Intensive Care Management (intensive + care_management)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Application of intensive care medicine principles in the management of the acute liver failure patient

David J. Kramer
Key Points 1Acute liver failure is a paradigm for multiple system organ failure that develops as a consequence of sepsis. 2In the United States, systemic inflammatory response, sepsis, and septic shock are common reasons for intensive care unit admission. Intensive care management of these patients serves as a template for the management of patients with acute liver failure. 3Acute liver failure is attended by high mortality. Although intensive care results in improved survival, the key treatment is liver transplantation. Intensive care unit intervention may open a "window of opportunity" and enable successful liver transplantation in patients who are too ill at presentation. 4Intracranial hypertension complicates the course for many patients with acute liver failure. Initially, intracranial hypertension results from hyperemia, which is cerebral edema that reduces cerebral blood flow and eventuates in herniation. The precepts of neurocritical care,monitoring cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow, and cortical activity,with rapid response to hemodynamic abnormalities, maintenance of normoxia, euglycemia, control of seizures, therapeutic hypothermia, osmotic therapy, and judicious hyperventilation are key to reducing mortality attributable to neurologic failure. Liver Transpl 14:S85,S89, 2008. 2008 AASLD. [source]

Severe drug-induced skin reactions: clinical pattern, diagnostics and therapy

Maja Mockenhaupt
Summary The spectrum of severe drug-induced skin reactions includes not only Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) but also generalized bullous fixed drug eruption (GBFDE), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and hypersensitivity syndrome (HSS), also called drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). These reactions differ in clinical presentation as well as prognosis, causative agents and therapy. Therefore, the appropriate diagnostic measures should be undertaken rapidly, in order to prove the diagnosis. In addition to a thorough clinical examination, a skin biopsy should be taken and specific laboratory investigations should be done if AGEP or HSS/DRESS is suspected. Since these reactions are drug-induced, the causative agent should be rapidly identified and withdrawn. Besides adequate supportive therapy, systemic immunomodulatory treatments may be considered. Despite intensive care management, the prognosis in SJS and TEN is often poor and influenced by the amount of skin detachment as well as the age of the patients and the pre-existing underlying conditions. Severe sequelae may develop in survivors and affect especially mucosal sites. The prognosis of GBFDE is better but recurrent events may lead to more severe involvement. In HSS/DRESS sequelae have been also described as well as long lasting and recurrent courses, whereas AGEP usually heals without problems. [source]

From intracranial pressure to intracranial pressure wave-guided intensive care management of a patient with an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

P. K. Eide
We report on a 65-year-old female with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that was followed clinically, radiologically and electrophysiologically before and after converting from intracranial pressure (ICP)-guided to ICP wave-guided intensive care management. Intracranial pressure-guided management is aimed at keeping mean ICP < 15,20 mmHg, while ICP wave-guided management is aimed at keeping mean ICP wave amplitude < 5 mmHg. The aims of management were obtained by adjusting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) draining volume from her external ventricular drain. No improvement was seen clinically or in cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans during the ICP-guided management. Clinical, MRI and neurophysiologic (electroencephalography and auditory evoked responses) improvements were obvious within 2 days after converting from ICP- to ICP wave-guided management. This case report describes how we used various ICP parameters to guide intensive care management of an aneurysmal SAH patient. [source]

Contemporary encephalitis lethargica presenting with agitated catatonia, stereotypy, and dystonia-parkinsonism

Russell C. Dale PhD
Abstract Encephalitis lethargica (EL) syndrome was classically described by Von Economo and has somnolent-ophthalmoplegic, hyperkinetic, and amyostatic-akinetic forms. We describe 2 recent cases of EL characterized by an acute encephalitis with mixed movement disorders (dystonia-Parkinsonism plus stereotypy) and psychiatric disorders (agitated catatonia, coprolalia, and echo phenomena). Both patients suffered concurrent hyperkinetic and Parkinsonian features resulting in therapeutic challenges. Bradykinetic features responded to dopamine replacement therapy and both patients also had adverse affects to dopamine antagonists (oculogyric crises plus neuroleptic malignant syndrome). Investigation was unremarkable other than the presence of CSF lymphocytosis and oligoclonal bands. Despite prolonged in-patient stays and intensive care management, both patients have made complete recoveries. We believe these cases support the hypothesis that this syndrome is an inflammatory encephalitis that specifically effects dopamine neurotransmission. 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Recurrent torsades de pointes in association with a very low calorie diet

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 8 2009
E-J. T. Crawford
Summary The use of very low calorie diets under medical supervision is becoming increasingly popular in the UK, as the incidence of obesity continues to rise. We report the case of torsades de pointes developing during such a diet. Torsades de pointes has been reported in association with very low calorie diets in the past but to our knowledge, this is the first report since the introduction of newer, nutritionally complete versions of the diet. We review the intensive care management of recurrent torsades de pointes resistant to standard therapy and its relationship to dieting and obesity. [source]

Two-stage liver transplantation: an effective procedure in urgent conditions

Roberto Montalti
Montalti R, Busani S, Masetti M, Girardis M, Di Benedetto F, Begliomini B, Rompianesi G, Rinaldi L, Ballarin R, Pasetto A, Gerunda GE. Two-stage liver transplantation: an effective procedure in urgent conditions. Clin Transplant 2010: 24: 122,126. 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract:, Temporary portocaval shunt and total hepatectomy is a technique used in the presence of toxic liver syndrome because of fulminant hepatic failure, hepatic trauma, primary non-function (PNF), and eclampsia. We performed this technique on four patients. An indication for anhepatic state was severe hemodynamic instability in three of them. Etiologies of these three patients were as follows: PNF after liver transplantation, ischemic hepatitis after right hepatic artery embolization, and massive reperfusion syndrome during a liver transplantation. In the fourth patient, during the liver transplantation when hepatic artery was ligated, a kidney carcinoma in the donor graft was discovered. We decided to complete the hepatectomy and to construct a temporary portocaval shunt. Mean anhepatic phases were 19 h and 15 min. All patients survived the two-stage liver transplantation procedure without major complications. Our cases demonstrated that temporary portocaval shunt while awaiting urgent liver transplantation could be an effective "bridge" in selected patients who develop toxic liver syndrome; however, a short time between portocaval shunt and transplantation and careful intensive care managements are mandatory. [source]