Intensive Care Unit Stay (intensive + care_unit_stay)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Serum concentrations of high-mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 before and after exposure to the surgical stress of thoracic esophagectomy: a predictor of clinical course after surgery?

K. Suda
SUMMARY., High-mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) has recently been shown as an important late mediator of endotoxin shock, intra-abdominal sepsis, and acute lung injury. However, its role in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome after major surgical stress, which may lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, has not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesized that serum HMGB-1 participates in the pathogenesis of postoperative organ system dysfunction after exposure to major surgical stress. A prospective clinical study was performed to consecutive patients (n = 24) with carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three field lymph node resection between 1998 and 2003 at Keio University Hospital, Japan. Serum HMGB-1 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preoperative serum HMGB-1 levels correlated with postoperative duration of SIRS, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit stay. Three of the 24 patients had serious postoperative complications: sepsis in two, and acute lung injury in one. Serum HMGB-1 levels in patients without complications increased within the first 24 h postoperatively, remained high during postoperative days 2,3, and then decreased gradually by postoperative day 7. In patients with serious complications, serum HMGB-1 was significantly higher than that found in patients without postoperative complications at every time point except postoperative day 2. Preoperative serum HMGB-1 concentration seems to be an important predictor of the postoperative clinical course. Transthoracic esophagectomy induces an increase in HMGB-1 in serum even in patients without complications. Postoperative serum HMGB-1 concentrations were higher in patients who developed complications, and may be a predictive marker for complications in this setting. [source]

Prophylactic steroids for paediatric open-heart surgery: a systematic review

Suzi Robertson-Malt BHSc PhD
Background, The immune response to cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children can lead to a series of post-operative morbidities and mortality, that is, hemodynamic instability, increased infection and tachyarrhythmias. Administration of prophylactic doses of corticosteroids is sometimes used to try and ameliorate this pro-inflammatory response. However, the clinical benefits and harms of this type of intervention in the paediatric patient remain unclear. Objectives, To systematically review the beneficial and harmful effects of the prophylactic administration of corticosteroids, compared with placebo, in paediatric open-heart surgery. Search strategy, The trials registry of the Cochrane Heart Group, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2006), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2007), EMBASE (1980 to January 2007) were searched. An additional hand-search of the EMRO database for Arabic literature was performed. Grey literature was searched, and experts in the field were contacted for any unpublished material. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria, All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of open-heart surgery in the paediatric population that received corticosteroids pre-, peri- or post-operatively, with reported clinical outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality. Data collection and analysis, Eligible studies were abstracted and evaluated by two independent reviewers. All meta-analyses were completed using RevMan4.2.8. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was the primary summary statistic with data pooled using a random-effects model. Main results, All cause mortality could not be assessed as the data reports were incomplete. There was weak evidence in favour of prophylactic corticosteroid administration for reducing intensive care unit stay, peak core temperature and duration of ventilation (WMD (95% confidence intervals) ,0.50 h (,1.41 to 0.41); ,0.20C (,1.16 to 0.77) and ,0.63 h (,4.02 to 2.75) respectively). [source]

Effects of Minimal Dose Aprotinin on Blood Loss and Fibrinolytic System-Complement Activation in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

Ferit Cicekcioglu M.D.
Methods: Forty-four patients scheduled for primary CABG were randomly assigned to the aprotinin (n = 24) or control group (n = 20). In aprotinin group, aprotinin was administered in two equal doses (before skin incision and added to the pump prime). Ventilation time, intensive care unit stay, mediastinal tube drainage, hospitalization, transfusion requirements, and postoperative morbidities and mortality were noted. Hematologic markers of fibrinolytic activity and complement activation were also measured pre- and postoperatively. Results: Although less mediastinal drainage occurred in aprotinin group, the difference was not statistically significant. Other postoperative variables like transfusion requirements, morbidities, and mortality were also found to be similar between groups. Among hematologic parameters, only postoperative levels of ,2-antiplasmin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly higher in aprotinin group. Conclusions: Although plasmin inhibitors begin to rise at this very low aprotinin dosage, it is not advisable to use this aprotinin regimen in CABG patients. [source]

Development of renal failure during the initial 24 h of intensive care unit stay correlates with hospital mortality in trauma patients

T. Ala-Kokko
Background:, Although multiple organ failure is the leading late cause of death, there is controversy about the impact of acute organ dysfunction and failure on trauma survival. Methods:, Consecutive adult trauma admissions between January 2000 and June 2003, excluding isolated head traumas and burns, were analysed for parameters of organ function during the first 24 h following intensive care unit (ICU) admission using the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scoring system. A national prospectively collected ICU data registry was used for analysis, including data from 22 ICUs in university and central hospitals in Finland. Results:, The study population consisted of 1044 eligible trauma admissions; 32% of the cases were treated at university hospital level, the rest being secondary referral central hospital admissions. The mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 15 (SD8), ICU mortality was 5.6% and a further 1.6% of patients died during their post-ICU hospital stay. Forty-five per cent of the patients were categorized as having multiple traumas. In univariate analysis, APACHE II , 25 [odds ratio (OR), 35; 95% confidence interval (CI), 18,66] and renal failure (OR, 29.5; 95% CI, 14,63) produced the highest ORs for ICU mortality. In the APACHE II-, sex- and age-adjusted logistic regression model, renal failure was a significant risk factor for both ICU and hospital mortality (OR, 11.8; 95% CI, 3.9,35.4; OR, 8.2; 95% CI, 2.9,23.2, respectively). Conclusion:, The development of renal failure during the initial 24 h of ICU stay remained an independent risk factor for mortality in trauma patients requiring intensive care treatment even after adjusting for the APACHE II score, age and sex. [source]

The small remnant liver after major liver resection: How common and how relevant?

Cengizhan Yigitler
The maximum extent of hepatic resection compatible with a safe postoperative outcome is unknown. The study goal was to determine the incidence and impact of a small remnant liver volume after major liver resection in patients with normal liver parenchyma. Among 265 major hepatectomies performed at our institution (1998 to 2000), 138 patients with normal liver and a remnant liver volume (RLV) systematically calculated from the ratio of RLV to functional liver volume (FLV) were studied. Patients were divided into five groups based on RLV-FLV ratio from ,30% to ,60%. Kinetics of postoperative liver function tests were correlated with RLV. Postoperative complications were stratified by RLV-FLV ratios. Ninety patients (65%) underwent resection of up to four Couinaud segments. The RLV-FLV ratio was ,60% in 94 patients (68%) including only 13 (9%) with RLV-FLV ,30%. There was no linear correlation between the number of resected segments and the RLV-FLV. Postoperative serum bilirubin but not prothrombin time correlated with extent of resection. The incidence of complications including liver failure was not different among groups. Analysis of the four groups with a RLV-FLV ratio <60% showed a trend toward more complications and a longer intensive care unit stay in patients with the smallest RLVs. After major hepatectomy in patients with normal livers, the proportion of patients with a small remnant liver is low and not directly related to the number of segments resected. Although the rate of postoperative complications, including liver failure, did not directly correlate with the volume of remaining liver, the postoperative course was more difficult for patients with smaller remnants. Therefore preoperative portal vein embolization should be considered in patients who will undergo extended liver resection who have (1) injured liver or (2) normal liver when the planned procedure will be complex or when the anticipated RLV-FLV will be <30%. (Liver Transpl 2003;9:S18-S25.) [source]

Outcome of liver transplantation for patients with pulmonary hypertension

Peter Starkel
It is generally believed that pulmonary hypertension (PHT) adversely affects outcome after liver transplantation (LT). Most transplant units consider severe PHT to be an absolute contraindication to LT. We examined the outcome of 145 patients who underwent LT between 1997 and 1999. Pulmonary artery pressures (PAPs) had been measured before surgery. Pre-LT workup included electrocardiography and echocardiography for the majority of patients. Also, the liver unit database was screened for patients with known PHT who had undergone LT before 1997. Based on pulmonary floatation catheter measurements made after the induction of anesthesia for LT, PHT was defined as mild or moderate to severe if the mean PAP (MPAP) exceeded 25 and 35 mm Hg, respectively. The incidence of PHT was 26% (38 of 145 patients); 31 of 38 patients had mild PHT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis did not show a significant survival benefit for patients with normal PAPs compared with patients with PHT (all, mild, moderate to severe). For surviving patients, the duration of ventilation and intensive care unit stay was unaffected by PHT. Four of 5 patients (identified from the database 1982 to 1999) with MPAPs greater than 40 mm Hg survived LT by more than 1 year. PHT of this severity was usually associated with specific and suggestive abnormality of the echocardiogram. Mild PHT is common and does not affect patient outcome after LT. Moderate and severe PHT are uncommon. Our analysis suggests that when the cardiac index is preserved, the majority of patients with moderate and severe PHT can survive LT, and they will not die of PHT during long-term follow-up. Echocardiography detects most severe PHT, but not mild and moderate PHT. [source]

Guiding Mothers' Management of Health Problems of Very Low Birth-Weight Infants

F.A.A.N., Karen A. Pridham Ph.D.
ABSTRACT Objective: Explore the feasibility, usefulness, and outcomes of a pilot program to support mothers in developing competencies for managing health problems of their very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants in partnership with the primary care clinician (PCC). Design: In a randomized study, mothers who received guided participation (GP) and printed guidelines for managing VLBW infant health problems were compared with mothers who received only the guidelines and standard care (GL group). Sample: All mothers (GP=20; GL=11) were at least 18 years old and English speaking. Infants were all VLBW (,1,500 g). Intervention: GP began during the infant's neonatal intensive care unit stay and continued with public health nurses (PHNs) and a family service clinician through the infant's first 4 postterm months. Measurements: Intervention feasibility and usefulness were assessed with maternal and clinician feedback. Outcomes included maternal and clinician appraisal of mothers' use of clinical resources and mothers' perceptions of primary-care quality and the family-PCC relationship. Results: Intervention feasibility and usefulness were supported. GP and GL groups did not differ significantly on outcomes. Conclusions: Findings indicate a longer intervention period, GP organized by infant problem episodes, and enhancement of the PHN role in the context of interdisciplinary and interagency collaboration. [source]

Endoscopic Surgery of the Anterior Skull Base,

John D. Casler MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Traditional surgical approaches to the anterior skull base often involve craniotomy, facial incisions, disruption of skeletal framework, tracheotomy, and an extended hospital stay. As experience with endoscopic sinus surgery has grown, the techniques and equipment have been found to be adaptable to treatment of lesions of the anterior and central skull base. A minimally invasive endoscopic approach theoretically offers the advantages of avoiding facial incisions, osteotomies, and tracheotomy; surgery should be less painful, recovery quicker, and hospital stays should be shorter. The study attempted to assess endoscopic approaches to the anterior and central skull base for its ability to achieve those goals. Study Design: Retrospective review of 72 cases performed at a single institution from November 1996 to July 2003. A subgroup of 15 patients who underwent endoscopic approach to their pituitary tumors was compared with a similar group of 15 patients who underwent traditional open trans-sphenoidal surgery for their pituitary tumors. Methods: Patient records were analyzed and information tabulated for age, sex, disease, location of lesion, operative time, use of image-guided surgical systems, blood loss, length of intensive care unit stay, duration of operative pain, length of postoperative hospitalization, complications, and completeness of resection. Results: Of the cases, 86.1% were performed exclusively endoscopically, and 13.9% used a combination of endoscopic and open techniques. An image-guided surgical system was used in 83% of cases. Hospital length of stay was 2.3 days for the exclusively endoscopic group as opposed to 8 days for the combined group. With the patients with pituitary tumors, operative times were similar between the two groups (255.13 vs. 245.73 min), blood loss was less in the endoscopic group (125.33 vs. 243.33 mL), pain duration was shorter in the endoscopic group (10 of 15 patients pain free on postoperative day 1 vs. 2 of 15 patients pain free in the open group), and intensive care unit stay and hospital length of stay were both shorter in the endoscopic group. Complication rates and completeness of resection was similar in both groups, although the open group had a higher rate of complications related to the approach to the sella. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of judicious endoscopic approaches to anterior skull base lesions. An outcomes assessment in pituitary surgery demonstrates advantages of an endoscopic approach in appropriate cases. [source]

Use of remifentanil as a sedative agent in critically ill adult patients: a meta-analysis

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 12 2009
J. A. Tan
Summary This meta-analysis examined the benefits of using remifentanil as a sedative agent in critically ill patients. A total of 11 randomised controlled trials, comparing remifentanil with another opioid or hypnotic agent in 1067 critically ill adult patients, were identified from the Cochrane controlled trials register and EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, and subjected to meta-analysis. Remifentanil was associated with a reduction in the time to tracheal extubation after cessation of sedation (weighted-mean-difference ,2.04 h (95% CI ,0.39 to ,3.69 h); p = 0.02). Remifentanil was, however, not associated with a significant reduction in mortality (relative risk 1.01 (95% CI 0.67,1.52); p = 0.96), duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay, and risk of agitation (relative risk 1.08 (95% CI 0.64,1.82); p = 0.77) when compared to an alternative sedative or analgesic agent. The current evidence does not support the routine use of remifentanil as a sedative agent in critically ill adult patients. [source]


Timothy J. Small
Background: Pedestrian accidents are associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and cost; however, there has been very little published work on this topic in Australasia over recent years. The objective of this study was to examine the demographics, injury profile, outcomes and cost of pedestrian versus motor vehicle accidents in a central city hospital in Sydney. Methods: Consecutive pedestrians injured by motor vehicles and admitted as inpatients during the years 2002,2004 were identified from our prospective trauma registry. A retrospective review included patient profiles (age, sex, time of injury and blood alcohol), injury pattern, cost, morbidity and mortality. Results: A total of 180 patients (64% men and 36% women) with a mean age of 46 and mean injury severity score of 14.1 were identified. Two peak injury periods were observed: one between 17.00 and 18.00 hours (P < 0.01) and the other between 20.00 and 22.00 hours (P < 0.01). Significantly more injuries occurred on Friday (P < 0.01) and during autumn months (P < 0.05). Musculoskeletal (34.3%), head (31.8%) and external (20.2%) injuries predominated. Forty-nine per cent of patients tested positive for consuming alcohol, with an average blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.22%. Alcohol consumption was associated with a worse outcome in terms of hospital and intensive care unit stay, morbidity and mortality. The average length of stay was 13.4 days costing $A16320 per admission. Sixteen patients died (mortality rate of 8.9%), with the highest rate in the elderly group (22.7%) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Pedestrian accidents in inner Sydney are common with injuries predominating in intoxicated adult males. Mortality was higher in the elderly group. Injuries to the head and lower extremities predominate. Hospital stays are lengthy, resulting in a high cost for each admission. [source]

Beneficial Effect of Preventative Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping in High-Risk Patients Undergoing First-Time Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting,A Single Center Experience

Qingcheng Gong
Abstract Although intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) has been used widely as a routine cardiac assist device for perioperative support in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the optimal timing for high-risk patients undergoing first-time CABG using IABP is unknown. The purpose of this investigation is to compare preoperative and preventative IABP insertion with intraoperative or postoperative obligatory IABP insertion in high-risk patients undergoing first-time CABG. We reviewed our IABP patients' database from 2002 to 2007; there were 311 CABG patients who received IABP treatment perioperatively. Of 311 cases, 41 high-risk patients who had first-time on-pump or off-pump CABG (presenting with three or more of the following criteria: left ventricular ejection fraction less than 0.45, unstable angina, CABG combined with aneurysmectomy, or left main stenosis greater than 70%) entered the study. We compared perioperatively the clinical results of 20 patients who underwent preoperative IABP placement (Group 1) with 21 patients who had obligatory IABP placement intraoperatively or postoperatively during CABG (Group 2). There were no differences in preoperative risk factors, except left ventricular aneurysm resection, between the two groups. There were no differences in indications for high-risk patients between the two groups. The mean number of grafts was similar. There were no significant differences in the need for inotropes, or in cerebrovascular, gastrointestinal, renal, and infective complications postoperatively. There were no IABP-related complications in either group. Major adverse cardiac event (severe hypotension and/or shock, myocardial infarction, and severe hemodynamic instability) was higher in Group 2 (14 [66.4%] vs. 1 [5%], P < 0.0001) during surgery. The time of IABP pumping in Group 1 was shorter than in Group 2 (72.5 28.9 h vs. 97.5 47.7 h, P < 0.05). The duration of ventilation and intensive care unit stay in Group 1 was significantly shorter than in Group 2, respectively (22.0 1.6 h vs. 39.6 2.1 h, P < 0.01 and 58.0 1.5 h vs. 98.5 1.9 h, P < 0.005). There were no differences in mortality between the two groups (n = 1 in Group 1 and n = 3 in Group 2). Preoperative and preventative insertion of IABP can be performed safely in selected high-risk patients undergoing CABG, with results comparable to those in patients who received obligatory IABP intraoperatively and postoperatively. Therefore, earlier IABP support as part of surgical strategy may help to improve the outcome in high-risk first-time CABG patients. [source]

Parental satisfaction with follow-up services for children with major anatomical congenital anomalies

M. Van Dijk
Abstract Background Since 1999 a multidisciplinary follow-up programme for parents and children with major anatomical congenital anomalies is in place in our hospital, run by a dedicated team. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the services of this team from a parental perspective. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire including open and closed questions about satisfaction with the various professional disciplines involved in the follow-up, statements on usefulness of the follow-up services and suggestions for improvement. Results Four hundred and sixty-nine surveys were sent out, of which 71% were returned. Non-responding parents included significantly more parents of non-Dutch origin (P= 0.038) and parents who never responded to invitations for follow-up examinations (P < 0.001). Parental satisfaction differed for the various disciplines. Eighty per cent of the parents were (very) satisfied with the social worker, compared with 92% with nurses. More than half of the parents agreed that the follow-up services give peace of mind. Almost a quarter of parents, however, considered the follow-up services as redundant. The children of these parents had significantly shorter intensive care unit stay (P= 0.02), were older at the time of the questionnaire (P= 0.04), of higher socio-economic status (P= 0.001) and less likely to be of non-Dutch origin (P= 0.008). Sixty-one per cent of the parents had contacted the 24-h helpline. Ninety per cent of the parents were satisfied with the intensive care unit, almost 80% with the general ward. Conclusion Overall, parents were satisfied with the services of the follow-up team. Some parents, however, saw room for improvement related to better communication, recognizability of the team and better planning and organization. [source]

Prevention and treatment of rethrombosis after liver transplantation with an implantable pump of the portal vein

Zhengrong Shi
Implantable pumps have been used to prevent deep vein thrombosis and other diseases. In this article, we report for the first time the prevention and treatment of rethrombosis of the portal vein in liver transplantation with an implantable pump of the portal vein. Four hundred four orthotopic liver transplantation cases were retrospectively reviewed and divided into 3 groups: portal vein thrombosis (PVT) patients with an implantable pump (n = 28), PVT patients without an implantable pump (n = 20), and patients without preexisting PVT (n = 356). The following parameters for the 3 groups of patients were calculated and compared: (1) preoperative parameters, including baseline data of the donors and recipients and times of graft ischemia; (2) intraoperative and postoperative parameters, including surgery time, red blood cell and plasma transfusion, platelet concentrate transfusion, bleeding and primary graft malfunction, and duration of the hospital and intensive care unit stays; and (3) follow-up information for the patency of the portal vein, rethrombosis rate, stenosis and reoperation (relaparotomy or retransplantation), in-hospital mortality, and actuarial 1-year survival rate. Among the 3 groups of recipients, no significant differences were detected in preoperative and intraoperative parameters. However, compared to PVT patients without an implantable pump, PVT patients with an implantable pump showed remarkable reductions in their postoperative hospital stay, rethrombosis, reoperation rate, and in-hospital mortality. An implantable pump of the portal vein in liver transplantation patients can prevent and facilitate the treatment of portal vein rethrombosis and is associated with a reduction of in-hospital mortality. Liver Transpl 16:324,331, 2010. 2010 AASLD. [source]