Interface

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Interface

  • abrupt interface
  • abutment interface
  • acceptor interface
  • adhesive interface
  • air interface
  • air-liquid interface
  • air-water interface
  • application programming interface
  • binding interface
  • bonded interface
  • bone interface
  • capillary interface
  • care interface
  • cell interface
  • cement interface
  • ceramic interface
  • common interface
  • complex interface
  • computer interface
  • contact interface
  • dentin interface
  • dielectric interface
  • different interface
  • dimer interface
  • domain interface
  • electrode interface
  • electrolyte interface
  • electrospray interface
  • electrospray ionization interface
  • element interface
  • fluid interface
  • gas-liquid interface
  • graphical interface
  • graphical user interface
  • host interface
  • implant interface
  • important interface
  • interaction interface
  • ionization interface
  • layer interface
  • liquid interface
  • machine interface
  • material interface
  • maternal interface
  • maternal-fetal interface
  • matrix interface
  • membrane interface
  • metal interface
  • monomer interface
  • moving interface
  • neural interface
  • new interface
  • organic interface
  • oxide interface
  • pathogen interface
  • polymer interface
  • programming interface
  • protein interface
  • reaction interface
  • resin interface
  • sapphire interface
  • sediment-water interface
  • semiconductor interface
  • sharp interface
  • smooth interface
  • soil interface
  • solid interface
  • solid-liquid interface
  • solution interface
  • substrate interface
  • subunit interface
  • tissue interface
  • trimer interface
  • twin interface
  • user interface
  • user-friendly interface
  • water interface
  • web interface

  • Terms modified by Interface

  • interface area
  • interface change
  • interface characteristic
  • interface condition
  • interface crack
  • interface damage
  • interface defect
  • interface dermatitis
  • interface effect
  • interface element
  • interface energy
  • interface engineering
  • interface interaction
  • interface layer
  • interface ltd
  • interface method
  • interface model
  • interface modification
  • interface operating
  • interface position
  • interface problem
  • interface property
  • interface quality
  • interface reaction
  • interface reconstruction
  • interface region
  • interface roughness
  • interface shape
  • interface states
  • interface structure
  • interface temperature
  • interface zone

  • Selected Abstracts


    ARCGIS-SWAT: A GEODATA MODEL AND GIS INTERFACE FOR SWAT,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 2 2006
    Francisco Olivera
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents ArcGIS-SWAT, a geodata model and geographic information system (GIS) interface for the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The ArcGIS-SWAT data model is a system of geodatabases that store SWAT geographic, numeric, and text input data and results in an organized fashion. Thus, it is proposed that a single and comprehensive geodatabase be used as the repository of a SWAT simulation. The ArcGIS-SWAT interface uses programming objects that conform to the Component Object Model (COM) design standard, which facilitate the use of functionality of other Windows-based applications within ArcGIS-SWAT. In particular, the use of MS Excel and MATLAB functionality for data analysis and visualization of results is demonstrated. Likewise, it is proposed to conduct hydrologic model integration through the sharing of information with a not-model-specific hub data model where information common to different models can be stored and from which it can be retrieved. As an example, it is demonstrated how the Hydrologic Modeling System (HMS) - a computer application for flood analysis - can use information originally developed by ArcGIS-SWAT for SWAT. The application of ArcGIS-SWAT to the Seco Creek watershed in Texas is presented. [source]


    AT THE INTERFACE BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE , POLICY TRANSFER AND LESSON-DRAWING

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, Issue 2 2006
    MARK EVANS
    AT THE INTERFACE BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE , POLICY TRANSFER AND LESSON-DRAWING Learning From Comparative Public Policy: a Practical Guide Richard Rose Routledge 2004, 147 pp., 16.99 (pb) ISBN: 0415317428 [source]


    THE PSYCHOANALYTIC METHOD AND ITS BORDERS: THE INTERFACE WITH THE OUTSIDE WORLD

    THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS, Issue 4 2002
    CLAUDIO L. EIZIRIK
    First page of article [source]


    WEPP INTERNET INTERFACES FOR FOREST EROSION PREDICTION,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 2 2004
    William J. Elliot
    ABSTRACT: The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) is a physically based erosion model for applications to dryland and irrigated agriculture, rangeland, and forests. U.S. Forest Service (USFS) experience showed that WEPP was not being adapted because of the difficulty in building files describing the input conditions in the existing interfaces. To address this difficulty, a suite of Internet interfaces with a database was developed to more easily predict soil erosion for a wide range of climatic and forest conditions, including roads, fires, and timber harvest. The database included a much larger climate database than was previously available for applications in remote forest and rangeland areas. Validation results showed reasonable agreement between erosion values reported in the literature and values predicted by the interfaces to the WEPP model. [source]


    Practical CFD Simulations on Programmable Graphics Hardware using SMAC,

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 4 2005
    Carlos E. Scheidegger
    Abstract The explosive growth in integration technology and the parallel nature of rasterization-based graphics APIs (Application Programming Interface) changed the panorama of consumer-level graphics: today, GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) are cheap, fast and ubiquitous. We show how to harness the computational power of GPUs and solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid equations significantly faster (more than one order of magnitude in average) than on CPU solvers of comparable cost. While past approaches typically used Stam's implicit solver, we use a variation of SMAC (Simplified Marker and Cell). SMAC is widely used in engineering applications, where experimental reproducibility is essential. Thus, we show that the GPU is a viable and affordable processor for scientific applications. Our solver works with general rectangular domains (possibly with obstacles), implements a variety of boundary conditions and incorporates energy transport through the traditional Boussinesq approximation. Finally, we discuss the implications of our solver in light of future GPU features, and possible extensions such as three-dimensional domains and free-boundary problems. [source]


    JOPI: a Java object-passing interface

    CONCURRENCY AND COMPUTATION: PRACTICE & EXPERIENCE, Issue 7-8 2005
    Jameela Al-Jaroodi
    Abstract Recently there has been an increasing interest in developing parallel programming capabilities in Java to harness the vast resources available in clusters, grids and heterogeneous networked systems. In this paper, we introduce a Java object-passing interface (JOPI) library. JOPI provides Java programmers with the necessary functionality to write object-passing parallel programs in distributed heterogeneous systems. JOPI provides a Message Passing Interface (MPI)-like interface that can be used to exchange objects among processes. In addition to the well-known benefits of the object-oriented development model, using objects to exchange information in JOPI is advantageous because it facilitates passing complex structures and enables the programmer to isolate the problem space from the parallelization problem. The run-time environment for JOPI is portable, efficient and provides the necessary functionality to deploy and execute parallel Java programs. Experiments were conducted on a cluster system and a collection of heterogeneous platforms to measure JOPI's performance and compare it with MPI. The results show good performance gains using JOPI. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Ibis: a flexible and efficient Java-based Grid programming environment

    CONCURRENCY AND COMPUTATION: PRACTICE & EXPERIENCE, Issue 7-8 2005
    Rob V. van Nieuwpoort
    Abstract In computational Grids, performance-hungry applications need to simultaneously tap the computational power of multiple, dynamically available sites. The crux of designing Grid programming environments stems exactly from the dynamic availability of compute cycles: Grid programming environments (a) need to be portable to run on as many sites as possible, (b) they need to be flexible to cope with different network protocols and dynamically changing groups of compute nodes, while (c) they need to provide efficient (local) communication that enables high-performance computing in the first place. Existing programming environments are either portable (Java), or flexible (Jini, Java Remote Method Invocation or (RMI)), or they are highly efficient (Message Passing Interface). No system combines all three properties that are necessary for Grid computing. In this paper, we present Ibis, a new programming environment that combines Java's ,run everywhere' portability both with flexible treatment of dynamically available networks and processor pools, and with highly efficient, object-based communication. Ibis can transfer Java objects very efficiently by combining streaming object serialization with a zero-copy protocol. Using RMI as a simple test case, we show that Ibis outperforms existing RMI implementations, achieving up to nine times higher throughputs with trees of objects. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    An analysis of VI Architecture primitives in support of parallel and distributed communication

    CONCURRENCY AND COMPUTATION: PRACTICE & EXPERIENCE, Issue 1 2002
    Andrew Begel
    Abstract We present the results of a detailed study of the Virtual Interface (VI) paradigm as a communication foundation for a distributed computing environment. Using Active Messages and the Split-C global memory model, we analyze the inherent costs of using VI primitives to implement these high-level communication abstractions. We demonstrate a minimum mapping cost (i.e. the host processing required to map one abstraction to a lower abstraction) of 5.4 ,s for both Active Messages and Split-C using four-way 550 MHz Pentium III SMPs and the Myrinet network. We break down this cost to the use of individual VI primitives in supporting flow control, buffer management and event processing and identify the completion queue as the source of the highest overhead. Bulk transfer performance plateaus at 44 Mbytes/s for both implementations are due to the addition of fragmentation requirements. Based on this analysis, we present the implications for the VI successor, Infiniband. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Bioenergetics and the epigenome: Interface between the environment and genes in common diseases

    DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES RESEARCH REVIEW, Issue 2 2010
    Douglas C. Wallace
    Abstract Extensive efforts have been directed at using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify the genes responsible for common metabolic and degenerative diseases, cancer, and aging, but with limited success. While environmental factors have been evoked to explain this conundrum, the nature of these environmental factors remains unexplained. The availability of and demands for energy constitute one of the most important aspects of the environment. The flow of energy through the cell is primarily mediated by the mitochondrion, which oxidizes reducing equivalents from hydrocarbons via acetyl-CoA, NADH + H+, and FADH2 to generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The mitochondrial genome encompasses hundreds of nuclear DNA (nDNA)-encoded genes plus 37 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded genes. Although the mtDNA has a high mutation rate, only milder, potentially adaptive mutations are introduced into the population through female oocytes. In contrast, nDNA-encoded bioenergetic genes have a low mutation rate. However, their expression is modulated by histone phosphorylation and acetylation using mitochondrially-generated ATP and acetyl-CoA, which permits increased gene expression, growth, and reproduction when calories are abundant. Phosphorylation, acetylaton, and cellular redox state also regulate most signal transduction pathways and activities of multiple transcription factors. Thus, mtDNA mutations provide heritable and stable adaptation to regional differences while mitochondrially-mediated changes in the epigenome permit reversible modulation of gene expression in response to fluctuations in the energy environment. The most common genomic changes that interface with the environment and cause complex disease must, therefore, be mitochondrial and epigenomic in origin. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2010;16:114,119. [source]


    Facilitated Transfer of Alkali Metal Ions by a Tetraester Derivative of Thiacalix[4]arene at the Liquid,Liquid Interface

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 12 2008
    Akgemci, Emine Guler
    Abstract The facilitated transfer of alkali metal ions (Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+) by 25,26,27,28-tetraethoxycarbonylmethoxy-thiacalix[4]arene across the water/1,2-dichloroethane interface was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The dependence of the half-wave transfer potential on the metal and ligand concentrations was used to formulate the stoichiometric ratio and to evaluate the association constants of the complexes formed between ionophore and metal ions. While the facilitated transfer of Li+ ion was not observed across the water/1,2-dichloroethane interface, the facilitated transfers were observed by formation of 1,:,1 (metal:ionophore) complex for Na+, K+, and Rb+ ions except for Cs+ ion. In the case of Cs+ a 1,:,2 (metal:ionophore) complex was obtained from its special electrochemical response to the variation of ligand concentrations in the organic phase. The logarithms of the complex association constants, for facilitated transfer of Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+, were estimated as 6.52, 7.75, 7.91 (log ,1), and 8.36 (log ,2), respectively. [source]


    Electrochemical Investigation of Heavy Metal Ion Transfer Across the Water/1,2-Dichloroethane Interface Assisted by 9-Ethyl-3-Carbazolecarboxaldehyde-Thiosemicarbazone

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 12 2007
    Haluk Bingol
    Abstract The transfer of heavy metal ions across the polarized water/1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) interface assisted by 9-ethyl-3-carbazolecarboxaldehyde-thiosemicarbazone (ECCAT) in the 1,2-DCE phase has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. Voltammetric waves of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were reversible and quasi-reversible, respectively, whereas that of Hg(II) and Zn(II) ion were irreversible. The voltammogram of Cu(II) ion showed a two-step wave, however the nature of the transfer could not be satisfactorily evaluated by analyzing the cyclic voltammetric data. When Ni(II) and Co(II) was used no peak was visible under the experimental conditions used in this study. The dependence of the half-wave potentials of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions on the ligand concentration reveals that their ion-transfer is assisted by the formation of 1:3 metal-ECCAT complex in 1,2-DCE. The over-all association constants of [Pb(ECCAT)3]2+ and [Cd(ECCAT)3]2+ complexes in DCE-phase have been determined to be log ,=14.03 and log ,=15.44, respectively. [source]


    Rigid Bisphenanthrolines: Synthesis, Structure and Self-Assembly at a Solid,Liquid Interface,

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 14 2006
    Michael Schmittel
    Abstract Several rigid linear bisphenanthrolines with and without bulky groups at the bisimine sites were synthesized. For three representatives, the solid-state structures were elucidated. Their potential for self-assembled monolayers was explored by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at the solid,liquid interface, and the resulting architectures were found to be promising candidates for templating metal-ion nanopatterns. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]


    The Dialoguer: An Interactive Bilingual Interface to a Network Operating System

    EXPERT SYSTEMS, Issue 3 2001
    Emad Al-Shawakfa
    We have developed a bilingual interface to the Novell network operating system, called the Dialoguer. This system carries on a conversation with the user in Arabic or English or a combination of the two and attempts to help the user use the Novell network operating system. Learning to use an operating system is a major barrier in starting to use computers. There is no single standard for operating systems which makes it difficult for novice users to learn a new operating system. With the proliferation of client,server environments, users will eventually end up using one network operating system or another. These problems motivated our choice of an area to work in and they have made it easy to find real users to test our system. This system is both an expert system and a natural language interface. The system embodies expert knowledge of the operating system commands and of a large variety of plans that the user may want to carry out. The system also contains a natural language understanding component and a response generation component. The Dialoguer makes extensive use of case frame tables in both components. Algorithms for handling a bilingual dialogue are one of the important contributions of this paper along with the Arabic case frames. [source]


    Stable Inverted Polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells Using a Cationic Polythiophene Modified PEDOT:PSS Cathodic Interface

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 15 2010
    David A. Rider
    Abstract A cationic and water-soluble polythiophene [poly[3-(6-pyridiniumylhexyl)thiophene bromide] (P3PHT+Br,)] is synthesized and used in combination with anionic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(p -styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), to produce hybrid coatings on indium tin oxide (ITO). Two coating strategies are established: i) electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly with colloidal suspensions of (PEDOT:PSS),, and ii) modification of an electrochemically prepared (PEDOT:PSS), film on ITO. The coatings are found to modify the work function of ITO such that it could act as a cathode in inverted 2,5-diyl-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) polymer photovoltaic cells. The interfacial modifier created from the layer-by-layer assembly route is used to produce efficient inverted organic photovoltaic devices (power conversion efficiency ,2%) with significant long-term stability in excess of 500,h. [source]


    Crossing an Interface: Ferroelectric Control of Tunnel Currents in Magnetic Complex Oxide Heterostructures

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 15 2010
    Michael Hambe
    Abstract Experimental results on entirely complex oxide ferromagnetic/ferroelectric/ferromagnetic tunnel junctions are presented in which the tunneling magnetoresistance is modified by applying low electric field pulses to the junctions. The experiments indicate that ionic displacements associated with the polarization reversal in the ferroelectric barrier affect the complex band structure at ferromagnetic,ferroelectric interfaces. The results are discussed in the framework of the theoretically predicted magnetoelectric interface effect and may lead to novel multistate memory devices. [source]


    Conjugated Polymers: Enhanced Charge Transportation in Semiconducting Polymer/Insulating Polymer Composites: The Role of an Interpenetrating Bulk Interface (Adv. Funct.

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 11 2010
    Mater.
    By taking advantage of two-phase interface engineering in three dimensions, X. Yang and co-workers demonstrate on page 1714 the substantially improved (instead of decreased) electrical properties of conjugated polymer/insulating polymer composites. This novel approach paves the way for preparing high-performance semiconducting polymer composites with reduced cost, improved mechanical properties, and environmental stability. [source]


    Enhanced Charge Transportation in Semiconducting Polymer/Insulating Polymer Composites: The Role of an Interpenetrating Bulk Interface

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 11 2010
    Guanghao Lu
    Abstract The charge transportation in poly(3-butylthiophene) (P3BT)/insulating polymer composites is studied both microscopically and macroscopically. The increased mobility of free charge carriers, in particular hole mobility, contributes to the enhanced electrical conductivity of this semiconductor/insulator composite. The conductivity origin of the composite, as revealed by conductive-atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), comes mainly from the P3BT network, whose carrier mobility has been improved as a result of reduced activation energy for charge transportation upon forming an interface with the insulating matrix. Both the huge interfacial area and interconnected conductive component are morphologically required for the enhanced electrical property of the composite. An increased size of the P3BT domains, which correspondingly reduces the interfacial area between the two components, ruins the enhancement. This study clarifies the mechanism of the higher electrical properties achieved in a semiconducting polymer upon blending with an insulating polymer, which will further promote the development of these low-cost, easily processable, and environmentally stable composites. [source]


    Ordering of Disordered Nanowires: Spontaneous Formation of Highly Aligned, Ultralong Ag Nanowire Films at Oil,Water,Air Interface

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 6 2010
    Hong-Yan Shi
    Abstract One-dimensional nanomaterials and their assemblies attract considerable scientific interest in the physical, chemical, and biological fields because of their potential applications in electronic and optical devices. The interface-assembly method has become an important route for the self-assembly of nanoparticles, nanosheets, nanotubes, and nanorods, but the self-assembly of ultralong nanowires has only been successful using the Langmuir,Blodgett approach. A novel approach for the spontaneous formation of highly aligned, ultralong Ag nanowire films at the oil,water,air interface is described. In this approach, the three-phase interface directs the movement and self-assembly process of the ultralong Ag nanowires without the effect of an external force or complex apparatus. The ordered films exhibit intrinsic large electromagnetic fields that are localized in the interstitials between adjacent nanowires. This new three-phase-interface approach is proven to be a general route that can be extended to self-assemble other ultralong nanowires and produce ordered films. [source]


    A Reusable Interface Constructed by 3-Aminophenylboronic Acid-Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Cell Capture, Release, and Cytosensing

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 6 2010
    Xue Zhong
    Abstract A newly developed electrochemical cell sensor for the determination of K562 leukemia cells using 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA)-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) films is demonstrated. The films are generated by the covalent coupling between the NH2 groups in APBA and the COOH group in the acid-oxidized MWCNTs. As a result of the sugar-specific affinity interactions, the K562 leukemia cells are firmly bound to the APBA-functionalized MWCNTs film via boronic acid groups. Compared to electropolymerized APBA films, the presence of MWCNTs not only provides abundant boronic acid domains for cell capture, their high electrical conductivity also makes the film suitable for electrochemical sensing applications. The resulting modified electrodes are tested as cell detection sensors. This work presents a promising platform for effective cell capture and constructing reusable cytosensors. [source]


    Impact of Ground-State Charge Transfer and Polarization Energy Change on Energy Band Offsets at Donor/Acceptor Interface in Organic Photovoltaics

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 5 2010
    Kouki Akaike
    Abstract The fullerene (C60)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) interface is one of the widely used donor/acceptor (DA) interfaces for organic photovoltaics (OPVs), and information on the electronic structure at the interface is essential for fully understanding the energetics of excitons and carriers in OPVs. Here, an investigation into the energy levels at the C60/CuPc interface is made using UV photoelectron, X-ray photoelectron, and inverse photoemission spectroscopies. The vacuum level and core levels rise with C60 deposition on the CuPc film, which indicates that the interfacial dipole is formed with the negative charge on the C60 side. The interfacial dipole can be formed by the electron transfer from CuPc to C60 in the ground state at the interface, which is indicated by the analysis of the UV,vis,NIR absorption spectrum of the CuPc/C60 blended film. On the other hand, the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of CuPc and C60 shift in opposite directions at the interface. This is attributed to the changes of the polarization energies of CuPc and C60 at the interface. The formation of the interfacial dipole and the change of the polarization energy result in the anomalous energy band offsets at the C60/CuPc interface, which are entirely different from those in inorganic p,n junctions. [source]


    Cell,Material Interfaces: Capillary Force Lithography: A Versatile Tool for Structured Biomaterials Interface Towards Cell and Tissue Engineering (Adv. Funct.

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 17 2009
    Mater.
    An in-depth overview of the recently developed molding technology termed capillary force lithography (CFL) is presented by K.-Y. Suh et al. on page 2699, with particular emphasis on control of the properties of the cellular microenvironment, such as cell,protein, cell,cell, and cell,topography interactions. The cover image demonstrates that the adhesion and growth of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts is extremely sensitive to multi-scale, hierarchical structures, with the cells elongated along the nanoscale bridges. [source]


    Capillary Force Lithography: A Versatile Tool for Structured Biomaterials Interface Towards Cell and Tissue Engineering,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 17 2009
    Kahp-Yang Suh
    Abstract This Feature Article aims to provide an in-depth overview of the recently developed molding technologies termed capillary force lithography (CFL) that can be used to control the cellular microenvironment towards cell and tissue engineering. Patterned polymer films provide a fertile ground for controlling various aspects of the cellular microenvironment such as cell,substrate and cell,cell interactions at the micro- and nanoscale. Patterning thin polymer films by molding typically involves several physical forces such as capillary, hydrostatic, and dispersion forces. If these forces are precisely controlled, the polymer films can be molded into the features of a polymeric mold with high pattern fidelity and physical integrity. The patterns can be made either with the substrate surface clearly exposed or unexposed depending on the pattern size and material properties used in the patterning. The former (exposed substrate) can be used to adhere proteins or cells on pre-defined locations of a substrate or within a microfluidic channel using an adhesion-repelling polymer such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based polymer and hyaluronic acid (HA). Also, the patterns can be used to co-culture different cells types with molding-assisted layer-by-layer deposition. In comparison, the latter (unexposed substrate) can be used to control the biophysical surrounding of a cell with tailored mechanical properties of the material. The surface micropatterns can be used to engineer cellular and multi-cellular architecture, resulting in changes of the cell shape and the cytoskeletal structures. Also, the nanoscale patterns can be used to affect various aspects of the cellular behavior, such as adhesion, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. [source]


    How Interface innovates with suppliers to create sustainability solutions

    GLOBAL BUSINESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL EXCELLENCE, Issue 6 2009
    Eric Nelson
    Becoming a sustainable and restorative company can mean rethinking the basic components of your products. This leading carpet manufacturer's innovations, including those developed in collaboration with key suppliers, have changed the industry and moved the company closer to its sustainability goals. The author explains the company's seven areas of sustainability focus, and the role innovation plays in reducing its negative impact on the environment. He then describes Interface's approach for building supplier commitment and participation in these goals, and examines the firm's partnership with Universal Fibers, which led to the first commercially viable processes for incorporating postindustrial and postconsumer nylon in carpet facing and for salvaging old carpet from end-of-life disposal and recycling it into materials for new carpet production. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    A Numerical Model and Spreadsheet Interface for Pumping Test Analysis

    GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2001
    Gary S. Johnson
    Curve-matching techniques have been the standard method of aquifer test analysis for several decades. A variety of techniques provide the capability of evaluating test data from confined, unconfined, leaky aquitard, and other conditions. Each technique, however, is accompanied by a set of assumptions, and evaluation of a combination of conditions can be complicated or impossible due to intractable mathematics or nonuniqueness of the solution. Numerical modeling of pumping tests provides two major advantages: (1) the user can choose which properties to calibrate and what assumptions to make; and (2) in the calibration process the user is gaining insights into the conceptual model of the flow system and uncertainties in the analysis. Routine numerical modeling of pumping tests is now practical due to computer hardware and software advances of the last decade. The RADFLOW model and spreadsheet interface presented in this paper is an easy-to-use numerical model for estimation of aquifer properties from pumping test data. Layered conceptual models and their properties are evaluated in a trial-and-error estimation procedure. The RADFLOW model can treat most combinations of confined, unconfined, leaky aquitard, partial penetration, and borehole storage conditions. RADFLOW is especially useful in stratified aquifer systems with no identifiable lateral boundaries. It has been verified to several analytical solutions and has been applied in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to develop and test conceptual models and provide estimates of aquifer properties. Because the model assumes axially symmetrical flow, it is limited to representing multiple aquifer layers that are laterally continuous. [source]


    Depletion of PCBM at the Cathode Interface in P3HT/PCBM Thin Films as Quantified via Neutron Reflectivity Measurements

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 22 2010
    Andrew J. Parnell
    Using neutron reflectivity, self-stratification in a model P3HT/PCBM blend is observed. The as-spun and solvent-annealed films show a depletion of PCBM near the top surface and enrichment of PCBM at the substrate (see figure). Depletion of PCBM at the cathode interface in a photovoltaic device could act as a barrier to efficient electron extraction. On thermal annealing, the PCBM depleted region is eliminated; an effect that partially explains the improvement of P3HT/PCBM devices on thermal annealing. [source]


    Near-Bulk Conductivity of Gold Nanowires as Nanoscale Interconnects and the Role of Atomically Smooth Interface

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 21 2010
    Kevin Critchley
    Atomically smooth gold nanowires with high aspect ratios are grown using the seeded growth process. This allows control of the diameter of the nanowires to a high degree of precision. Two and four-probe nanoscale transport measurements reveal that the nanowires have low resistivity. Only a small increase in resistivity is observed between diameters of 29,nm and 185,nm suggesting that surface scattering is only a small contribution. [source]


    Supramolecular Crystal Engineering at the Solid,Liquid Interface from First Principles: Toward Unraveling the Thermodynamics of 2D Self-Assembly

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 13 2009
    Carlos-Andres Palma
    Abstract The formation of highly ordered 2D supramolecular architectures self-assembled at the solid,solution interfaces is subject to complex interactions between the analytes, the solvent, and the substrate. These forces have to be mastered in order to regard self-assembly as an effective bottom-up approach for functional-device engineering. At such interfaces, prediction of the thermodynamics governing the formation of spatially ordered 2D arrangements is far from being fully understood, even for the physisorption of a single molecular component on the basal plane of a flat surface. Two recent contributions on controlled polymorphism and nanopattern formation render it possible to gain semi-quantitative insight into the thermodynamics of physisorption at interfaces, paving the way towards 2D supramolecular crystal engineering. Although in these two works different systems have been chosen to tackle such a complex task, authors showed that the chemical design of molecular building blocks is not the only requirement to fulfill when trying to preprogram self-assembled patterns at the solid,liquid interface. [source]


    Molecular Tectonics at the Solid/Liquid Interface: Controlling the Nanoscale Geometry, Directionality, and Packing of 1D Coordination Networks on Graphite Surfaces

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 10-11 2009
    Artur Ciesielski
    Supramolecular arrays composed of 1-D coordination networks on surfaces, with nanoscale control over both the geometry and the directionality, are achieved through the design and combination of organic tectons with metal complexes (CoCl2) or metal centers (Pd(BF4)2). Scanning tunneling microscope at the solid/liquid interface allows the visualization of long and shape-persistent arrays, with either linear or zig-zag geometries. [source]


    Superoleophobic Surfaces: Bioinspired Design of a Superoleophobic and Low Adhesive Water/Solid Interface (Adv. Mater.

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 6 2009
    6/2009)
    The inside cover shows a bionic strategy to create a low-adhesive and superoleophobic interface via the oil/water/solid three-phase system, which was inspired by the antiwetting behavior of the oil droplets on the fish scales in water, as reported by Lei Jiang and co-workers on p.665. Such antiwetting behavior provides an insight into why many seabirds but few fish are killed when oil tanker spills occur. [source]


    Bioinspired Design of a Superoleophobic and Low Adhesive Water/Solid Interface,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 6 2009
    Mingjie Liu
    The wetting/antiwetting behavior of liquid droplets on a solid surface is not an apparent or simple contact between two phases, but among three phases. Inspired by the antiwetting behavior of oil droplets on fish scales in water, a superoleophobic and low-adhesive interface is created on a solid substrate with micro/nanohierarchical structures, using oil/water/solid three-phase systems. [source]