Intensive Care Admission (intensive + care_admission)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Outcomes of multifetal pregnancies

Ounjai Kor-anantakul
Abstract Aim:, To determine the outcomes of multifetal pregnancies and to compare maternal and neonatal complications between spontaneously conceived and assisted reproductive therapy. Methods:, A retrospective analysis was conducted of the information from medical records relating to all multifetal pregnancies. The outcomes were analyzed and used for a comparison between spontaneous and assisted multifetal pregnancies. Results:, There were 387 multifetal pregnancies during the study period, which was 1.3% of all the deliveries; 334 cases (86.3%) were spontaneous conceptions and 53 cases (13.7%) were the result of assisted reproductive therapy. Higher-order fetuses (,3) represented 8% of all multifetal pregnancies, 13% in the spontaneous group and 87% in the assisted group. The overall cesarean delivery rate was 73.9%. The assisted reproductive therapy group had a cesarean rate of 90.6% compared with 71.3% in the spontaneous group (P = 0.008). The assisted multifetal pregnancy group had more preterm labors and a longer maternal hospital stay than the spontaneous group. One maternal death occurred in the assisted group. The main causes of early neonatal death were prematurity, infection and congenital malformation. The newborns in the assisted group had more complications than the spontaneous group; most notable were respiratory distress syndrome, newborn intensive care admission, infection and longer hospital stay (6 days vs 15 days, P < 0.001). More complications occurred in higher-order fetuses than with twins. Conclusions:, Assisted multifetal pregnancies were more likely to be delivered by cesarean section and had a higher rate of higher-order fetuses, preterm birth and neonatal prematurity-related complications with a longer hospital stay in both mothers and newborns, than spontaneous multifetal pregnancies. [source]

Awake upper airway obstruction in children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy

Dominic J Wilkinson
Objective: Some children with severe cerebral palsy develop symptoms of upper airway obstruction (UAO) while awake. The aetiology, natural history and treatment of this complication have not previously been systematically described. This study documents a case series of children with severe cerebral palsy admitted to hospital because of severe awake UAO and reviews the relevant literature. Methods: The case records of children admitted to hospital with UAO while awake over an 8-month period were reviewed. Details of antecedent illness, comorbidities, acute management and follow up were collated. One case is presented in detail. Results: Eight children were admitted with UAO. Seven children required intensive care admission. One child died, and two underwent tracheostomy. Nasendoscopy showed pharyngeal collapse without anatomical obstruction in the majority. One child was discovered to have a brainstem malignancy. Conclusions: Upper airway obstruction is a potentially severe and life-threatening complication of cerebral palsy. In this series, a majority of children had obstruction related to pharyngeal hypotonia and collapse. This can lead to prolonged hospitalization and intensive care admission. It may raise difficult management issues. [source]

Outcomes of critically ill patients with cirrhosis admitted to intensive care: an important perspective from the non-transplant setting

S. J. Thomson
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32: 233,243 Summary Background, Hospital admissions for cirrhosis have been increasing in the United Kingdom, leading to increased pressure on intensive care (ICU) services. Outcome data for patients admitted to ICU are currently limited to transplant centre reports, with mortality rates exceeding 70%. These tertiary reports could fuel a negative bias when patients with cirrhosis are reviewed for ICU admission in secondary care. Aims, To determine whether disease severity and mortality rates in non-transplant general ICU are less severe than those reported by tertiary datasets. Methods, A prospective dual-centre non-transplant ICU study. Admissions were screened for cirrhosis and physiological and biochemical data were collected. Disease-specific and critical illness scoring systems were evaluated. Results, Cirrhosis was present in 137/4198 (3.3%) of ICU admissions. ICU and hospital mortality were 38% and 47%, respectively; median age 50 [43,59] years, 68% men, 72% alcoholic cirrhosis, median Child Pugh Score (CPS) 10 [8,11], Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) 18 [12,24], Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (APACHE II) 16 [13,22]. Conclusions, Mortality rates and disease staging were notably lower than in the published literature, suggesting that patients have a more favourable outlook than previously considered. Transplant centre data should therefore be interpreted with caution when evaluating the merits of intensive care admission for patients in general secondary care ICUs. [source]

Oral dantrolene and severe respiratory failure in a patient with chronic spinal cord injury

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 8 2010
M. Javed
Summary Oral dantrolene is used widely for the treatment of spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. A 60-year-old patient in the rehabilitation phase following cervical spine injury presented with generalised weakness and deteriorating respiratory function, requiring intensive care admission, tracheal intubation and ventilation. He had bilateral basal lung collapse and a raised diaphragm and was on high-dose oral dantrolene. The cessation of dantrolene resulted in a dramatic recovery of respiratory function within two days. High-dose oral dantrolene can cause severe respiratory insufficiency and may present difficulties in the differential diagnosis of respiratory failure in patients with high cervical spinal cord injuries. [source]

Early onset severe pre-eclampsia: expectant management at a secondary hospital in close association with a tertiary institution

Charl Oettle
Objectives Early onset severe pre-eclampsia is ideally managed in a tertiary setting. We investigated the possibility of safe management at secondary level, in close co-operation with the tertiary centre. Design Prospective case series over 39 months. Setting Secondary referral centre. Population All women (n= 131) between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation with severe pre-eclampsia, where both mother and fetus were otherwise stable. Methods After admission, frequent intensive but non-invasive monitoring of mother and fetus was performed. Women were delivered on achieving 34 weeks, or if fetal distress or major maternal complications developed. Transfer to the tertiary centre was individualised. Main outcome measures Prolongation of gestation, maternal complications, perinatal outcome and number of tertiary referrals. Results Most women [n= 116 (88.5%)] were managed entirely at the secondary hospital. Major maternal complications occurred in 44 (33.6%) cases with placental abruption (22.9%) the most common. One maternal death occurred and two women required intensive care admission. A mean of 11.6 days was gained before delivery with the mean delivery gestation being 31.8 weeks. The most frequent reason for delivery was fetal distress (55.2%). There were four intrauterine deaths. The perinatal mortality rate (,1000 g) was 44.4/1000, and the early neonatal mortality rate (,500 g) was 30.5/1000. Conclusions The maternal and perinatal outcomes are comparable to those achieved by other tertiary units. This model of expectant management of early onset, severe pre-eclampsia is encouraging but requires close co-operation between secondary and tertiary institutions. Referrals to the tertiary centre were optimised, reducing their workload and costs, and patients were managed closer to their communities. [source]

Implementing the severe sepsis care bundles outside the ICU by outreach

Chris Carter
Abstract Sepsis is not a new challenge facing the health care team, it remains a complex disease, which is difficult to identify and treat. Mortality from sepsis remains high and continues to be a common cause of death among critically ill patients, despite advances in critical care. Sepsis accounts for an estimated 27% of all intensive care admissions in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and accounted for 46% of all intensive care bed days. Recent research studies and the surviving sepsis campaign have shown that identifying and providing key interventions to patients with severe sepsis and septic shock prior to their admission to the intensive care unit significantly improve outcomes. The aim of this paper was to identify how the Critical Care Outreach Team at one local hospital implemented the severe sepsis resuscitation care bundle for patients in the emergency department (ED) and on the general wards. It will include a presentation on the various ways the team raised the profile of severe sepsis and the care bundle at hospital and at national level. It also includes audit data that have been collected. The results showed that if the resuscitation care bundle was implemented within the first 24 h of hospital admission, mortality was 29%, whereas if the care bundle was instigated after this time mortality was more than at 49%. Audit data showed that the commonest sign of severe sepsis seen in patients in the ED and on wards was tachypnoea. This article discusses the successful implementation of the severe sepsis resuscitation care bundle and the positive impact an Outreach team can have in changing practice in the way patients are managed with severe sepsis. The audit data support the need for regular physiological observations and the use of a Patient At Risk Trigger scoring tool to identify patients at risk of deterioration. This allows referral to the Outreach team, who assess the patient and if appropriate initiate the care bundle. [source]

An integrative review and meta-synthesis of the scope and impact of intensive care liaison and outreach services

Ruth Endacott
Aim., To determine activities and outcomes of intensive care unit Liaison Nurse/Outreach services. The review comprised two stages: (1) integrative review of qualitative and quantitative studies examining intensive care liaison/outreach services in the UK and Australia and (2) meta-synthesis using the Nursing Role Effectiveness Model as an a priori model. Background., Acute ward patients are at risk of adverse events and patients recovering from critical illness are vulnerable to deterioration. Proactive and reactive strategies have been implemented to facilitate timely identification of patients at risk. Design., Systematic review. Methods., A range of data bases was searched from 2000,2008. Studies were eligible for review if they included adults in any setting where intensive care unit Liaison Nurse or Outreach services were provided. From 1423 citations and 65 abstracts, 20 studies met the inclusion criteria. Results., Intensive care liaison/outreach services had a beneficial impact on intensive care mortality, hospital mortality, unplanned intensive care admissions/re-admissions, discharge delay and rates of adverse events. A range of research methods were used; however, it was not possible to conclude unequivocally that the intensive care liaison/outreach service had resulted in improved outcomes. The major unmeasured benefit across all studies was improved communication pathways between critical care and ward staff. Outcomes for nurses in the form of improved confidence, knowledge and critical care skills were identified in qualitative studies but not measured. Conclusion., The varied nature of the intensive care liaison/outreach services reviewed in these studies suggests that they should be treated as bundled interventions, delivering a treatment package of care. Further studies should examine the impact of critical care support on the confidence and skills of ward nurses. Relevance to clinical practice., Advanced nursing roles can improve outcomes for patients who are vulnerable to deterioration. The Nursing Role Effectiveness Model provides a useful framework for evaluating the impact of these roles. [source]