Intensive Care Setting (intensive + care_setting)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Validation and clinical feasibility of nitrogen washin/washout functional residual capacity measurements in children

Background: The functional residual capacity (FRC) is an important parameter in pediatric respiratory monitoring but it is difficult to assess in the clinical setting. We have introduced a modified N2 washout method utilizing a change of FIO2 of 0.1 for FRC measurement in adult respiratory monitoring. This study validated the algorithm in a pediatric lung model and investigated the stability and feasibility in a pediatric peri-operative and intensive care setting. Methods: The lung model was ventilated in combinations of ventilatory modes, CO2 production, model FRC and respiratory rates. Sixteen children from 10 days to 5 years were studied peri-operatively with controlled ventilation using a Mapleson D system and in the intensive care unit using a Servo-i ventilator in a supported spontaneous mode. FRC was measured during stable metabolic, respiratory and circulatory periods at positive end expiratory pressure of 3,4 and 7,8 cmH2O. Results: In the model and in the clinical setting, we found an excellent agreement between washout and washin measurements of FRC as well as acceptable coefficients of repeatability. Conclusion: FRC was satisfactorily measured by a modified N2 algorithm and may be included as a monitoring variable in pediatric respiratory care. Pediatric FRC monitoring demands strictly stable conditions as measurements are performed close to the limits of the monitor's specifications. [source]

Bridging the gap between evidence and practice in acute decompensated heart failure management

FACP, Franklin A. Michota Jr MD
Abstract Registry data indicate a gap between evidence-based guidelines and current management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Bridging this gap is crucial given the frequency and cost of hospitalization for this disorder. Patients with ADHF require rapid assessment to determine appropriate treatment location and initial therapy. Patients with impending respiratory failure or cardiogenic shock should be managed in an intensive care setting, patients with congestion that is expected to require prolonged intravenous therapy should be admitted to the hospital, and patients with congestion that is likely to respond within 12,24 hours can be managed in an observation unit. Clinical status should guide selection of initial therapy. Initially, therapeutic response should be assessed every couple of hours. Once effective acute therapy has been established, it is important to implement strategies to improve long-term outcomes. These strategies include ensuring that care complies with established core performance measures, providing patient education in a manner suited to ensure comprehension and retention, and arranging for appropriate outpatient follow-up, ideally in a comprehensive heart failure disease management program. The purpose of this review is (1) to examine evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of ADHF, (2) to present a practical algorithm for patient assessment and treatment derived from these guidelines and personal experience, and (3) to discuss systems to enhance the ultimate transition of patient care from the inpatient to outpatient setting. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2008;3(Suppl 6):S7,S15. ©2008 Society of Hospital Medicine. [source]

Review article: bacterial translocation in the critically ill , evidence and methods of prevention

Summary Background Delayed sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiorgan failure remain major causes of morbidity and mortality on intensive care units. One factor thought to be important in the aetiology of SIRS is failure of the intestinal barrier resulting in bacterial translocation and subsequent sepsis. Aim This review summarizes the current knowledge about bacterial translocation and methods to prevent it. Methods Relevant studies during 1966,2006 were identified from a literature search. Factors, which detrimentally affect intestinal barrier function, are discussed, as are methods that may attenuate bacterial translocation in the critically ill patient. Results Methodological problems in confirming bacterial translocation have restricted investigations to patients undergoing laparotomy. There are only limited data available relating to specific interventions that might preserve intestinal barrier function or limit bacterial translocation in the intensive care setting. These can be categorized broadly into pre-epithelial, epithelial and post-epithelial interventions. Conclusions A better understanding of factors that influence translocation could result in the implementation of interventions which contribute to improved patient outcomes. Glutamine supplementation, targeted nutritional intervention, maintaining splanchnic flow, the judicious use of antibiotics and directed selective gut decontamination regimens hold some promise of limiting bacterial translocation. Further research is required. [source]

Iatrogenic complications and risks of nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 5 2003
Amer Al-Shekhlee MD
Abstract Electrodiagnostic procedures are routinely performed in patients with a variety of neuromuscular disorders. These studies are generally well tolerated and rarely thought to be associated with any significant side effects. However, needle electromyography is an invasive procedure and under certain situations has the potential to be associated with iatrogenic complications, including bleeding, infection, nerve injury, pneumothorax, and other local trauma. Similar complications are possible if needles are used for either stimulating or recording. In addition, like all other electrical devices and monitoring equipment connected to patients, electrodiagnostic testing carries the risk of stray leakage currents that under certain circumstances can result in electrical injury, especially in patients in the intensive care setting. Similarly, certain precautions are required during nerve conduction studies (NCS) in patients with pacemakers and other similar cardiac devices. In this review, we address the known and theoretical complications of NCS and needle electrode examination, and the possible methods to avoid such hazards. Muscle Nerve 27: 517,526, 2003 [source]

Lung function tests in neonates and infants with chronic lung disease: Lung and chest-wall mechanics

Monika Gappa MD
This is the fifth paper in a review series that summarizes available data and critically discusses the potential role of lung function testing in infants and young children with acute neonatal respiratory disorders and chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI). This review focuses on respiratory mechanics, including chest-wall and tissue mechanics, obtained in the intensive care setting and in infants during unassisted breathing. Following orientation of the reader to the subject area, we focused comments on areas of enquiry proposed in the introductory paper to this series. The quality of the published literature is reviewed critically with respect to relevant methods, equipment and study design, limitations and strengths of different techniques, and availability and appropriateness of reference data. Recommendations to guide future investigations in this field are provided. Numerous different methods have been used to assess respiratory mechanics with the aims of describing pulmonary status in preterm infants and assessing the effect of therapeutic interventions such as surfactant treatment, antenatal or postnatal steroids, or bronchodilator treatment. Interpretation of many of these studies is limited because lung volume was not measured simultaneously. In addition, populations are not comparable, and the number of infants studied has generally been small. Nevertheless, results appear to support the pathophysiological concept that immaturity of the lung leads to impaired lung function, which may improve with growth and development, irrespective of the diagnosis of chronic lung disease. To fully understand the impact of immaturity on the developing lung, it is unlikely that a single parameter such as respiratory compliance or resistance will accurately describe underlying changes. Assessment of respiratory mechanics will have to be supplemented by assessment of lung volume and airway function. New methods such as the low-frequency forced oscillation technique, which differentiate the tissue and airway components of respiratory mechanics, are likely to require further development before they can be of clinical significance. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Validation of a tonometric noninvasive arterial blood pressure monitor in the intensive care setting

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 5 2003
L. A. Steiner
Summary Intra-arterial measurement is considered the gold standard for continuous, beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure monitoring. However, arterial cannulation can be difficult and may cause complications such as thrombosis and ischaemia. Recently, a tonometric system, the Colin CBM-7000 has been developed for noninvasive beat-to-beat measurement of arterial blood pressure from the radial artery. We assessed the level of agreement between the CBM-7000 and invasive radial artery measurements in 15 patients on a neuro-intensive care unit. Agreement of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure values was limited, with ,,34% of mean arterial pressures differing by over 10 mmHg. In many cases, this was due to a downward drift of the noninvasive measurements over time. Furthermore, there was a tendency to underestimate low pressures and overestimate high pressures. In our opinion, the Colin CBM-7000 cannot be recommended for continuous blood pressure monitoring in the intensive care setting. [source]

Validity in action research: a discussion on theoretical and practice issues encountered whilst using observation to collect data

Christopher Turnock MSc MPhil DANS DPSN RN
Validity in action research: a discussion on theoretical and practice issues encountered whilst using observation to collect data Aim.,The paper contributes to an understanding of validity in action research methodology by examining issues arising from our attempts to describe the role of an observer in an action research study. Background.,Our experiences in observing patient care in intensive care settings are used to illuminate discussion on the nature of validity in action research. Content.,The paper examines the nature of validity in action research methodology before briefly describing a study that included observing intensive care staff providing patient care. Various perspectives on observation as a research method are critically examined. These include observer role, level of participation, use of cover, structure and timing of observation. Validity in action research underpins the discussion in the paper. Conclusion.,We conclude that it may not always be possible to categorize the role of the observer within existing definitions. It may be better to summarize the actual observer role as a way of illustrating validity so that the reader can judge the validity of the findings from an action research study. [source]

A literature review of principles, policies and practice in extended nursing roles relating to UK intensive care settings

Namita Srivastava
Aims., To provide an overview of the literature relating to the principles, policy and practice of extended nursing roles in UK intensive care settings to date; to review and critically assess evidence of impact, outcomes and effect on practice and provide suggestions for future research. Background., It is known that career development opportunities, new technologies, patient needs, as well as the reduction in junior doctors' hours, are driving the development of new roles for nurses. Policy initiatives aim to expand nursing roles to support professional substitution. In adult, neonatal and paediatric intensive care, specialist trained nurses and designated advanced nursing practitioners are increasingly taking on extended practice of clinical tasks previously undertaken by medical staff. As yet there are no statutory regulations on the perceived scope and definition of the role of extended and advanced roles. Design., Systematic review. Methods., Search of electronic databases and selection of policy and peer-reviewed reports and reviews of extended nursing roles or advanced nursing practitioners in UK intensive care settings. Results., Chronological review shows policy development proceeding in a relatively ad hoc way. There is limited information available about how extensively or effectively extended nursing roles are being implemented in intensive care settings in the UK, particularly in adult and paediatric intensive care. To test local initiative findings for reliability and generalisability, a more robust evidence base is required. Conclusions., More data are needed on definition and outcomes of extended nursing roles in intensive care and care process measures should be developed to better inform implementation of nurse role development in the UK. Relevance to clinical practice., The review of policy and research evidence in this paper may better inform clinicians working in adult, neonatal or paediatric intensive care, as they continue to be challenged by expansion and development of their role. It may also help to form a basis and evaluation for future research into extended and advanced nursing roles in intensive care settings. [source]

Pressure ulcer prevention in intensive care patients: guidelines and practice

Eman S. M. Shahin BSc MSc RN PhD
Abstract Background, Pressure ulcers are a potential problem in intensive care patients, and their prevention is a major issue in nursing care. This study aims to assess the allocation of preventive measures for patients at risk for pressure ulcers in intensive care and the evidence of applied pressure ulcer preventive measures in intensive care settings in respect to the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) and Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) guidelines for pressure ulcer prevention. Design, The design of this study was a cross-sectional study (point prevalence). Setting, The study setting was intensive care units. The sample consisted of 169 patients , 60 patients from surgical wards, 59 from interdisciplinary wards and 50 from medical intensive care wards. Results, The study results revealed that pressure reducing devices like mattresses (alternating pressure air, low air loss and foam) are applied for 58 (36.5%) patients, and all of these patients are at risk for pressure ulcer development. Most patients receive more than one nursing intervention, especially patients at risk. Nursing interventions applied are skin inspection, massage with moisture cream, nutrition and mobility (81.8%, 80.5%, 68.6% and 56.6%) respectively. Moreover, all applied pressure ulcer preventive measures in this study are in line with the guidelines of the EPUAP and AHCPR except massage which is applied to 8.8% of all patients. Conclusions, The use of pressure reducing devices and nursing interventions in intensive care patients are in line with international pressure ulcer guidelines. Only massage, which is also being used, should be avoided according to the recommendation of national and international guidelines. [source]

A Web-Based Interactive Database System for a Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound Laboratory

Mark J. Gorman MD
ABSTRACT Background. Variations in transcranial Doppler (TCD) examination performance techniques and interpretive paradigms between individual laboratories are a common challenge in the practice of TCD. Demand for rapid access to patient ultrasound examination data and report for use in intensive care settings has necessitated a more flexible approach to data management. Both of these issues may benefit from a computerized approach. Methods. We describe the application of a World Wide Web-based database system for use in an ultrasound laboratory. Results. Databasing information while generating a TCD report is efficient. Web accessibility allows rapid and flexible communication of time-sensitive report information and interpretation for more expeditious clinical decision making. Conclusions. Web-based applications can extend the reach and efficiency of traditionally structured medical laboratories. [source]

State of the art and recommendationsKangaroo mother care: application in a high-tech environment

KH Nyqvist
Abstract Since Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) was developed in Colombia in the 1970s, two trends in clinical application emerged. In low income settings, the original KMC model is implemented. This consists of continuous (24 h/day, 7 days/week) and prolonged mother/parent,infant skin-to-skin contact; early discharge with the infant in the kangaroo position; (ideally) exclusive breastfeeding; and, adequate follow-up. In affluent settings, intermittent KMC with sessions of one or a few hours skin-to-skin contact for a limited period is common. As a result of the increasing evidence of the benefits of KMC for both infants and families in all intensive care settings, KMC in a high-tech environment was chosen as the topic for the first European Conference on KMC, and the clinical implementation of the KMC model in all types of settings was discussed at the 7th International Workshop on KMC. Kangaroo Mother Care protocols in high-tech Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) should specify criteria for initiation, kangaroo position, transfer to/from KMC, transport in kangaroo position, kangaroo nutrition, parents' role, modification of the NICU environment, performance of care in KMC, and KMC in case of infant instability. Conclusion:, Implementation of the original KMC method, with continuous skin-to-skin contact whenever possible, is recommended for application in high-tech environments, although scientific evaluation should continue. [source]