretation
  • image interpretation
  • incorrect interpretation
  • judicial interpretation
  • kinetic interpretation
  • manual interpretation
  • mechanistic interpretation
  • morphological interpretation
  • multiple interpretation
  • new interpretation
  • one interpretation
  • palaeoclimatic interpretation
  • parsimonious interpretation
  • physical interpretation
  • physiological interpretation
  • plausible interpretation
  • possible interpretation
  • previous interpretation
  • proper interpretation
  • qualitative interpretation
  • quantitative interpretation
  • radical interpretation
  • radiographic interpretation
  • recent interpretation
  • reliable interpretation
  • score interpretation
  • seismic interpretation
  • standard interpretation
  • statistical interpretation
  • statutory interpretation
  • stratigraphic interpretation
  • structural interpretation
  • subjective interpretation
  • subsequent interpretation
  • theological interpretation
  • theoretical interpretation
  • traditional interpretation
  • valid interpretation
  • various interpretation
  • visual interpretation
  • women interpretation
  • wrong interpretation

  • Terms modified by Interpretation

  • interpretation bias
  • interpretation methods
  • interpretation process

  • Selected Abstracts


    The projected health care burden of Type 2 diabetes in the UK from 2000 to 2060

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2002
    A. Bagust
    Abstract Aims/hypothesis To predict the incidence and prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in the UK, the trends in the levels of diabetes-related complications, and the associated health care costs for the period 2000,60. Methods An established epidemiological and economic model of the long-term complications and health care costs of Type 2 diabetes was applied to UK population projections from 2000 to 2060. The model was used to calculate the incidence and prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, the caseloads and population burden for diabetes-related complications, and annual NHS health care costs for Type 2 diabetes over this time period. Results The total UK population will not increase by more than 3% at any time in the next 60 years. However, the population over 30 will increase by a maximum of 11% by 2030. Due to population ageing, in 2036 there will be approximately 20% more cases of Type 2 diabetes than in 2000. Cases of diabetes-related complications will increase rapidly to peak 20,30% above present levels between 2035 and 2045, before showing a modest decline. The cost of health care for patients with Type 2 diabetes rises by up to 25% during this period, but because of reductions in the economically active age groups, the relative economic burden of the disease can be expected to increase by 40,50%. Conclusion/interpretation In the next 30 years Type 2 diabetes will present a serious clinical and financial challenge to the UK NHS. [source]


    THE ART AND SCIENCE OF SEEING: APPLYING VISUAL LITERACY INTERPRETATION IN NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUMS

    CURATOR THE MUSEUM JOURNAL, Issue 4 2002
    Johanna Jones Senior Associate
    First page of article [source]


    Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Response Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Subjects with Crow's Feet

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 3 2005
    Nicholas J. Lowe MD
    Background Published evidence suggests that botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is an effective treatment for crow's feet. However, few dose-ranging studies have been performed. Objectives To assess the safety and efficacy of a single treatment with one of four doses of BTX-A (Botox/Vistabel, Allergan Inc) compared with placebo for the improvement of crow's feet. Methods Subjects received a single bilateral treatment of 18, 12, 6, or 3 U of BTX-A or placebo injected into the lateral aspect of the orbicularis oculi muscle (parallel-group, double,blind design). Investigators and subjects rated crow's feet severity at maximum smile on day 7 and at 30-day intervals from days 30 to 180. Results As observed by both investigators and subjects, all doses of BTX-A resulted in improvements in crow's feet severity when compared with placebo. A dose-dependent treatment effect for efficacy was observed, with higher doses having an increased magnitude and duration of effect. However, a clear differentiation between the 18 U and 12 U doses was not apparent. Few adverse events were reported, with no statistically significant differences between BTX-A and placebo in the incidence of subjects experiencing adverse events. Conclusion BTX-A is safe and effective in decreasing the severity of crow's feet, with 12 U per side suggested as the most appropriate dose. THIS STUDY WAS FUNDED BY ALLERGAN, WHICH WAS ALSO INVOLVED IN THE DESIGN AND CONDUCT OF THE STUDY; COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA; AND PREPARATION, REVIEW, AND APPROVAL OF THE MANUSCRIPT. DRS. LOWE AND FRACZEK ARE PAID CONSULTANTS FOR ALLERGAN, DRS. KUMAR AND EADIE ARE EMPLOYEES OF ALLERGAN, AND DRS. LOWE AND KUMAR HOLD STOCK OPTIONS. [source]


    INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS OF COMMON PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSES

    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2002
    David Houle
    Abstract Common principal components (CPC) analysis is a new tool for the comparison of phenotypic and genetic variance-covariance matrices. CPC was developed as a method of data summarization, but frequently biologists would like to use the method to detect analogous patterns of trait correlation in multiple populations or species. To investigate the properties of CPC, we simulated data that reflect a set of causal factors. The CPC method performs as expected from a statistical point of view, but often gives results that are contrary to biological intuition. In general, CPC tends to underestimate the degree of structure that matrices share. Differences of trait variances and covariances due to a difference in a single causal factor in two otherwise identically structured datasets often cause CPC to declare the two datasets unrelated. Conversely, CPC could identify datasets as having the same structure when causal factors are different. Reordering of vectors before analysis can aid in the detection of patterns. We urge caution in the biological interpretation of CPC analysis results. [source]


    VARIATION OF SHELL SHAPE IN THE CLONAL SNAIL MELANOIDES TUBERCULATA AND ITS CONSEQUENCES FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF FOSSIL SERIES

    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2000
    Sarah Samadi
    Abstract., Interpreting paleontological data is difficult because the genetic nature of observed morphological variation is generally unknown. Indeed, it is hardly possible to distinguish among several sources of morphological variation including phenotypic plasticity, sexual dimorphism, within-species genetic variation or differences among species. This can be addressed using fossil organisms with recent representatives. The freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata ranks in this category. A fossil series of this and other species have been studied in the Turkana Basin (Kenya) and is presented as one of the best examples illustrating the punctuated pattern of evolution by the tenants of this theory. Melanoides tuberculata today occupies most of the tropics. We studied variation of shell shape in natural populations of this parthenogenetic snail using Raup's model of shell coiling. We considered different sources of variation on estimates of three relevant parameters of Raup's model: (1) variation in shell shape was detected among clones, and had both genetic and environmental bases; (2) sexual dimorphism, in those clones in which males occur, appeared as an additional source of shell variation; and (3) ecophenotypic variation was detected by comparing samples from different sites and years within two clones. We then tested the performance of discriminant function analyses, a classical tool in paleontological studies, using several datasets. Although the three sources of variation cited above contributed significantly to the observed morphological variance, they could not be detected without a priori knowledge of the biological entities studied. However, it was possible to distinguish between M. tuberculata and a related thiarid species using these analyses. Overall, this suggests that the tools classically used in paleontological studies are poorly efficient when distinguishing between important sources of within-species variation. Our study also gives some empirical bases to the doubts cast on the interpretation of the molluscan series of the Turkana Basin. [source]


    SUBJECTIVITY AS A NON-TEXTUAL STANDARD OF INTERPRETATION IN THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHICAL PSYCHOLOGY

    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 1 2010
    JARI KAUKUA
    ABSTRACT Contemporary caution against anachronism in intellectual history, and the currently momentous theoretical emphasis on subjectivity in the philosophy of mind, are two prevailing conditions that set puzzling constraints for studies in the history of philosophical psychology. The former urges against assuming ideas, motives, and concepts that are alien to the historical intellectual setting under study, and combined with the latter suggests caution in relying on our intuitions regarding subjectivity due to the historically contingent characterizations it has attained in contemporary philosophy of mind. In the face of these conditions, our paper raises a question of what we call non-textual (as opposed to contextual) standards of interpretation of historical texts, and proceeds to explore subjectivity as such a standard. Non-textual standards are defined as (heuristic) postulations of features of the world or our experience of it that we must suppose to be immune to historical variation in order to understand a historical text. Although the postulation of such standards is often so obvious that the fact of our doing so is not noticed at all, we argue that the problems in certain special cases, such as that of subjectivity, force us to pay attention to the methodological questions involved. Taking into account both recent methodological discussion and the problems inherent in two de facto denials of the relevance of subjectivity for historical theories, we argue that there are good grounds for the adoption of subjectivity as a nontextual standard for historical work in philosophical psychology. [source]


    INTERPRETATION OF YOGĀCĀRA PHILOSOPHY IN HUAYAN BUDDHISM

    JOURNAL OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY, Issue 2 2010
    IMRE HAMAR
    First page of article [source]


    MOU ZONGSAN'S PROBLEM WITH THE HEIDEGGERIAN INTERPRETATION OF KANT

    JOURNAL OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY, Issue 2 2006
    Article first published online: 12 MAY 200, SBASTIEN BILLIOUD
    [source]


    C. H. CHEN's DEVELOPMENTAL INTERPRETATION OF ARISTOTLE

    JOURNAL OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY, Issue 4 2005
    JIYUAN YU
    [source]


    PEDIATRIC ECG INTERPRETATION: AN ILLUSTRATIVE GUIDE

    JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 4 2005
    FRACP, M.Ed(Melb), Professor Samuel Menahem MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF WELL TEST ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY FROM A FLUVIAL RESERVOIR IN THE GULF OF THAILAND

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    S. Y. Zheng
    One problem with the inversion of transient well test data is that it can yield a non-unique solution. The uncertainty resulting from this type of approach can only be resolved by considering information from another source such as geology. Geological information will help to define the interpretation model which will ensure the correct analysis of the well test data. The results of well test analyses are of little value to reservoir characterisation and modelling unless they can be explained from a geological point of view. This last step is what we refer to here as geological interpretation. Other sources of information which can help with well test analyses come from seismic surveys and petrophysics. Modern well test interpretation therefore consists of two major steps: analysis of the well test data; and interpretation of the results. In detail, this should include the following: 1definition of an interpretation model , this requires the integration of geological, seismic and petrophysical data with transient pressure data 2analysis of the well test data based on the interpretation model defined 3geological interpretation of the results, which is necessary in order to explain or give meaning to the results. In this paper, we present a case study from a fluvial gas reservoir in the Gulf of Thailand which demonstrates these procedures. In the context of a defined geological environment, a transient pressure test has been fully analysed. Newly-developed software based on the finite element method has been used to forward model the test scenarios. This allowed the results of seismic and petrophysical analyses to be integrated into the well test model. This case study illustrates the integrated use of geological, petrophysical, well test and seismic attribute data in defining a reservoir model which respects both the reservoir geometry at some distance from the well location and also the reservoir's heterogeneity. We focus on a particular well in the Pattani Basin at which conventional well test analyses have been conducted. By considering the results of these analyses, forward modelling was carried out in which the drainage area was "cut" out of the structural map defined by seismic interpretation; also, the formation's internal heterogeneity was modelled according to well logs and petrophysical analyses. Finally, analytical and simulation results were compared with the transient pressure data. We conclude that the integration of geological, seismic, petrophysical and well test data greatly reduced uncertainties in well test interpretation. The consistency of the results and the fact that they satisfied all the relevant disciplines meant that much more confidence could be given to their interpretation. [source]


    A NEW DEPOSITIONAL MODEL AND SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION FOR THE UPPER JURASSIC ARAB "D" RESERVOIR IN QATAR

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    H. Al-Saad
    Deposition of the Arab Formation on the Arabian Plate followed a eustatic sea-level high during the Oxfordian that deposited the open-marine shelfal carbonates of the Hanifa and Jubaila Formations. Oolite/peloidal shoals and local coral-algal stromatoporoid banks were subsequently deposited on the platform margin. These acted as barriers and led to the differentiation of intrashelf basins from open-marine (Tethyan) waters to the east. During the subsequent Kimmeridgian lowstand, gypsum wedges were laid down in the intrashelf basins. Slight changes in water depth, which exposed or flooded these barriers, are believed to be responsible for the cyclic nature of the Arab Formation sediments. Arab Formation cycles show a 4,h order frequency but have thicknesses more typical of 3rd order Vail-type sequences. This is probably explained by the 4th order flooding events merely topping-up pre-existing accommodation space of tens of metres water depth in the intrashelf basin. Diagenesis associated with movement of hypersaline brines may have been responsible for the development of widespread dissolution porosity and dolomitization. The laminated, organic-rich, bituminous lime mudstones of the Hanifa/Jubaila Formations are the probable source of oil in the Arab Formation in Qatar. The main reservoir types are oolitic-peloidal grainstones and dolomitized limestones. [source]


    EFFECT OF TAXON SAMPLING, CHARACTER WEIGHTING, AND COMBINED DATA ON THE INTERPRETATION OF RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE HETEROKONT ALGAE,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Leslie R. Goertzen
    Nuclear ribosomal small subunit and chloroplast rbcL sequence data for heterokont algae and potential outgroup taxa were analyzed separately and together using maximum parsimony. A series of taxon sampling and character weighting experiments was performed. Traditional classes (e.g. diatoms, Phaeophyceae, etc.) were monophyletic in most analyses of either data set and in analyses of combined data. Relationships among classes and of heterokont algae to outgroup taxa were sensitive to taxon sampling. Bootstrap (BS) values were not always predictive of stability of nodes in taxon sampling experiments or between analyses of different data sets. Reweighting sites by the rescaled consistency index artificially inflates BS values in the analysis of rbcL data. Inclusion of the third codon position from rbcL enhanced signal despite the superficial appearance of mutational saturation. Incongruence between data sets was largely due to placement of a few problematic taxa, and so data were combined. BS values for the combined analysis were much higher than for analyses of each data set alone, although combining data did not improve support for heterokont monophyly. [source]


    VIRGINIA USA WATER QUALITY, 1978 TO 1995: REGIONAL INTERPRETATION,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 3 2002
    Carl E. Zipper
    ABSTRACT: Nine surface water-quality variables were analyzed for trend at 180 Virginia locations over the 1978 to 1995 period. Median values and seasonal Kendall's tau, a trend indicator statistic, were generated for dissolved oxygen saturation (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), pH (PH), total residue (TR), nonfilterable residue (NFR), nitrate-nitrite nitrogen (NN), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (TP), and fecal coliform (FC) at each location. Each location was assigned to one of four physiographic regions, and mean state and regional medians and taus were calculated. Widespread BOD and NFR improvements were detected and FC improvements occurred in the state's western regions. TR and TKN exhibited predominantly increasing trends at locations throughout the state. BOD, TKN, NFR, and TR medians were higher at coastal locations than in other regions. NN, TKN, and TR exhibited predominantly increasing trends in regions with high median concentrations, while declining trends predominated in regions with relatively high BOD, FC, and NFR medians. Appalachian locations exhibited the greatest regional water-quality improvements for BOD, FC, NFR, and TKN. Factors responsible for regional differences appear to include geology, land use, and landscape features; these factors vary regionally. [source]


    STUDYING TROPHIC ECOLOGY IN MARINE ECOSYSTEMS USING FATTY ACIDS: A PRIMER ON ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

    MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, Issue 4 2006
    Suzanne M. Budge
    First page of article [source]


    RETHINKING ENDOGENOUS MONEY: A CONSTRUCTIVE INTERPRETATION OF THE DEBATE BETWEEN HORIZONTALISTS AND STRUCTURALISTS

    METROECONOMICA, Issue 4 2004
    Giuseppe FontanaArticle first published online: 7 OCT 200
    ABSTRACT Beyond a widespread agreement on the idea that ,loans create deposits' and ,deposits make reserves', there is much controversy in the endogenous money literature over the workings of the reserve market, the credit market and the financial markets. In this paper a constructive interpretation of the debate between horizontalists and structuralists is suggested and their arguments are taken forward by showing that these controversial issues can be explained rigorously once a single-period,continuation framework is adopted. [source]


    I. MORALITY, INTERPRETATION, AND PERSPECTIVE

    MONOGRAPHS OF THE SOCIETY FOR RESEARCH IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2005
    Article first published online: 16 DEC 200
    First page of article [source]


    SOCIAL NETWORKS AND CROSS-CULTURAL INTERACTION: A NEW INTERPRETATION OF THE FEMALE TERRACOTTA FIGURINES OF HELLENISTIC BABYLON

    OXFORD JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    STEPHANIE M. LANGIN-HOOPER
    Summary. In the study of the Hellenistic period in Babylon, cross-cultural interactions between Greeks and native Babylonians have been primarily interpreted using colonialist theories of Hellenisation, domination, and cultural isolation. This paper finds, however, that such theories cannot adequately explain the types of cross-cultural combinations seen in the archaeological record of female Hellenistic Babylonian terracotta figurines. The forms and functions of these terracotta figurines were substantially altered and combined throughout the Hellenistic period, resulting in Greek-Babylonian multicultural figurines as well as figurines that exhibited new features used exclusively in Hellenistic Babylonia. In order to facilitate a greater understanding of the full complexity of these Greek,Babylonian interactions, a new interpretation of cross,cultural interaction in Hellenistic Babylon is developed in this paper. This Social Networks model provides an alternative framework for approaching both how a hybrid material culture of terracotta figurines was developed and how Hellenistic Babylon became a multicultural society. [source]


    THE REDISCOVERY OF AMERICAN SACRED SPACES

    RELIGIOUS STUDIES REVIEW, Issue 4 2004
    Louis P. Nelson
    Book reviewed in this article: THE HERMENEUTICS OF SACRED ARCHITECTURE: EXPERIENCE, INTERPRETATION, COMPARISON (2 volumes) By Lindsay Jones TEMPLES OF GRACE: THE MATERIAL TRANSFORMATION OF CONNECTICUT'S CHURCHES, 1790,1840 By Gretchen Buggeln WHEN CHURCH BECAME THEATRE: THE TRANSFORMATION OF EVANGELICAL ARCHITECTURE AND WORSHIP IN THE NINETEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA By Jeanne Kilde PRAYERS IN STONE: CHRISTIAN SCIENCE ARCHITECTURE IN THE UNITED STATES, 1894,1930 By Paul Eli Ivey SHUL WITH A POOL: THE "SYNAGOGUE-CENTER" IN AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORY By David Kaufman MYTHS IN STONE: RELIGIOUS DIMENSIONS OF WASHINGTON, D.C. By Jeffrey F. Meyer UGLY AS SIN: WHY THEY CHANGED OUR CHURCHES FROM SACRED PLACES TO MEETING SPACES AND HOW WE CAN CHANGE THEM BACK AGAIN By Michael S. Rose BUILDING FROM BELIEF: ADVANCE, RETREAT, AND COMPROMISE IN THE REMAKING OF CATHOLIC CHURCH ARCHITECTURE By Michael E. DeSanctis ARCHITECTURE IN COMMUNION: IMPLEMENTING THE SECOND VATICAN COUNCIL THROUGH LITURGY AND ARCHITECTURE By Steven J. Schloeder [source]


    TOWARDS A FUNDAMENTAL THEOLOGICAL RE -INTERPRETATION OF VATICAN II

    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 5 2008
    JOHN D. DADOSKY
    This paper argues for a fundamental theological re -interpretation of Vatican II ecclesiology that acknowledges not one but two principal ecclesiologies inspired by the Council documents. Ecclesiastical authorities and some theologians have acknowledged that communion ecclesiology is the principal ecclesiology of Vatican II. However, this conception does not sufficiently account for the full range of relations with the Other that is a distinctive development in the Church's self-understanding inaugurated by Vatican II; such an understanding is better represented by an ecclesiology of friendship. I thus argue there are two ecclesiologies reflected in the Council documents: communion ecclesiology and another to be developed based on mutual relations and friendship with the Other. The latter is distinctively Ignatian in spirit; further, these two ecclesiologies are not fundamentally opposed to each other but are united in the missions of the Son and the Spirit. [source]


    CONTRASTING AIMS IN TRANSFERENCE INTERPRETATION

    THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS, Issue 2 2002
    Helen K. Gediman
    First page of article [source]


    PETROGRAPHY AND PROVENANCE INTERPRETATION OF THE STONE MOULDS FOR BRONZE DAGGERS FROM THE GALDONG PREHISTORIC SITE, REPUBLIC OF KOREA*

    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 1 2010
    C. H. LEE
    This paper presents material characteristics and raw material provenance of the stone moulds for bronze slender daggers from Galdong. This type of bronze dagger is uniquely distributed in the Korean Peninsula and these stone moulds were the first to be found by excavation. The stone moulds were made of igneous hornblendite with course-grained holocrystalline textures. Based on petrological, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics, the original rock materials of the moulds were inferred to be derived from the Jangsu or Namwon areas which are about 50 km away from the excavation site. It is a notable achievement that this provenance study confirmed the domestic production of Korean-styled daggers. [source]


    PHENOMENOLOGY AND INTERPRETATION BEYOND THE FLESH

    ART HISTORY, Issue 4 2009
    AMANDA BOETZKES
    This article explores the ethical questions surrounding the phenomenological approach to interpretation in art history. It addresses contemporary art, from postminimalist sculpture to installation. Although the risk of phenomenology is that it merely confirms and reproduces the viewer's perceptual expectations, in fact, on a deeper level, the notion of the ontological intertwining of the viewer and the artwork demands a receptive stance in the face of art. Through an investigation of the notions of embodiment, intentionality, and mode of confrontation, I suggest that phenomenology not only mediates a trenchant understanding of the perceptual experience of the artwork, it is predicated on an acknowledgement of the artwork's alterity from interpretation. In this way, it invites a consideration of the linguistic malleability implicit in the fleshly chiasm that binds the viewer to the artwork. [source]


    OCNOPHILIA AND THE INTERPRETATION OF TRANSFERENCE

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY, Issue 4 2000
    Jackie Gerrard
    ABSTRACT This paper examines Balint's statements regarding ocnophilia and transference interpretations; namely his proposition that making transference inter pretations the over-riding focus of psychoanalytic technique encourages an ocnophilic way of being and relating in the patient. The author is not convinced that this is so and presents her argument, which is later illustrated with four clinical vignettes. [source]


    INTERPRETATIONS OF YANG (?) IN THE YIJING (????) COMMENTARIAL TRADITIONS

    JOURNAL OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY, Issue 2 2008
    DENNIS CHI-HSIUNG CHENG
    [source]


    BRONZE AGE BARROWS ON THE HEATHLANDS OF SOUTHERN ENGLAND: CONSTRUCTION, FORMS AND INTERPRETATIONS

    OXFORD JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    RICHARD BRADLEY
    Summary The Bronze Age barrows on the downs of southern England have been investigated and discussed for nearly 200 years, but much less attention has been paid to similar structures in the areas of heathland beyond the chalk and river gravels. They were built in a phase of expansion towards the end of the Early Bronze Age, and more were constructed during the Middle Bronze Age. They have a number of distinctive characteristics. This paper considers the interpretation of these monuments and their wider significance in relation to the pattern of settlement. It also discusses the origins of field systems in lowland England. [source]


    Model Based Evaluation of Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    COMPUTER-AIDED CIVIL AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2008
    Kimberly Belli
    Interpretation of the radar signal is typically performed through preliminary filtering techniques and interpretation is based on viewing numerous signals in the form of a scan. Although anomalies can be evident in the scanned image, quantification and interpretation of the main issue remain ambiguous. This article presents the ambiguity and common methods of interpretation based on response amplitude and travel time. An integrated medium is developed and used as a forward modeling tool to generate a realistic radar reflection of a reinforced concrete bridge deck with defects. A healthy deck reflection is obtained from a separate model and is combined with an inverse solution to quantifiably estimate unknown subsurface properties such as layer thickness and dielectric constants of subsurface materials evident in the realistic radar trace as well as. The forward modeling tool and associated model based assessment provides an objective computational alternative to the interpretation of scanned images. [source]


    Comparison of Two Methods of Interpretation of LangmuirProbe Data for an Inductively Coupled Oxygen Plasma

    CONTRIBUTIONS TO PLASMA PHYSICS, Issue 5-6 2006
    T. H. Chung
    Abstract The Langmuir probe technique has some drawback in applying to electronegative plasma since it is difficult to interpret the probe I , V data. The positive ion flux to the probe is modified due to the presence of negative ions. In this study, an inductively coupled oxygen RF plasma is employed to perform the Langmuir probe measurement of the electronegative discharge. Plasma parameters are obtained from Langmuir probe measurement using two different methods which are based on electron energy distribution function (EEDF) integrals, and the method based on the fluid model for the modified ion flux, respectively. The EEDF is measured by a double differentiation of the I , V characteristics according to the Druyvesteyn formula. The electron densities estimated based on the two methods are compared. The EEDF integral method gives little higher values than the modified ion flux method. It is observed that at low pressure the EEDF is close to a Maxwellian. Generally, as the pressure increases, the distributions switch to bi-Maxwellian and to Druyvesteyn, and suggest some depletion of electrons with larger energies. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Exploration and Exploitation in Innovation: Reframing the Interpretation

    CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2008
    Ying Li
    There has been a burgeoning literature about exploitation and exploration since March's seminal article in 1991. However, in reviewing the extant literature we find different interpretations of both concepts leading to ambiguity and even some inconsistency. This paper focuses in particular on the interpretation of exploration and exploitation in the literature on technological innovation. It addresses two critical research questions. First, what are the different interpretations of exploitation and exploration? Second, how can we set up a framework that reconciles these differences and reduces the ambiguity that we find in the literature? To answer these two questions, we first explain what the root causes of these different viewpoints are. Second, we provide a theoretical framework that integrates the different perspectives, sets up a new typology to define exploration and exploitation, identifies white spaces in the current research and provides guidance for future research. [source]


    Errors in the Interpretation of Mohs Histopathology Sections Over a 1-Year Fellowship

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 12 2008
    MICHAEL E. MURPHY MD
    BACKGROUND Errors can occur in the interpretation of Mohs histopathology sections. Errors in histology interpretation can lead to incomplete removal of cancer and cancer persistence or the unnecessary removal of uninvolved tissue. Extensive proctored training is necessary to reduce these errors to an absolute minimum level. OBJECTIVE To analyze and quantify the number of cases and the amount of time required to reach a satisfactory level of expertise in the reading and interpretation of Mohs histopathology. METHODS A single-institution pilot study was designed to track errors in the interpretation and mapping of Mohs histopathology sections. A Mohs surgery fellow independently preread Mohs cases and rendered his interpretation on the Mohs map. One of the Mohs program directors subsequently reviewed and corrected all cases. Errors were scored on a graded scale and tracked over the 1-year fellowship to determine the number of cases and amount of time necessary to reduce errors to a baseline minimal level. RESULTS One thousand four hundred ninety-one Mohs surgery cases were required to generate 1,347 pathology specimens for review and grading over 6 months of Mohs surgery fellowship before reducing errors to a minimum acceptable level of less than 1 critical error per 100 cases read. CONCLUSIONS The number of cases and time required to reduce errors in the interpretation of Mohs histology is substantial. Direct and immediate mentored correction of errors is essential for improvement. These results can act as a guide for Mohs surgery training programs to help determine the minimum number of directly proctored cases required to obtain expertise in this crucial component of Mohs surgery. [source]