Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Intensive

  • labor intensive
  • labour intensive
  • resource intensive

  • Terms modified by Intensive

  • intensive agriculture
  • intensive care
  • intensive care admission
  • intensive care management
  • intensive care medicine
  • intensive care nurse
  • intensive care patient
  • intensive care setting
  • intensive care stay
  • intensive care treatment
  • intensive care unit
  • intensive care unit admission
  • intensive care unit nurse
  • intensive care unit setting
  • intensive care unit stay
  • intensive case management
  • intensive chemotherapy
  • intensive culture
  • intensive effort
  • intensive firm
  • intensive form
  • intensive glycaemic control
  • intensive induction chemotherapy
  • intensive insulin therapy
  • intensive insulin treatment
  • intensive interaction
  • intensive intervention
  • intensive interview
  • intensive investigation
  • intensive management
  • intensive margin
  • intensive observation
  • intensive observing period
  • intensive period
  • intensive phototherapy
  • intensive research
  • intensive sampling
  • intensive screening
  • intensive statin therapy
  • intensive studies
  • intensive study
  • intensive support
  • intensive system
  • intensive therapy
  • intensive therapy unit
  • intensive training
  • intensive training program
  • intensive treatment
  • intensive use

  • Selected Abstracts

    Effect of rearing techniques on skeletal deformities and osteological development in red porgy Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae

    J. Roo
    Summary Red porgy is a candidate species for marine aquaculture diversification. The objective of the present study was to describe the osteological development in this species and the occurrence of skeletal deformities in relation to the intensification of the rearing system. Fish samples were periodically collected along the development from hatching to juveniles (95 days after hatching). Osteological development and the presence of skeleton abnormalities were evaluated. Larvae reared under S-IS showed a better growth in terms of total length in comparison with IS reared ones. Regarding to osteological development for red porgy, this was similar between fish from both culture systems, but differing in timing of apparition and ossification of skeletal elements. X-ray studies revealed a high number of fish with skeletal deformities (Semi-intensive: 38.8%; Intensive: 46.5%), but no significant effect of the rearing technique on the incidence of deformities such as lordosis or fused vertebrae was found. However, cranial abnormalities and kyphosis incidences were significantly higher in intensive system cultured red porgy. These results, suggest a relationship among rearing technique, osteological development and the apparition of certain deformities. [source]

    Microstructure, Morphology, and Ultraviolet Emission of Zinc Oxide Nanopolycrystalline Films by the Modified Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction Method

    Daoli Zhang
    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopolycrystalline films were successfully prepared by the modified successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique, which was based on the alternate immersion of substrate in the alkaline zinc precursor and deionized water. ZnO films were formed through an accumulation of ZnO crystal clusters. The size of the clusters ranged from 200 to 500 nm based on scanning electron micrographic images. Prepared ZnO films exhibited a wurtzite structure, with good microstructure, surface morphology, and optical properties. Ethanolamine was used as a complex reagent, which improved the adsorption of zinc complex with the substrate. Effects of processing parameters on the properties of ZnO nanopolycrystalline films were studied in detail. Intensive and sharp ultraviolet emission peaks at about 400 nm could be observed in the photoluminescence spectra. [source]


    Valerie D. Moulton
    Abstract This study investigates how densities of ringed seals were affected by construction and oil production activities at Northstar, an artificial island built in the nearshore Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Intensive and replicated aerial surveys of seals on landfast ice were conducted during six spring seasons: for three seasons before island construction began (1997,1999); after a winter of intensive island construction (2000); and after more limited construction plus drilling (2001) and drilling plus oil production (2002). A Poisson regression model was used to examine seal densities relative to distance from Northstar after allowance for environmental covariates. Post hoc power analysis indicated that the study design and Poisson regression approach had high power to detect small-scale changes in seal densities near Northstar if such changes had occurred. However, seal densities during spring were not significantly affected by proximity to Northstar in 2000,2002. Habitat, temporal, and weather factors did have significant effects on seal densities. This study shows that effects of the Northstar oil development on local distribution of basking ringed seals are no more than slight, and are small relative to the effects of natural environmental factors. An understanding of environmental effects is essential when assessing potential impacts of industrial activity on ringed seals. [source]

    Intensive and Prolonged Treatment of Focal and Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Recurrence in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Pilot Study

    G. Canaud
    No treatment has consistently induced long-term remission of proteinuria in adult patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) recurrence after kidney transplantation. We undertook an open-label, nonrandomized pilot trial of intensive and prolonged treatment of FSGS recurrence. Over an 18-month period, 10 adult kidney transplant recipients with FSGS recurrence received concomitantly high-dose steroids, intravenous cyclosporine for 14 days followed by oral cyclosporine therapy, and an intensive and prolonged course of plasma exchanges (PE). We compared this treatment with those of a control group of 19 patients with a FSGS recurrence transplanted between 1997 and 2005. Complete, rapid (mean 23 ± 7 days) and sustained remission was obtained in 9/10 patients (90%) as opposed to 27% in the control group. At month 3 and month 12, proteinuria was 0.16 g/day (range 0.05,0.3 g/day) and 0.19 g/day (range 0.05,1 g/day) respectively. Only one patient remained in partial remission at month 12 but he had already lost two previous grafts due to FSGS recurrence. PEs were stopped at month 9 in all patients except for the patient with a partial remission who remains PE-dependent. This small pilot study provides very encouraging results demonstrating that this treatment rapidly achieves complete and sustained remission in a high proportion of patients. [source]

    Detection, distribution and control of Potato mop-top virus, a soil-borne virus, in northern Europe

    J. Santala
    Potato mop-top virus (PMTV; genus Pomovirus; family Virgaviridae) is transmitted by the soil-borne Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea, a protoctist that causes powdery scab on potato. PMTV is distributed widely in the potato growing areas in South and North America, Japan and northwestern Europe. This article reviews the current knowledge on detection, distribution and control of PMTV with focus on the Baltic Sea region. Since the 1980s, PMTV has caused great economic losses to potato production in the Nordic countries (Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland), but its occurrence in other countries of the Baltic Sea region remained unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, harmonised sampling and virus detection procedures including bioassays and serological and molecular methods were employed by 21 research institutions to detect PMTV in potato tubers and soil samples in 2005,2008. Potato growing areas were widely contaminated with PMTV in the Nordic countries. Only the main seed potato production area in northern Sweden and the High Grade seed potato production zone in Finland were negative for PMTV. Intensive and systematic surveys in Poland in 2004,2008 found no evidence of PMTV, except a single PMTV-infected tuber detected in 2008. Surveys in the Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) and northwestern Russia (Leningrad province) were negative for PMTV, except infection of minitubers in a screenhouse in Latvia in 2005. Varying percentages of tubers expressing spraing symptoms in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Poland were infected with Tobacco rattle virus, and bioassays indicated similar results for Russia. Incidence of symptomless infections with PMTV was high in tubers of many potato cultivars. Here, we discuss the contrasting patterns of distribution of PMTV in the Baltic Sea region, factors playing a role in dispersal and establishment of PMTV in new fields and means for controlling PMTV and its spread to new areas. We emphasise the use of the current virus-specific methods for the detection of PMTV in symptomless potato tubers and the high risks of disseminating PMTV to new fields and areas in viruliferous resting spores of S. subterranea in the soil adhering to seed tubers. PMTV-resistant potato cultivars will provide the only sustainable means for preventing yield losses in the infested fields and the prospects of resistance breeding are summarised. [source]

    Advances in rearing techniques of Pagrus pagrus, (Linnaeus, 1758): comparison between intensive and semi-intensive larval rearing systems

    Francisco Javier Roo
    Abstract Red porgy, Pagrus pagrus L., is a potential candidate for marine finfish diversification on commercial Mediterranean and Atlantic coastal aquaculture. This paper described the development of a suitable larval rearing protocol for commercial application. Red porgy eggs were reared under Intensive and Semi-intensive systems until 50 days after hatching. In addition, two different weaning protocols were tested for each rearing system. The effects of these treatments were evaluated on the growth, survival and whole-body biochemical and fatty acid composition of red porgy larvae. Significant differences in growth but not in survival at 50 days after hatching were detected in trial A for the semi-intensive and intensive rearing system (23.5 ± 2.7,18.9 ± 3.4 mm; 4.4,4.9%); however, modifications in initial prey density and illumination conditions, implemented in trials B (29.5 ± 3.0,25.2 ± 1.9 mm; 21.8,5.3%) and C (26.2 ± 2.6,24.6 ± 2.6 mm; 22.7,3.8%), significantly improved survival and growth rates in the semi-intensive rearing system. Furthermore, the results in trial C confirmed the feasibility of a partial reduction in Artemia use and the significant improvement in survival rates with the new weaning protocol applied (26.4 ± 2.3,24.1 ± 3.9 mm; 28.7,12.5%) in the intensive systems. The results of this study concluded that the best larval rearing protocol for commercial production of red porgy fingerlings should include the use of semi-intensive systems. [source]

    The Grid Resource Broker workflow engine

    M. Cafaro
    Abstract Increasingly, complex scientific applications are structured in terms of workflows. These applications are usually computationally and/or data intensive and thus are well suited for execution in grid environments. Distributed, geographically spread computing and storage resources are made available to scientists belonging to virtual organizations sharing resources across multiple administrative domains through established service-level agreements. Grids provide an unprecedented opportunity for distributed workflow execution; indeed, many applications are well beyond the capabilities of a single computer, and partitioning the overall computation on different components whose execution may benefit from runs on different architectures could provide better performances. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of the Grid Resource Broker (GRB) workflow engine. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Influence of Temporal Scale of Sampling on Detection of Relationships between Invasive Plants and the Diversity Patterns of Plants and Butterflies

    But monitoring is often neglected because it can be expensive and time-consuming. Accordingly, it is valuable to determine whether the temporal extent of sampling alters the validity of inferences about the response of diversity measures to environmental variables affected by restoration actions. Non-native species alter ecosystems in undesirable ways, frequently homogenizing flora and fauna and extirpating local populations of native species. In the Mojave Desert, invasion of salt-cedar (Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb.) and human efforts to eradicate salt-cedar have altered vegetation structure, vegetation composition, and some measures of faunal diversity. We examined whether similar inferences about relationships between plants and butterflies in the Muddy River drainage (Nevada, U.S.A.) could have been obtained by sampling less intensively (fewer visits per site over the same period of time) or less extensively (equal frequency of visits but over a more limited period of time). We also tested whether rank order of butterfly species with respect to occurrence rate (proportion of sites occupied) would be reflected accurately in temporal subsamples. Temporal subsampling did not lead to erroneous inferences about the relative importance of six vegetation-based predictor variables on the species richness of butterflies. Regardless of the temporal scale of sampling, the species composition of butterflies was more similar in sites with similar species composition of plants. The rank order of occurrence of butterfly species in the temporal subsamples was highly correlated with the rank order of species occurrence in the full data set. Thus, similar inferences about associations between vegetation and butterflies and about relative occurrence rates of individual species of butterflies could be obtained by less intensive or extensive temporal sampling. If compromises between temporal intensity and extent of sampling must be made, our results suggest that maximizing temporal extent will better capture variation in biotic interactions and species occurrence. Resumen:,El monitoreo es un componente importante de los esfuerzos de restauración y de manejo adoptivo. Pero el monitoreo a menudo es desatendido porque puede ser costoso y consume tiempo. En consecuencia, es valioso determinar si la extensión temporal del muestreo altera la validez de inferencias sobre la respuesta de medidas de diversidad a variables ambientales afectadas por acciones de restauración. Las especies no nativas alteran a los ecosistemas de manera indeseable, frecuentemente homogenizan la flora y fauna y extirpan poblaciones locales de especies nativas. En el Desierto Mojave, la invasión de Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. y los esfuerzos humanos para erradicarla han alterado la estructura y composición de la vegetación y algunas medidas de diversidad de fauna. Examinamos si se podían obtener inferencias similares sobre las relaciones entre plantas y mariposas en la cuenca Muddy River (Nevada, E.U.A.) muestreando menos intensivamente (menos visitas por sitio en el mismo período de tiempo) o menos extensivamente (igual frecuencia de visitas pero sobre un período de tiempo más limitado). También probamos si el orden jerárquico de especies de mariposas con respecto a la tasa de ocurrencia (proporción de sitios ocupados) se reflejaba con precisión en las submuestras temporales. El submuestreo temporal no condujo a inferencias erróneas acerca de la importancia relativa de seis variables predictivas basadas en vegetación sobre la riqueza de especies de mariposas. A pesar de la escala temporal del muestreo, la composición de especies de mariposas fue más similar en sitios con composición de especies de plantas similar. El orden jerárquico de ocurrencia de especies de mariposas en las muestras subtemporales estuvo muy correlacionado con el orden jerárquico de ocurrencia de especies en todo el conjunto de datos. Por lo tanto, se pudieron obtener inferencias similares de las asociaciones entre vegetación y mariposas y de las tasas de ocurrencia relativa de especies individuales de mariposas con muestreo temporal menos intensivo o extensivo. Si se deben hacer compromisos entre la intensidad y extensión de muestreo temporal, nuestros resultados sugieren que la maximización de la extensión temporal capturará la variación en interacciones bióticas y ocurrencia de especies más adecuadamente. [source]

    Computer-related skin diseases

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 5 2003
    Marjolein Wintzen
    The use of computers has increased vastly, occupationally as well as for private use, and in the last decade, a number of reports have been published in which skin problems are ascribed to the (intensive) use of computers. Not only irritant or mechanically induced contact dermatitis has been reported but also allergic contact dermatitis. As this appears to be a new group of occupational dermatoses, we present a brief overview of these cases, and aetiologic factors are discussed. [source]


    A decade after the State Street decision, more than 1,000 business method patents are granted each year. Yet, only 1 in 10 is obtained by a financial institution. Most business method patents are also software patents. Have these patents increased innovation in financial services? To address this question, we construct new indicators of research and development intensity based on the occupational composition of financial industries. The financial sector appears more research intensive than official statistics would suggest but less than the private economy taken as a whole. There is considerable variation across industries but little apparent trend. There does not appear to be an obvious effect from business method patents on the sector's research intensity. Looking ahead, three factors suggest that the patent system may affect financial services as it has electronics: (1) the sector's heavy reliance on information technology, (2) the importance of standard setting, and (3) the strong network effects exhibited in many areas of finance. Even today litigation is not uncommon; we sketch a number of significant examples affecting financial exchanges and consumer payments. The legal environment is changing quickly. We review a number of important federal court decisions that will affect how business method patents are obtained and enforced. We also review a number of proposals under consideration in the U.S. Congress. (JEL O31, O34, G20) [source]


    The foster care system attempts to prepare children and youth who have suffered child maltreatment for successful adult lives. This study documents the economic advantages of a privately funded foster care program that provided longer term, more intensive, and more expensive services compared to public programs. The study found significant differences in major adult educational, health, and social outcomes between children placed in the private program and those placed in public programs operated by Oregon and Washington. For the outcomes for which we could find financial data, the estimated present value of the enhanced foster care services exceeded their extra costs. Generalizing to the roughly 100,000 adolescents age 12-17 entering foster care each year, if all of them were to receive the private model of services, the savings for a single cohort of these children could be about $6.3 billion in 2007 dollars. (JEL D61, H75) [source]

    Managing the Co-operation,Competition Dilemma in R&D Alliances: A Multiple Case Study in the Advanced Materials Industry

    Dries Faems
    Generating value in R&D alliances requires intensive and fine-grained interaction between collaborating partners. At the same time, more intensive co-operation increases the risk of competitive abuse of the R&D alliance by one or more partners. In this study, we explore how managers address the fundamental tension between the need for co-operation and the risk of competition, using an in-depth case study of five R&D alliances in the advanced materials industry. Based on our data, we identify two relational strategies to enhance co-operation between engineers of different partners (i.e., adopting boundary-spanning activities and installing similar technical equipment) and three structural strategies to mitigate the risk of such intensified co-operation (i.e., definition of partner-specific task domains, definition of partner-specific knowledge domains and definition of partner-specific commercial domains). In addition, we find that partners tend to use particular combinations of such relational and structural strategies at different stages of the alliance life-cycle to address the co-operation,competition dilemma. [source]

    A survey of female patients in high security psychiatric care in Scotland

    Dr Lindsay D.G. Thomson MD MPhil MRCPsych Senior Lecturer in Forensic Psychiatry Honorary Consultant Forensic Psychiatrist
    Background The State Hospital, Carstairs, is the sole high security psychiatric facility for Scotland and Northern Ireland. Method This study compares the female (n = 28) and male (n = 213) patients resident there between 1992 and 1993 using data derived from case-note reviews and interviews with patients and staff. Results Nearly three-quarters of both the male and female populations had a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia, and secondary diagnoses of substance abuse and antisocial personality disorder were common. Female patients were more frequently admitted from other psychiatric hospitals, had less serious index offences and more minor previous convictions, and were less likely to be subject to a restriction order. They had more often experienced depressive symptoms and had significantly greater histories of self-harm, physical and sexual abuse. At interview, nearly three-quarters had active delusions and over half had recently behaved in an aggressive manner. Almost 90% were said not to require the security of the State Hospital. Conclusions It was concluded that mental illness and adverse social circumstances had combined to create a very disadvantaged group of women in high security psychiatric care in Scotland. As a group these women were inappropriately placed and their requirement was for intensive, rather than high security psychiatric care. Copyright © 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Raman spectroscopic and X-ray investigation of stressed states in diamond-like carbon films

    R. Krawietz
    Abstract The non-destructive characterization of intrinsic stress is very important to evaluate the reliability of devices based on diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. Whereas the only requirement for the X-ray diffraction method is a crystalline state of specimen, Raman spectroscopic stress analysis is restricted to materials showing intensive and sharp Raman peaks. On the other hand, Raman spectroscopy offers the possibility to measure stress profiles with lateral resolution of about 1 micron. The results of stress measurements in DLC films using both X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy are found in very good correspondence. Mean stress in carbon films consisting of very small crystallites on silicon substrates has been determined by measuring and fitting the stress profiles in the substrate near artificial vertical film edges. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2006
    J. L. Conachan
    The current, conventional method used is quick, easy and reasonably cheap but the nature of bronchial specimens themselves creates the need for a better preparation technique. Bronchial specimens often present with many obscuring features, such as blood and mucus, which can affect definitive diagnosis. In the study, the bronchial specimens underwent routine conventional preparation and that remaining was used to prepare an LBC slide. Both LBC methods were separately evaluated alongside the conventional method where, of the 44 specimens used, half were prepared using the conventional and ThinPrep and half with the conventional and SurePath. Evaluation forms were completed by pathologists who assessed all preparations. The results showed both LBC methods produced superior preparations that were better fixed, more cellular and had improved nuclear detail. They also removed a high percentage of background debris, were more diagnostically accurate and reduced the inadequate rate by a third. The conventional slides prepared from the same specimen as the SurePath had a lower average than those prepared with the ThinPrep. This indicated that the specimens used to evaluate the SurePath method were in fact inferior to those used for ThinPrep, with the SurePath slides showing only a slight improvement in overall quality. Despite LBC preparations reducing pathologist screening and reporting time, both methods are more labour intensive and less cost effective. The majority of laboratories are not in the financial situation to trial new methods that require extra training and more staff hours, and as such this study has highlighted an important question ,Do the benefits of better quality preparation and diagnostic accuracy offset an increase in time and cost'. [source]

    Novel application of flow cytometry: Determination of muscle fiber types and protein levels in whole murine skeletal muscles and heart

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 12 2007
    Connie Jackaman
    Abstract Conventional methods for measuring proteins within muscle samples such as immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis can be time consuming, labor intensive and subject to sampling errors. We have developed flow cytometry techniques to detect proteins in whole murine heart and skeletal muscle. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry were performed on quadriceps and soleus muscles from male C57BL/6J, BALB/c, CBA and mdx mice. Proteins including actins, myosins, tropomyosin and ,-actinin were detected via single staining flow cytometric analysis. This correlated with immunohistochemistry using the same antibodies. Muscle fiber types could be determined by dual labeled flow cytometry for skeletal muscle actin and different myosins. This showed similar results to immunohistochemistry for I, IIA and IIB myosins. Flow cytometry of heart samples from C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice dual labeled with cardiac and skeletal muscle actin antibodies demonstrated the known increase in skeletal actin protein in BALB/c hearts. The membrane-associated proteins ,-sarcoglycan and dystrophin could be detected in C57BL/6J mice, but were decreased or absent in mdx mice. With the ability to label whole muscle samples simultaneously with multiple antibodies, flow cytometry may have advantages over conventional methods for certain applications, including assessing the efficacy of potential therapies for muscle diseases. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Psychotherapy of borderline personality disorder

    M. C. ZanariniArticle first published online: 6 OCT 200
    Objective:, Psychotherapy is considered the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Currently, there are four comprehensive psychosocial treatments for BPD. Two of these treatments are considered psychodynamic in nature: mentalization-based treatment and transference-focused psychotherapy. The other two are considered to be cognitive-behavioral in nature: dialectical behavioral therapy and schema-focused therapy. Method:, A review of the relevant literature was conducted. Results:, Each of these lengthy and complex psychotherapies significantly reduces the severity of borderline psychopathology or at least some aspects of it, particularly physically self-destructive acts. Conclusion:, Comprehensive, long-term psychotherapy can be a useful form of treatment for those with BPD. However, less intensive and less costly forms of treatment need to be developed. [source]

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT): Pediatric applications

    Kathleen Brady
    Abstract The purpose of this article is to describe theoretical and research bases for constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), to discuss key features and variations in protocols currently in use with children, and to review the results of studies of efficacy. CIMT has been found to be an effective intervention for increasing functional use of the hemiparetic upper extremity in adults with chronic disability from stroke. CIMT developed out of behavioral research on the phenomenon of "learned nonuse" of an upper extremity, commonly observed following sensory and/or motor CNS injury, in which failure to regain use persists even after a period of partial recovery. CIMT includes three key elements: (1) constraining the use of the less-impaired upper extremity (UE); (2) intensive, repetitive daily therapist-directed practice of motor movements with the impaired UE for an extended period (2,3 weeks); and (3) shaping of more complex action patterns through a process of rewarding successive approximations to the target action. Mechanisms responsible for success are thought to be separate but complementary, that is, operant conditioning (reversal of learned nonuse) and experience-driven cortical reorganization. CIMT has recently been extended to children with hemiparesis secondary to perinatal stroke or other CNS pathology. Numerous case studies, as well as a small number of randomized controlled or controlled clinical trials have reported substantial gains in functional use of the hemiplegic UE following CIMT with children. Protocols vary widely in terms of type of constraint used, intensity and duration of training, and outcome measures. In general, all report gains in functional use, with minimal or no adverse effects. Continued research is needed, to clarify optimal protocol parameters and to further understand mechanisms of efficacy. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2009;15:102,111. [source]

    Randomized controlled trial of physiotherapy in 56 children with cerebral palsy followed for 18 months

    E Bower PhD MCSP Senior Research Fellow
    This study aimed to determine whether motor function and performance is better enhanced by intensive physiotherapy or collaborative goal-setting in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were a convenience sample of 56 children with bilateral CP classified at level III or below on the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), aged between 3 and 12 years. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to compare the effects of routine amounts of physiotherapy with intensive amounts, and to compare the use of generalized aims set by the child's physiotherapist with the use of specific, measurable goals negotiated by the child's physiotherapist with each child, carer, and teacher. Following the six-month treatment period there was a further six-month period of observation. Changes in motor function and performance were assessed by a masked assessor using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Gross Motor Performance Measure (GMPM) at three-month intervals. There was no statistically significant difference in the scores achieved between intensive and routine amounts of therapy or between aim-directed and goal-directed therapy in either function or performance. Inclusion of additional covariates of age and severity levels showed a trend towards a statistically significant difference in children receiving intensive therapy during the treatment period. This advantage declined over the subsequent six months during which therapy had reverted to its usual amount. Differences in goal-setting procedures did not produce any detectable effect on the acquisition of gross motor function or performance. [source]

    The pharmacology of cilostazol

    Karsten Schrör
    Cilostazol (6-[4-(1-cyclohexyl- 1H -tetrazol-5-yl)butoxy]-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone; OPC-13013) is a 2-oxo-quinoline derivative with antithrombotic, vasodilator, antimitogenic and cardiotonic properties. The compound is a potent inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3A, the isoform of PDE 3 in the cardiovascular system (IC50: 0.2 µm). In addition, there is inhibition of adenosine uptake, eventually resulting in changes in cAMP levels, dependent on the type of adenosine receptors (A1 or A2). Cilostazol inhibits platelet aggregation and has considerable antithrombotic effects in vivo. The compound relaxes vascular smooth muscle and inhibits mitogenesis and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. In the heart, cilostazol causes positive inotropic and chronotropic effects. Most, if not all, of these actions are cAMP-mediated, including the modification of cAMP-controlled gene expression. Cilostazol decreases levels of serum triglycerides and causes some increase in HDL-cholesterol levels. The compound has a number of additional effects which might contribute to its overall clinical efficacy. Cilostazol undergoes intensive and finally complete hepatic metabolism via the cytochrome P450 systems. This might result in some drug interaction, i.e. with erythromycin and omeprazole. The half-life is approximately 10 h, resulting in about 2-fold accumulation of the drug during repeated administration. [source]

    Hub-and-spoke model for a 5-day structured patient education programme for people with Type 1 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 9 2009
    H. Rogers
    Abstract Aims, Structured education programmes for people with Type 1 diabetes can deliver improved diabetes control (including reduced severe hypoglycaemia) and quality of life. They can be cost-effective but are resource intensive. We tested the ability to deliver an evidence-based 5-day programme in diabetes centres too small to deliver the courses. Methods, Specialist medical and nursing staff from three district general hospital diabetes services (the ,spokes') were trained in all aspects of the education programme, except those directly related to course delivery, by a larger centre (the ,hub'). The hub staff delivered the 5-day patient education courses, but all other patient education and management was managed locally. Diabetes control and quality of life were assessed at 1 year post-course. Results, In 63 patients with follow-up data, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) fell by 0.42 ± 1.0% (P = 0.001), with a greater fall in those with high HbA1c at baseline, and no mean weight gain. Emergency call-out for severe hypoglycaemia fell from 10 episodes in seven patients the year before to one episode in one patient (P = 0.03). Quality-of-life measures improved, with reduced negative impact of diabetes on diabetes-related quality of life (P < 0.00004) and ,present quality of life' improving (P < 0.001). Conclusions, The benefits of a 5-day structured education programme can be provided to patients with Type 1 diabetes attending centres without the resources to provide the teaching course itself, by a ,hub-and-spoke' methodology. [source]

    Case studies of tobacco dependence treatment in Brazil, England, India, South Africa and Uruguay

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2010
    Martin Raw
    ABSTRACT Aims The aims of this study are to describe the tobacco dependence treatment systems in five countries at different stages of development of their systems, and from different income levels and regions of the world, and to draw some lessons from their experiences that might be useful to other countries. Methods and data sourses Data were drawn from an earlier survey of treatment services led by M.R. and A.M., from Party reports to the Secretariat of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and from correspondents in the five countries. These data were entered onto a standard template by the authors, discussed with the correspondents to ensure they were accurate and to help us interpret them, and then the templates were used as a basis to write prose descriptions of the countries' treatment systems, with additional summary data presented in tables. Results Two of the middle-income countries have based their treatment on specialist support and both consequently have very low population coverage for treatment. Two countries have integrated broad-reach approaches, such as brief advice with intensive specialist support; these countries are focusing currently upon monitoring performance and guaranteeing quality. Cost is a significant barrier to improving treatment coverage and highlights the importance of using existing infrastucture as much as possible. Conclusions Perhaps not surprisingly the greatest challenges appear to be faced by large, lower-income countries that have prioritized more intensive but low-reach approaches to treatment, rather than developing basic infrastructure, including brief advice in primary care and quitlines. [source]

    Parallel trade, price discrimination, investment and price caps

    ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 44 2005
    Stefan Szymanski
    SUMMARY Parallel trade Parallel trade is the resale of a product by a wholesaler in a market other than that intended by the manufacturer. One of its consequences is that manufacturers may be prevented from price discriminating between markets that have different willingness to pay for the product in question. Some legal regimes give the manufacturer the right to prohibit parallel trade, but others do not. We examine the policy implications of parallel trade in a world in which manufacturers invest in product quality, and have the possibility to develop different quality variants of their goods. We also consider the possibility that the authorities may impose price caps and compulsory licensing (as commonly occurs for some pharmaceutical products). We find that taking investment incentives into account makes parallel trade much less likely to enhance overall welfare, which implies that parallel trade in products intensive in R&D, such as pharmaceuticals, is less desirable than in fields such as branded consumer products. We also find that, somewhat surprisingly, the threat of parallel trade does not induce firms to market inferior versions of their products in poor countries. However, parallel trade is less likely to be detrimental to welfare when there are price caps, since compulsory licensing can mitigate the major cost of parallel trade (namely a refusal to supply a poor country market). , Stefan Szymanski and Tommaso Valletti [source]

    Delocation and European integration: is structural spending justified?

    ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 35 2002
    Karen Helene Midelfart-Knarvik
    SUMMARY How is European integration changing the location of industry? And what part are national and EU aids to industry playing in this process? We show that states and regions are becoming more specialized within the EU, but this process is very slow. While there is no evidence of polarization occurring at the national level, some regions are losing out. National state aids to industry appear to have little effect for either good or ill, since their effectiveness at attracting economic activity and employment is limited. European Structural Funds expenditure, by contrast, does have an effect on the location of industry, notably by attracting industries that are intensive in research and development. However, this effect has mostly been acting counter to states' comparative advantage , R&D-intensive industries have been encouraged by these aids to locate in countries and regions that have low endowments of skilled labour. Only in Ireland, where Structural Funds reinforced rather than offset comparative advantage, have poor regions been enabled systematically to catch up with the EU average. [source]

    Seasonal population changes of five parasitoids attacking the scale insect Nipponaclerda biwakoensis on the common reed, with special reference to predation by wintering birds

    Shuji KANEKO
    Abstract Seasonal changes in the abundance of five species of hymenopterous parasitoids (four species of Encyrtidae and one species of Eulophidae) attacking the scale insect Nipponaclerda biwakoensis on the common reed were investigated for 2 years in Lake Biwa, with special reference to predation by the reed bunting, Emberiza schoeniclus, during winter. The scales settled on reed shoot stems under sheath leaves, passing through three discrete generations per year. The abundance of adult female scales increased exponentially from July (first generation) to December (third generation). Adult female scales of the third generation overwintered on reed shoots. During winter, female scale abundance dramatically declined, whereas the number of predation marks made by reed buntings using their bills on reed sheath leaves increased. The generations of all five parasitoids were synchronized with the host scale generations, and the five parasitoids overwintered as larvae inside the scale bodies. The abundance of parasitized scales and parasitoid adults emerging from the scales also increased from July to December, but greatly decreased during winter. The overall parasitism rate of the female scales remained at relatively low levels (less than 40%) throughout the year, including before and after winter. A bird exclusion experiment revealed that the dramatic winter decrease of the abundance of the scale and its five parasitoids was due to intensive and non-selective predation by the buntings on unparasitized and parasitized scales. Additionally, the proportion of immature parasitoids removed by birds varied between the five parasitoid species. Thus, seasonal population changes of the five scale parasitoids are considerably affected by bird predation on overwintering immature parasitoids. [source]

    Evaluating and expressing the propagation of uncertainty in chemical fate and bioaccumulation models

    Matthew MacLeod
    Abstract First-order analytical sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for environmental chemical fate models is described and applied to a regional contaminant fate model and a food web bioaccumulation model. By assuming linear relationships between inputs and outputs, independence, and log-normal distributions of input variables, a relationship between uncertainty in input parameters and uncertainty in output parameters can be derived, yielding results that are consistent with a Monte Carlo analysis with similar input assumptions. A graphical technique is devised for interpreting and communicating uncertainty propagation as a function of variance in input parameters and model sensitivity. The suggested approach is less calculationally intensive than Monte Carlo analysis and is appropriate for preliminary assessment of uncertainty when models are applied to generic environments or to large geographic areas or when detailed parameterization of input uncertainties is unwarranted or impossible. This approach is particularly useful as a starting point for identification of sensitive model inputs at the early stages of applying a generic contaminant fate model to a specific environmental scenario, as a tool to support refinements of the model and the uncertainty analysis for site-specific scenarios, or for examining defined end points. The analysis identifies those input parameters that contribute significantly to uncertainty in outputs, enabling attention to be focused on defining median values and more appropriate distributions to describe these variables. [source]

    A compound Poisson model for the annual area burned by forest fires in the province of Ontario

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 5 2010
    Justin J. Podur
    Abstract We use the compound Poisson probability distribution to model the annual area burned by forest fires in the Canadian province of Ontario. Models for sums-of-random variables, relevant for modeling aggregate insurance claims and assessing insurance risk are also relevant in modeling aggregate area burned based on sums of sizes of individual fires. Researchers have fit the distribution of fire sizes to the truncated power-law (or Pareto) distribution (Ward et al., 2001) and a four-parameter Weibull distribution (Reed and McKelvey, 2002). Armstrong (1999) fitted a lognormal distribution to annual proportion of area burned by forest fires in a region of Alberta. We derive expressions and moments for aggregate area burned in Ontario using fire data from the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR). We derive expressions for the distribution of area burned for "severe" and "mild" fire weather scenarios and for "intensive suppression" and "no suppression" scenarios (represented by the intensive and extensive fire protection zones of the province). These distributions can be used to perform risk analysis of annual area burned. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effect of conditioning horses with short intervals at high speed on biochemical variables in blood

    Summary Reasons for performing study: There is limited published work on the effect of training using intensive and short intervals of exercise to condition horses for racing. Objectives: To examine the effect of conditioning horses 1, 2 or 3 x a week using 2 short fast exercise intervals on blood lactate (LA), plasma ammonia (NH3) and urea (urea) as well as creatine kinase (CK) activity. Methods: Thoroughbreds (age 4,5 years) were conditioned at near maximal speed (12,14 m/sec) over 100 m, on 2 occasions separated by a 10 min period at walk, on dirt track (conditioning exercise; CE) during a 6 week conditioning period (CP). The CE was undertaken either once (5 horses), twice (5 horses) or 3 times a week (4 horses) during a CP. Before, every 2 weeks during and after the CP, blood was drawn during the CE at 0, 2 and 4 min after each run and additionally 6 min after the 2nd run to measure blood LA and determine the maximal LA post exercise (LAmax). Plasma NH3 was measured in the same samples and the maximal NH3 post exercise (NH3max) determined. Additional blood samples were taken from the horses when stabled before the CE, and 12 and 24 h after to measure urea and CK activity in plasma. Results: There was no differential effect of the number of weekly CE on LAmax, NH3max, LA and NH3 immediately after exercise (LAO and NH30). Conditioning did not have an effect on LAmax and LAO after the 1st interval (P>0.05), but LAO after the 2nd interval was lower after conditioning. NH3max after the 1st and 2nd exercise interval decreased in response to the conditioning, but not NH3 immediately after exercise (P>0.05). Median plasma CK activity 12 h after exercise was higher than before exercise and returned to pre-exercise levels 24 h post exercise when horses were exercised once and twice/week. In contrast, the median plasma CK activity of horses exercising 3 times/week remained at the pre-exercise level 12 and 24 h post exercise (P>0.05). Conclusion: Conditioning horses with 2 intervals of 100 m at near maximal speed had a positive effect on blood LA and plasma NH3. Potential relevance: With the type of exercise examined, the fitness of racing horses can be maintained and eventually improved. In further studies the effect of increasing the number of runs in one exercise session should be investigated. [source]

    Optical imaging of medullary ventral respiratory network during eupnea and gasping In situ

    Jeffrey T. Potts
    Abstract In severe hypoxia, respiratory rhythm is shifted from an eupneic, ramp-like motor pattern to gasping characterized by a decrementing pattern of phrenic motor activity. However, it is not known whether hypoxia reconfigures the spatiotemporal organization of the central respiratory rhythm generator. Using the in situ arterially perfused juvenile rat preparation, we investigated whether the shift from eupnea to gasping was associated with a reconfiguration of the spatiotemporal pattern of respiratory neuronal activity in the ventral medullary respiratory network. Optical images of medullary respiratory network activity were obtained from male rats (4,6 weeks of age). Part of the medullary network was stained with a voltage-sensitive dye (di-2 ANEPEQ) centred both within, and adjacent to, the pre-Bötzinger complex (Pre-BötC). During eupnea, optical signals initially increased prior to the onset of phrenic activity and progressively intensified during the inspiratory phase peaking at the end of inspiration. During early expiration, fluorescence was also detected and slowly declined throughout this phase. In contrast, hypoxia shifted the respiratory motor pattern from eupnea to gasping and optical signals were restricted to inspiration only. Areas active during gasping showed fluorescence that was more intensive and covered a larger region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla compared to eupnea. Regions exhibiting peak inspiratory fluorescence did not coincide spatially during eupnea and gasping. Moreover, there was a recruitment of additional medullary regions during gasping that were not active during eupnea. These results provide novel evidence that the shift in respiratory motor pattern from eupnea to gasping appears to be associated with a reconfiguration of the central respiratory rhythm generator characterized by changes in its spatiotemporal organization. [source]

    Robust estimation of critical values for genome scans to detect linkage

    Silviu-Alin BacanuArticle first published online: 15 SEP 200
    Abstract Estimation of study specific critical values for linkage scans (suggestive and significant thresholds) is important to identify promising regions. In this report, I propose a fast and concrete recipe for finding study specific critical values. Previously, critical values were derived theoretically or empirically. Theoretically-derived values are often conservative due to their assumption of fully informative transmissions. Empirically-derived critical values are computer and skill intensive and may not even be computationally feasible for large pedigrees. In this report, I propose a method to estimate critical values for multipoint linkage analysis using standard, widely used statistical software. The proposed method estimates study-specific critical values by using Autoregressive (AR) models to estimate the correlation between standard normal statistics at adjacent map points and then use this correlation to estimate study-specific critical values. The AR-based method is evaluated using different family structures and density of markers, under both the null hypothesis of no linkage and the alternative hypothesis of linkage between marker and disease locus. Simulations results show the AR-based method accurately predicts critical values for a wide range of study designs. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]