Interdisciplinary Collaboration (interdisciplinary + collaboration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Interdisciplinary Collaboration: A Study in Progress

Carol Boswell R.N., Ed.D.
A multidisciplinary, multi-institutional collaborative effort was initiated to address the perspectives of health care literacy in an urban/rural area of west Texas. This article presents the mechanisms utilized in the development and implementation of this collaborative process. Individuals within multiple institutions realized the importance of working together to address health care issues. As a result of this consortium development, an initial endeavor addressing health care literacy and functional health status was initiated. The development of the consortium and the project is presented in this article to provide a model for consortium development applicable to other professions. [source]

Interdisciplinary collaboration and academic work: A case study of a university-community partnership

Marilyn J. Amey
The authors propose a model of the stages of interdisciplinary collaboration grounded in their experiences as external evaluators of a university-community partnership. [source]

Building a Simulation-based Crisis Resource Management Course for Emergency Medicine, Phase 1: Results from an Interdisciplinary Needs Assessment Survey

Christopher M. Hicks BSc
Abstract Introduction:, Emergency department (ED) resuscitation requires the coordinated efforts of an interdisciplinary team. Human errors are common and have a negative impact on patient safety. Although crisis resource management (CRM) skills are utilized in other clinical domains, most emergency medicine (EM) caregivers currently receive no formal CRM training. Objectives:, The objectives were to compile and compare attitudes toward CRM training among EM staff physicians, nurses, and residents at two Canadian academic teaching hospitals. Methods:, Emergency physicians (EPs), residents, and nurses were asked to complete a Web survey that included Likert scales and short answer questions. Focus groups and pilot testing were used to inform survey development. Thematic content analysis was performed on the qualitative data set and compared to quantitative results. Results:, The response rate was 75.7% (N = 84). There was strong consensus regarding the importance of core CRM principles (i.e., effective communication, team leadership, resource utilization, problem-solving, situational awareness) in ED resuscitation. Problems with coordinating team actions (58.8%), communication (69.6%), and establishing priorities (41.3%) were among factors implicated in adverse events. Interdisciplinary collaboration (95.1%), efficiency of patient care (83.9%), and decreased medical error (82.6%) were proposed benefits of CRM training. Communication between disciplines is a barrier to effective ED resuscitation for 94.4% of nurses and 59.7% of EPs (p = 0.008). Residents reported a lack of exposure to (64.3%), yet had interest in (96.4%) formal CRM education using human patient simulation. Conclusions:, Nurses rate communication as a barrier to teamwork more frequently than physicians. EM residents are keen to learn CRM skills. An opportunity exists to create a novel interdisciplinary CRM curriculum to improve EM team performance and mitigate human error. [source]

Learning to Work in Teams

Christopher Vice Chairman
The concept of design as interdisciplinary collaboration is an easy sell. Putting it into practice is another matter. A diverse group of people can simultaneously work on the same problem, but that can be quite different from working together. In a university setting, Christopher Vice shares the tactics and strategies he finds stimulate creative options and nurture the cooperative development and implementation of outcomes. [source]

Integrating intelligent systems into marketing to support market segmentation decisions

Sally MckechnieArticle first published online: 13 MAR 200
For the last 50 years market segmentation has been considered to be a key concept in marketing strategy. As a means of tackling market heterogeneity, the underlying logic and managerial rationale for market segmentation is well established in the marketing literature. However, there is evidence to suggest that attempts by organizations to classify customers into distinct segments for whom product or services can be specifically tailored are proving to be difficult to implement in practice. As the business environment in which many organizations operate becomes increasingly uncertain and highly competitive, greater importance is now being attached to marketing knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to highlight market segmentation problems as a relevant area for a greater level of engagement of intelligent systems academic researchers and practitioners with their counterparts within the marketing discipline, in order to explore how data mining approaches can assist marketers in gaining valuable insights into patterns of consumer behaviour, which can then be used to inform market segmentation decision-making. Since the application of data mining within the marketing domain is only in its infancy, a research agenda is proposed to encourage greater interdisciplinary collaboration between information systems and marketing so that data mining can more noticeably enter the repertoire of analytical techniques being employed for segmentation. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Schnitzler syndrome: Chronic urticaria and monoclonal gammopathy , an autoinflammatory syndrome?

Elisabeth Eiling
Summary Schnitzler syndrome describes the simultaneous occurrence of monoclonal gammopathy and chronic urticaria with at least two additional minor symptoms (arthralgia, bone pain, fever of uncertain origin, hepato- or splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukocytosis/thrombocytosis or increased bone density). Schnitzler syndrome is not wellknown and very likely under-recognized. Comprehensive diagnostic examinations are necessary to rule out other diseases, especially those of hematologic origin. Close interdisciplinary collaboration is mandatory. The etiology of Schnitzler syndrome is unclear, but the rapid response to the interleukin-1 receptor inhibitor anakinra underlines the pivotal role which the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 may play in the pathophysiology of this potentially autoinflammatory disorder. [source]

The ecological research needs of business

Paul R. Armsworth
Summary 1.,Businesses have an unrivalled ability to mobilize human, physical and financial capital, often manage large land holdings, and draw on resources and supply products that impact a wide array of ecosystems. Businesses therefore have the potential to make a substantial contribution to arresting declines in biodiversity and ecosystem services. To realize this potential, businesses require support from researchers in applied ecology to inform how they measure and manage their impacts on, and opportunities presented to them by, biodiversity and ecosystem services. 2.,We reviewed papers in leading applied ecology journals to assess the research contribution from existing collaborations involving businesses. We reviewed applications to, and grants funded by, the UK's Natural Environment Research Council for evidence of public investment in such collaborations. To scope opportunities for expanding collaborations with businesses, we conducted workshops with three sectors (mining and quarrying, insurance and manufacturing) in which participants identified exemplar ecological research questions of interest to their sector. 3.,Ten to fifteen per cent of primary research papers in Journal of Applied Ecology and Ecological Applications evidenced business involvement, mostly focusing on traditional rural industries (farming, fisheries and forestry). The review of UK research council funding found that 35% of applications mentioned business engagement, while only 1% of awarded grants met stricter criteria of direct business involvement. 4.,Some questions identified in the workshops aim to reduce costs from businesses' impacts on the environment and others to allow businesses to exploit new opportunities. Some questions are designed to inform long-term planning undertaken by businesses, but others would have more immediate commercial applications. Finally, some research questions are designed to streamline and make more effective those environmental policies that affect businesses. 5.,Business participants were forward-looking regarding ecological questions and research. For example, representatives from mining and quarrying companies emphasized the need to move beyond biodiversity to consider how ecosystems function, while those from the insurance sector stressed the importance of ecology researchers entering into new types of interdisciplinary collaboration. 6.,Synthesis and applications. Businesses from a variety of sectors demonstrated a clear interest in managing their impacts on, and exploiting opportunities created by, ecosystem services and biodiversity. To achieve this, businesses are asking diverse ecological research questions, but publications in leading applied ecology journals and research council funding reveal limited evidence of direct engagement with businesses. This represents a missed opportunity for ecological research findings to see more widespread application. [source]

Contrasting approaches to statistical regression in ecology and economics

P. R. Armsworth
Summary 1Conservation and natural resource management challenges are as much social problems as biological ones. In recognition of this fact, ecologists and economists work increasingly closely together. We discuss one barrier to effective integration of the two disciplines: put simply, many ecologists and economists approach statistical regression differently. 2Regression techniques provide the most commonly used approach for empirical analyses of land management decisions. Researchers from each discipline attribute differing importance to a range of possibly conflicting design criteria when formulating regression analyses. 3Ecologists commonly attribute greater importance to spatial autocorrelation and parsimony than do economists when designing regressions. Economists often attribute greater importance than ecologists to concerns about endogeneity and conformance with a priori theoretical expectations. 4Synthesis and applications. The differing importance attributed to different design characteristics may reflect a process of cultural drift within each discipline. Greater interdisciplinary collaboration can counteract this process by stimulating the flow of ideas and techniques across disciplinary boundaries. [source]

Impact of clinical leadership development on the clinical leader, nursing team and care-giving process: a case study

Aim, This study explored the dynamics related to a leadership development programme and their impact on the clinical leader, the nursing team and the care-giving process. Background, While there is a growing conviction about the need to invest in transformational leadership in nursing, further insight into the true complexity of leadership development and, more specifically, how leadership can make a difference in nursing and patient outcomes is essential. Method, A single instrumental case study was conducted in a unit of a large academic hospital where a Clinical Leadership development Project (CLP) was implemented successfully. We used mixed methods with multiple sources of data to capture the complexity of leadership development. Data were collected through individual interviews, focus groups and observation of participants. A purposive sample of 17 participants representing a wide variety of team members has permitted data saturation. The data were categorized and conceptualized and finally organized into a framework describing leadership development on the unit and its impact on the leader, the nursing team and the care-giving process. Results, Leadership development is an ongoing, interactive process between the clinical leader and the co-workers. The head nurse became more effective in areas of self-awareness, communication skills, performance and vision. The nursing team benefited because more effective leadership promoted effective communication, greater responsibility, empowerment and job clarity. Improved clinical leadership seemed also to influence patient-centred communication, continuity of care and interdisciplinary collaboration. Conclusions, The results of the study give more insight into the processes underlying the leader's progress towards attaining a transformational leadership style and its impact on the team members. The impact of leadership on the care-giving process, however, remains difficult to describe. Implications for nursing management, The interactive nature of leadership development makes CLP a challenge for the leader as well for the team members. Through its impact on the leader and the nursing team, CLP is a valuable instrument for improving work environments of nurses, contributing positively to patient-centred care. [source]


David M. Freeman
ABSTRACT: Water policy problems are wicked, not in an ethically deplorable sense, but in the sense that they present us with especially difficult challenges of becoming more effective in our interdisciplinary collaboration, of integrating two very different types of knowledge, of working across several socio-political units of analysis simultaneously, and of better organizing water as a common property resource. Sociology, as a discipline, does not have a particularly rich history of successful interdisciplinary collaboration on water resources research and teaching, but it potentially has a most useful contribution to make by focusing on the analysis of local common property resource organizations that operate in the interface between individual resource users and State-Federal entities. These organizations (e.g., water user associations, mutual companies, irrigation districts, acequias, conservancy districts) have been the orphans of water policy discourse but their operations are critical to undertaking more effective 21st century social analysis, research work, and action programs. Sociologists who work to better comprehend the operations of, and constraints upon, these organizations build a sociology that can better collaborate with other water-related disciplines in addressing the challenges posed by the wickedness of our water problems. [source]

Student-Run Health Clinic: Novel Arena to Educate Medical Students on Systems-Based Practice

Yasmin S. Meah MD
Abstract In recent decades, the United States has experienced substantial growth in the number of student-run clinics for the indigent. Today, over 49 medical schools across the country operate over 110 student-run outreach clinics that provide primary care services to the poor and uninsured. Despite this development, little research has been published on the educational value of such student-led endeavors. Although much has been surmised, no general methodology for categorizing the learning experience in these clinics has been established. This article represents the first literature review of the novel method of educating students through the operation of a clinic for the underserved. It highlights the student-run clinic as a unique enhancement of medical education that may supplant current curricular arenas in teaching students about systems-based practice principles such as cost containment and financing, resource allocation, interdisciplinary collaboration, patient advocacy, and monitoring and delivery of quality care. The novelty of the student-run clinic is that students place themselves at the forefront of problem solving and system navigation to effectively care for severely disadvantaged populations. This article underscores the student-run clinic as a potentially ideal experiential learning method for preparing young physicians to confront a US healthcare system currently facing crises in cost, quality of care, and high rates of uninsurance. The article stresses the need for outcomes research on the long-term effectiveness of the student-run clinic experience in affecting medical student practice behaviors and attitudes in patient care settings that extend beyond the student-run clinic. Mt Sinai J Med 76:344,356, 2009. © 2008 Mount Sinai School of Medicine [source]

Interdisciplinary collaboration and academic work: A case study of a university-community partnership

Marilyn J. Amey
The authors propose a model of the stages of interdisciplinary collaboration grounded in their experiences as external evaluators of a university-community partnership. [source]

The Public Health Nurse and the Emotions of Pregnancy

Kent A. Zimmerman
ABSTRACT The excerpts taken from this historical article by Kent Zimmerman, M.D., a mental health consultant to the California State Department of Health, provide insight about the role of public health nurses in working with pregnant women. Dr. Zimmerman, an expert in the field of the psychological problems of pregnancy and early childhood, was a part of an international group of psychiatric dignitaries who met in 1952 in France at a conference examining the state of psychological knowledge and care of children (Soddy, 1999). In this paper, the psychiatrist addresses the need for education and support in providing mental health services to clients in public health venues, a theme he reiterated in 1952. In this piece, he argued that staff nurses in public health agencies be trained in basics of psychiatry and that specialists be hired to serve as permanent consultants to public health workers to help with the most challenging nurse-client interactions, and with the emotions that accompany difficult interpersonal work. While knowledge has developed a great deal since the publication of this article in February 1947 in Public Health Nursing, readers may be surprised to see that interdisciplinary collaboration and teamwork were ideals more than 50 years ago. [source]

The objects of evidence

Matthew Engelke
By and large, anthropology's reflections on the concept of evidence have been couched within other discussions , on truth, knowledge, and related concerns. This essay, which introduces the special issue, makes the case that evidence deserves more considered attention in its own right. Drawing on the small but growing body of literature in social and cultural anthropology that does address questions of evidence, I situate the articles here in relation to several anthropological conversations, suggesting in the process how an exploration of evidence can shed light on three key issues: anthropology's standards of judgement, the potentials within interdisciplinary collaboration, and the benefits of a public anthropology. Résumé De manière générale, les réflexions de l'anthropologie sur le concept de preuve ont été imbriquées dans d'autres discussions concernant la vérité, la connaissance et d'autres questions connexes. En ouverture de ce numéro spécial, le présent essai avance que la preuve mériterait une attention plus spécifique pour elle-même. À partir d'un corpus restreint mais grandissant d'études en anthropologie culturelle et sociale consacrées à la question de la preuve, l'auteur situe les articles réunis ici par rapport à plusieurs conversations anthropologiques, en suggérant comment une exploration de la preuve peut faire la lumière sur trois grandes questions : les critères de jugement de l'anthropologie, les possibilités offertes par une collaboration interdisciplinaire et les avantages d'une anthropologie publique. [source]

The challenge of interdisciplinary collaboration in acute psychiatry: Impacts on the occupational milieu

Tracy Fortune
This paper, based on a larger ethnographic exploration of the acute inpatient environment for older people with mental illness, describes and provides interpretations of staff perceptions and actions in order to highlight tensions between professional groups which adversely affect opportunities for patients to engage in meaningful occupations. Fieldwork conducted in 1999,2000, supplemented by 20 in-depth interviews with a range of mental health professionals, provides the foundation for suggesting that the extent and nature of occupational engagement is significantly impacted by interdisciplinary relations. The skill of occupational therapists to collaborate with their nursing colleagues in a socially complex environment, and the importance of personal leadership skills among our new graduates are discussed. [source]

Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links

Kevin D. Lafferty
Abstract Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists. [source]

The Cross-linguistic Study of Sentence Production

T. Florian Jaeger
The mechanisms underlying language production are often assumed to be universal, and hence not contingent on a speaker's language. This assumption is problematic for at least two reasons. Given the typological diversity of the world's languages, only a small subset of languages has actually been studied psycholinguistically. And, in some cases, these investigations have returned results that at least superficially raise doubt about the assumption of universal production mechanisms. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the need for more psycholinguistic work on a typologically more diverse set of languages. We summarize cross-linguistic work on sentence production (specifically: grammatical encoding), focusing on examples where such work has improved our theoretical understanding beyond what studies on English alone could have achieved. But cross-linguistic research has much to offer beyond the testing of existing hypotheses: it can guide the development of theories by revealing the full extent of the human ability to produce language structures. We discuss the potential for interdisciplinary collaborations, and close with a remark on the impact of language endangerment on psycholinguistic research on understudied languages. [source]

An illustrated gardener's guide to transgenic Arabidopsis field experiments

Martin Frenkel
Summary ,,Field studies with transgenic Arabidopsis lines have been performed over 8 yr, to better understand the influence that certain genes have on plant performance. Many (if not most) plant phenotypes cannot be observed under the near constant, low-stress conditions in growth chambers, making field experiments necessary. However, there are challenges in performing such experiments: permission must be obtained and regulations obeyed, the profound influence of uncontrollable biotic and abiotic factors has to be considered, and experimental design has to be strictly controlled. ,,The aim here is to provide inspiration and guidelines for researchers who are not used to setting up such experiments, allowing others to learn from our mistakes. ,, This is believed to be the first example of a ,manual' for field experiments with transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Many of the challenges encountered are common for all field experiments, and many researchers from ecological backgrounds are skilled in such methods. ,,There is huge potential in combining the detailed mechanistic understanding of molecular biologists with ecologists' expertise in examining plant performance under field conditions, and it is suggested that more interdisciplinary collaborations will open up new scientific avenues to aid analyses of the roles of genetic and physiological variation in natural systems. [source]