Intelligence Scale (intelligence + scale)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Intelligence Scale

  • adult intelligence scale
  • wechsler adult intelligence scale
  • wechsler intelligence scale

  • Terms modified by Intelligence Scale

  • intelligence scale for children

  • Selected Abstracts


    Neurophysiological and genetic distinctions between pure and comorbid anxiety disorders,

    DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 5 2008
    Mary-Anne Enoch M.D.
    Abstract Anxiety disorders are often comorbid with major depression (MD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD). Two common functional polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF Val66Met) genes have been implicated in the neurobiology of anxiety and depression. We hypothesized that attentional response and working memory (auditory P300 event-related potential and Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale, Revised digit symbol scores) as well as genetic vulnerability would differ between pure anxiety disorders and comorbid anxiety. Our study sample comprised 249 community-ascertained men and women with lifetime DSM-III-R diagnoses. We analyzed groups of participants with pure anxiety disorders, pure MD, pure AUD, comorbid anxiety, and no psychiatric disorder. Participants were well at the time of testing; state anxiety and depressed mood measures were at most only mildly elevated. Individuals with pure anxiety disorders had elevated P300 amplitudes (P=0.0004) and higher digit symbol scores (P<0.0001) compared with all the other groups. Individuals with comorbid anxiety had the greatest proportion of COMT Met158 and BDNF Met66 alleles (P=0.009) as well as higher harm avoidance-neuroticism (P<0.0005) than all other groups. Our results suggest that there may be two vulnerability factors for anxiety disorders with differing genetic susceptibility: (a) heightened attention and better working memory with mildly elevated anxiety-neuroticism, a constellation that may be protective against other psychopathology; and (b) poorer attention and working memory with greater anxiety-neuroticism, a constellation that may also increase vulnerability to AUD and MD. This refinement of the anxiety phenotype may have implications for therapeutic interventions. Depression and Anxiety 0:1,10, 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    General measures of cognition for the preschool child

    DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES RESEARCH REVIEW, Issue 3 2005
    Elizabeth O. LichtenbergerArticle first published online: 13 SEP 200
    Abstract Preschool-age children who are experiencing delays in physical, cognitive, communication, social, emotional, or adaptive development are often referred for a comprehensive assessment to make diagnostic determinations and to help develop appropriate interventions. Typically cognitive assessment has a key role in a comprehensive evaluation of a young child. In this article, five individually administered tests of cognitive ability, normed for the preschool-age child, are reviewed. These specific tests include the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd edition, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, 5th edition, and the Differential Abilities Scales. The following is provided for these cognitive instruments: a description of the test procedures, information on scoring systems, highlights of the technical qualities, and a summary of the general meaning of test results. The article concludes with strengths and limitations of the instruments. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2005;11:197,208. [source]


    Are the cognitive functions of children with Down syndrome related to their participation?

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    TANYA RIHTMAN
    Aim, There is a lack of investigation into the functional developmental profile of children with Down syndrome. On the basis of current international health paradigms, the purpose of this study was to assess the developmental profile of these children. Method, Sixty children (33 males, 27 females) with Down syndrome (age range 6,16y; mean age 9y 3mo, SD 28.8mo), who had received standard, holistic, early intervention, were assessed. Of these, 42 (70%) had congenital anomalies, 12 had severe congenital heart defects. Participants were assessed on measures of cognitive function (Beery,Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual,Motor Integration; Stanford,Binet Intelligence Scale) and participation (Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales). Results, No difference was found on any measure on the basis of severity of congenital anomaly. Results showed improvements in age-related body function and correlations between specific body functions and participation. No decline in IQ was found with age, and significant correlations between IQ and all other measures were noted. Although sex differences were found in the body functions of short-term memory and motor function, no difference in measures of activity performance and participation was found. Interpretation, Our findings emphasize the need for paediatric Down syndrome intervention to encourage improved body functions while emphasizing the acquisition of functional skills that enable enhanced participation in age-appropriate activities. [source]


    Deletion of 8p: a report of a child with normal intelligence

    DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 12 2001
    Linda Gilmore PhD
    The case is presented of a female infant with a distal deletion of 8p (8p23.1,pter) whose development was monitored over a 5-year period from 12 months of age. Although previous literature has suggested that 8p deletion is associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability, the child reported here has normal intelligence. Despite initial delays in gross motor and language skills, cognitive development (assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development) and intellectual ability (measured on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale) were within average range. It is argued that the small number of previous case reports may have created a misleading impression of intellectual development in individuals with distal deletions of 8p. [source]


    Cognitive functioning in substance abuse and dependence: a population-based study of young adults

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2009
    Antti Latvala
    ABSTRACT Aims To investigate whether substance use disorders (SUDs) are associated with verbal intellectual ability, psychomotor processing speed, verbal and visual working memory, executive function and verbal learning in young adults, and to study the associations of SUD characteristics with cognitive performance. Participants A population-based sample (n = 466) of young Finnish adults aged 21,35 years. Measurements Diagnostic assessment was based on all available information from a structured psychiatric interview (SCID-I) and in- and out-patient medical records. Established neuropsychological tests were used in the cognitive assessment. Confounding factors included in the analyses were comorbid psychiatric disorders and risk factors for SUDs, representing behavioural and affective factors, parental factors, early initiation of substance use and education-related factors. Findings Adjusted for age and gender, life-time DSM-IV SUD was associated with poorer verbal intellectual ability, as measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale,Revised (WAIS-R) vocabulary subtest, and slower psychomotor processing, as measured with the WAIS-R digit symbol subtest. Poorer verbal intellectual ability was accounted for by parental and own low basic education, whereas the association with slower psychomotor processing remained after adjustment for SUD risk factors. Poorer verbal intellectual ability was related to substance abuse rather than dependence. Other SUD characteristics were not associated with cognition. Conclusions Poorer verbal intellectual ability and less efficient psychomotor processing are associated with life-time alcohol and other substance use disorders in young adulthood. Poorer verbal intellectual ability seems to be related to parental and own low basic education, whereas slower psychomotor processing is associated with SUD independently of risk factors. [source]


    Neuropsychological correlates of hippocampal and rhinal cortex volumes in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 8 2003
    Catherine E. O'Brien
    Abstract Considerable progress has been made toward understanding the function of the primate rhinal cortex, comprising the entorhinal (ErC) and perirhinal (PrC) cortices. However, translating animal models to human memory has been limited by the technological problems associated with characterizing neural structures in vivo. Functional correlates of hippocampal and rhinal cortex volume changes were examined in a sample of 61 temporal lobe epilepsy patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS; 33 left, 28 right). Patients were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (revised or third edition), the Wechsler Memory Scale (revised or third edition), and a spatial maze task. Neuropsychological data, together with rhinal cortex and hippocampal volumes, collected in our earlier study (O'Brien CE, Bowden SC, Whelan G, Cook MJ, unpublished observations), were analyzed using multiple regression. The only significant predictor of verbal memory function was the difference score between the volume of left hippocampus and the left PrC. Spatial maze scores were predicted by the bilateral sum of ErC volume. The difference score between the left hippocampus and left PrC volumes was the most powerful predictor of verbal episodic memory. Right hippocampal volume was not a significant predictor of nonverbal episodic memory. Verbal and nonverbal semantic memory were not significantly predicted by any combination of rhinal cortex structures. This quantitative study suggests a lateralized or material-specific memory function for the left hippocampus and left PrC, in contrast to the bilateral role of the ErC. The left hippocampus and left PrC appear to act on verbal memory function through an opposing relationship. Finally, differentiation between hippocampal and subhippocampal components in terms of episodic and semantic memory, respectively, could not be supported by the current data. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    A case of nevus comedonicus syndrome associated with neurologic and skeletal abnormalities

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 10 2001
    Young-Joon Seo MD
    A 12-year-old male was referred to us with recurrent pus discharge from tender nodules on the right axilla dating from the neonatal period. The nodules were black, characterized by scarring with dilated follicular openings and there were black papules filled with comedo-like keratin plugs in both axillae. Physical examination revealed a bowing deformity of the right third finger and retardation in language ability. The patient was referred to the Departments of Neurology and Orthopedics in Chungnam National University Hospital, Korea. Histologic examination of one of the black comedo-like lesions showed a bulbous and dilated infundibulum that contained laminated keratin, indicating a diagnosis of nevus comedonicus. A CT scan of the brain revealed dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. The IQ (intelligence quotient) score of the patient, measured by the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, was 94. The only difficulty noted for ordinary life was learning language. A radiograph of the right hand revealed hyperextension and an ulnar drift deformity of the right middle finger. Corrective osteotomy with external fixation and an iliac bone autograft were performed. Intermittent neurologic follow-up visits were ordered for the noted language deficit. At present the patient only exhibits difficulty in calculation. Oral antibiotics were administered to the skin lesions on occasion for secondary infections and inflammation of the cysts and comedones. Extraction of the comedones was performed as needed. [source]


    The neuropsychological profile in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 2 2009
    Haruhiko Oda
    Abstract Objective To demonstrate the exact nature of the cognitive profile of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) on standardized neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale,,Revised (WAIS-R) and the Wechsler Memory Scale,,Revised (WMS-R). Design We examined the WAIS-R and the WMS-R of 26 patients with probable DLB (based on the Consensus Criteria for the clinical diagnosis of DLB) and of 78 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (based on criteria of the National Institute for Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's disease and Related Disorders Association) who were matched to the patients with DLB 3:1 by Mini-Mental State Examination score. Results The DLB group scored significantly lower on the Block Design, Object Assembly and Digit Symbol of WAIS-R and significantly higher on the Logical Memory I, Verbal Paired Associates I, Logical Memory II, Visual Paired Associates II, Verbal Paired Associates II and Visual Reproduction II of WMS-R (p,<,0.0016 to p,<,0.0001). In a comparison between the DLB group and the AD group, a logistic regression analysis revealed that the weighted sum score of the Object Assembly and the Logical Memory II may differentiate DLB from AD with a sensitivity of 0.81 [95% Confidence Intervals (CI),=,0.66,0.96] and a specificity of 0.76 (95% CI,=,0.66,0.85). Conclusions The WAIS-R and the WMS-R can help to differentiate DLB from AD. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Comparison of the WAIS-III and WISC-IV in 16-Year-Old Special Education Students

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Issue 2 2010
    Shirley Gordon
    Background, Previous research with earlier versions of the WISC and WAIS has demonstrated that when administered to people who have intellectual disabilities, the WAIS produced higher IQ scores than the WISC. The aim of this study was to examine whether these differences still exist. A comparison of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale , Third Edition (WAIS-III) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children , Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was conducted with individuals who were 16 years old and receiving special education. Materials and Methods, All participants completed the WAIS-III (UK) and WISC-IV (UK). The order of administration was counterbalanced; the mean Full Scale IQ and Index scores on the WAIS-III and WISC-IV were compared. Results, The WAIS-III mean Full Scale IQ was 11.82 points higher than the mean Full Scale IQ score on the WISC-IV. Significant differences were also found between the Verbal Comprehension Index, Perceptual Reasoning/Organization Index and Processing Speed Index on the WAIS-III and WISC-IV, all with the WAIS-III scoring higher. Conclusions, The findings suggest that the WAIS-III produces higher scores than the WISC-IV in people with intellectual disabilities. This has implications for definitions of intellectual disability and suggests that Psychologists should be cautious when interpreting and reporting IQ scores on the WAIS-III and WISC-IV. [source]


    Comparison of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test,Third Edition and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale,Third Edition with university students

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    Nancy L. Bell
    This study examined the relationship between the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test,Third Edition (PPVT-III) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale,Third Edition (WAIS-III) using 40 adults who ranged in age from 18 to 41 (mean age of 22 years). Participants were administered the PPVT-III and WAIS-III in counterbalanced fashion to control for order effects. Results revealed that the PPVT-III score was related to the WAIS-III Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores but unrelated to the Performance IQ (PIQ) score. In addition, analyses indicated that, while there were no significant differences between the PPVT-III score and WAIS-III mean FSIQ and PIQ scores, the PPVT-III mean score was significantly lower than the WAIS-III VIQ. Further analysis indicated that the PPVT-III adequately estimated WAIS-III FSIQ and VIQ scores for participants who were classified as Average or High Average on the WAIS-III. However, for participants in the Superior range, the PPVT-III tended to underestimate FSIQ and VIQ scores by approximately 10 points. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol 57: 417,422, 2001. [source]


    A neuropsychological assessment of frontal cognitive functions in Prader,Willi syndrome

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 5 2007
    J. Jauregi
    Abstract Background Prader,Willi syndrome (PWS) is associated with a characteristic behavioural phenotype whose main features are, alongside compulsive hyperphagia, deficits in social behaviour: social withdrawal, temper tantrums, perseverative speech and behaviour, mental rigidity, stereotyped behaviour, impulsiveness, etc. Similar symptoms may also be found in autistic spectrum disorders and lesional pathologies of the frontal lobe. In both cases, such symptoms have been related to dysfunctions in frontal cognitive processes such as attention, working memory and executive functions. This study uses standardized neuropsychological instruments to analyse the degree to which these processes are affected in PWS. Methods The sample comprised 16 individuals with a genetically confirmed PWS diagnosis. Subjects' IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), academic level, laterality and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. Attention, memory and executive functions were analysed using standard, widely employed neuropsychological tests. We compared the results of the sample group with the general population. Correlation analyses were carried out with IQ, academic level and BMI. Results In all the neuropsychological measures focusing on attention, executive functions and visuoperceptual organization, the study sample scored significantly lower than the normative reference population. The scores of the tests used for measuring immediate memory were also significantly lower when trials required sequential processing, although not when they required simultaneous processing. In the memorization of a list of words, subjects showed an initial deficit which disappeared with repetition, enabling them to obtain scores similar to the reference population. No significant correlations were found with BMI, and a higher IQ or academic level did not improve scores in the majority of tests. Conclusions The study shows a deficit in elementary frontal cognitive processes in PWS patients. This deficit may be involved in the social behaviour disorders that characterize such patients, as described in other development or frontal syndrome pathologies. However, we cannot affirm that the deficits found are specific to PWS; they could also occur in other causes of intellectual disability. Although in the study sample IQ did not correlate with frontal deficits, further research is needed to establish whether the neuropsychological alterations described form part of a cognitive phenotype for PWS. We believe that our understanding of the social behaviours typical of PWS may be improved by taking into consideration the cognitive functioning models of the prefrontal lobe, particularly those applied to pervasive developmental disorders. [source]


    Preliminary evaluation of a scale to assess cognitive function in adults with Down's syndrome: the Prudhoe Cognitive Function Test

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 3 2003
    D. W. K. Kay
    Abstract Background In the clinical diagnosis of dementia in Down's syndrome (DS), it may be difficult to distinguish between cognitive deterioration and the various degrees of pre-existing intellectual disability (ID). Serial measurements of both cognitive function and behaviour are required. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of non-demented adults with DS on a subject-directed instrument, the Prudhoe Cognitive Function Test (PCFT), preliminary to its serial use in a prospective study. Methods From 1985 to 1986, 85 non-demented hospitalized adults with DS were interviewed using the PCFT. The Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) was administered to the carers. The subjects' levels of ID (graded from mild through moderate, severe and profound to untestable) were based on their scores on the Stanford,Binet Intelligence Scale, as reported in the medical records, and the relationship between level of disability and performance on the PCFT and ABS, and their respective domains, was examined. Results Both scales produced a wide range of scores and the correlation between them was highly significant. Both scales correlated highly significantly with the degree of ID, but more subjects with high levels (i.e. profound to untestable) of disability obtained very low or zero scores on the PCFT and its domains than on the ABS. Conclusions The PCFT provides a reliable quantitative measure of cognitive function in subjects with DS, and could be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of dementia in prospective studies. However, the almost uniformly low scores obtained by those with high levels of ID suggests that its power to detect cognitive decline will be limited to those who are less disabled, while the ABS may be more useful than the PCFT in detecting deterioration in people with profound ID. [source]


    Sensory Processing and Adaptive Behavior Deficits of Children Across the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Continuum

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2010
    Joshua L. Carr
    Background:, Prenatal alcohol exposure can have detrimental effects on a child's development of adaptive behaviors necessary for success in the areas of academic achievement, socialization, and self-care. Sensory processing abilities have been found to affect a child's ability to successfully perform adaptive behaviors. The current study explored whether significant differences in sensory processing abilities, adaptive behavior, and neurocognitive functioning are observed between children diagnosed with partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS), Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND), or children who were prenatally exposed to alcohol (PEA), but did not meet criteria for an FASD diagnosis. The influence of IQ on adaptive behavior as well as further exploration of the relationship between sensory processing and adaptive behavior deficits among these children was also examined. Methods:, A secondary analysis was conducted on some of the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) scores, Adaptive Behavior Assessment System,Second Edition (ABAS-II) scores, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale,Fourth Edition/Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence,Third Edition (WISC- IV/WPPSI,III) scores of 46 children between 3 and 14 years of age with pFAS, ARND, or who were PEA. Results:, Greater sensory processing deficits were found in children with a diagnosis of pFAS and ARND compared to those in the PEA group. Children with an ARND diagnosis scored significantly worse on measures of adaptive behavior than the PEA group. Children with pFAS scored significantly lower than children with ARND or PEA on perceptual/performance IQ. No correlation was found between IQ scores and adaptive behaviors across the FASD diagnostic categories. A significant positive correlation was found between SSP and ABAS-II scores. Conclusions:, Regardless of the diagnosis received under the FASD umbrella, functional difficulties that could not be observed using traditional measures of intelligence were found, supporting guidelines that a broad range of standardized assessments be included when screening children for FASD. [source]


    Mental tests and fossils

    JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, Issue 4 2004
    Richard A. Littman
    This article investigates the origins of the intelligence test item known as the Ball and Field in Lewis M. Terman's Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale. The question was initially raised by the resemblance of paleontological ocean bed floor tracings left by ancient creatures to the responses produced by children given the Ball and Field Test. A version of the Ball and Field Test was invented by Clifton F. Hodge, one of Terman's graduate school instructors who devised it as a result of his observations about how birds and other animals navigated and found their way. He then tested how humans and children located hidden objects and found that, in many ways, animals and humans used similar strategies for getting home or finding objects. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Comparison of trait and ability measures of emotional intelligence in medical students

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 11 2009
    Michael T Brannick
    Context, Emotional intelligence (EI), the ability to perceive emotions in the self and others, and to understand, regulate and use such information in productive ways, is believed to be important in health care delivery for both recipients and providers of health care. There are two types of EI measure: ability and trait. Ability and trait measures differ in terms of both the definition of constructs and the methods of assessment. Ability measures conceive of EI as a capacity that spans the border between reason and feeling. Items on such a measure include showing a person a picture of a face and asking what emotion the pictured person is feeling; such items are scored by comparing the test-taker's response to a keyed emotion. Trait measures include a very large array of non-cognitive abilities related to success, such as self-control. Items on such measures ask individuals to rate themselves on such statements as: ,I generally know what other people are feeling.' Items are scored by giving higher scores to greater self-assessments. We compared one of each type of test with the other for evidence of reliability, convergence and overlap with personality. Methods, Year 1 and 2 medical students completed the Meyer,Salovey,Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT, an ability measure), the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS, a trait measure) and an industry standard personality test (the Neuroticism,Extroversion,Openness [NEO] test). Results, The MSCEIT showed problems with reliability. The MSCEIT and the WLEIS did not correlate highly with one another (overall scores correlated at 0.18). The WLEIS was more highly correlated with personality scales than the MSCEIT. Conclusions, Different tests that are supposed to measure EI do not measure the same thing. The ability measure was not correlated with personality, but the trait measure was correlated with personality. [source]


    Deterioration of intelligence in methamphetamine-induced psychosis: Comparison with alcohol dependence on WAIS-III

    PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES, Issue 1 2010
    Shih-Ku Lin md
    Aims:, Long-term use of methamphetamine could induce psychosis, but consequences with regards to intelligence have seldom been investigated. Long-term use of alcohol could also result in intellectual deterioration. Methods:, The IQ of 34 methamphetamine-induced psychosis (MIP) patients (age, 28.7 6.1 years) and 34 alcohol-dependent (AD) patients (age, 40.7 7.3 years) was compared using the Chinese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale,Third Edition (WAIS-III). Results:, The average full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, performance IQ, verbal comprehension index, working memory index, perceptual organization index, and processing speed index was 82.3 10.8, 84.3 11.9, 81.9 12.1, 85.5 11.9, 84.7 12.5, 85.4 13.6, and 78.5 12.7 in MIP patients and 90.5 12.0, 95.2 11.3, 86.0 13.7, 95.5 11.0, 87.1 14.5, 96.2 13.1, and 84.5 15.0 in AD patients, respectively. There were six MIP patients (17.6%) whose full-scale IQ was <70 and 13 (38.2%) whose full-scale IQ was <85 and >70, while one AD patient had a full-scale IQ <70 (2.9%) and 10 (22%) had full-scale IQ <85 and >70. Conclusions:, Long-term use of methamphetamine can result not only in psychosis, but also in mentality deterioration. Intelligence deterioration is more severe in clinical MIP patients than AD patients. Assessment of the mentality of MIP patients is suggested to help with the implementation of rehabilitative programs for these patients. [source]


    Moral judgment in high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders

    PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES, Issue 4 2007
    TOSHINOBU TAKEDA md
    Abstract Individuals with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) are characterized by deficits in socialization. To date, moral judgment, which may have a considerable influence on socialization, has not been fully investigated in high-functioning PDD (HFPDD), particularly from a viewpoint of practical adjustment with peers. Human External Action and its internal Reasoning Type (HEART), a standardized test for evaluating moral judgment in school children developed in Japan, was used to compare various aspects of moral judgment between 23 students with HFPDD (6,14 years old) and 23 students with typical development matched for age, intelligence, and socioeconomic status. Students with HFPDD scored significantly lower on Internal Moral Reasoning than control students. As for the level of Internal Moral Reasoning, while both groups reached a conventional (third) level in almost all items, fewer students with HFPDD achieved an autonomous (fourth) level and more students with HFPDD remained at a heteronomous (second) level than did control students. In the HFPDD group there were significant positive correlations between some items of Internal Moral Reasoning and verbal ability-related items of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III. A comparatively lower score in students with HFPDD may relate to difficulty in socialization. [source]


    Estimation of premorbid IQ in individuals with Alzheimer's disease using Japanese ideographic script (Kanji) compound words: Japanese version of National Adult Reading Test

    PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES, Issue 3 2006
    KEIKO MATSUOKA phd
    Abstract The National Adult Reading Test (NART) is widely used as a measure of premorbid IQ of the English-speaking patients with dementia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a Japanese version of the NART (JART), using 50 Japanese irregular words, all of which are Kanji (ideographic script) compound words. Reading performance based on JART and IQ as measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale,Revised (WAIS-R) was examined in a sample of 100 normal elderly (NE) persons and in 70 age-, sex-, and education-matched patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The NE group was randomly divided into the NE calculation group (n = 50) and the NE validation group (n = 50). Using the NE calculation group, a linear regression equation was obtained in which the observed full-scale IQ (FSIQ) was regressed on the reading errors of the JART. When the regressed equation computed from the NE calculation group was applied to the NE validation group, the predicted FSIQ adequately fit the observed FSIQ (R2 = 0.78). Further, independent t -tests showed that the JART-predicted IQs were not significantly different between the NE and AD groups, whereas the AD group performed worse in the observed IQs. The reading ability of Kanji compound words is well-preserved in Japanese patients with AD. The JART is a valid scale for evaluating premorbid IQ in patients with AD. [source]


    Assessing giftedness with the WISC-III and the SB-IV

    PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 5 2002
    Michael Simpson
    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children,Third Edition (WISC-III) and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale,Fourth Edition (SB-IV), were administered to 20 gifted children and 20 non-gifted children to examine the extent of the difference in IQ scores obtained on the two tests and whether order effects were present. Results show that the SB-IV Composite Score was significantly higher than the WISC-III Full Scale IQ for both groups. However, for the gifted group, unlike the non-gifted group, this difference achieved significance only when the SB-IV was administered first. When either IQ test was administered to the gifted students for the first time, without the confound of a learning influence, there was no significant difference in mean scores. However, when both tests were administered, it was found that the SB-IV influenced the WISC-III Full Scale IQ in a downward direction whereas the WISC-III influenced the SB-IV Composite Score in an upward direction. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Deficits in interval timing measured by the dual-task paradigm among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 3 2010
    Shoou-Lian Hwang
    Background:, The underlying mechanism of time perception deficit in long time intervals in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still unclear. This study used the time reproduction dual task to explore the role of the attentional resource in time perception deficits among children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods:, Participants included 168 children and adolescents with DSM-IV ADHD and 90 control children and adolescents without ADHD, aged 10 to 17 years, in Taipei. The DSM-IV diagnoses of ADHD and other psychiatric comorbid conditions were made by clinical assessments and confirmed by the psychiatric interviews of both parents and participants using the Chinese Kiddie Epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. The participants were also assessed by using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-3rd edition (WISC-III), and time reproduction tasks (the single task and the simple and difficult versions of the dual tasks) at 5-second, 12-second, and 17-second intervals. The linear mixed model was used for data analysis. Results:, Children and adolescents with ADHD had less precise time reproduction than the controls in all three tasks except the 5-second interval of the single task. There were significant interactions between group and interval (12-second vs. 5-second, p = .030; 17-second vs. 5-second, p < .001), and between group and task (simple dual task vs. single task, p = .016; difficult dual task vs. single task, p < .001) after controlling for FSIQ, comorbidity, sex, age, use of methylphenidate, and the performance of the non-temporal tasks in dual tasks, if relevant. Conclusions:, Significantly increased estimation errors in ADHD with increased task difficulties suggest that impaired timing processing in children and adolescents with ADHD during long time intervals may be accounted for by the limited attentional capacity rather than a primary problem in timing per se. This finding does not apply to rapid time intervals, in which cerebellar circuitry is important. [source]


    Association of global brain damage and clinical functioning in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 10 2002
    G. P. Th.
    Objective To investigate the relationship between quantitative estimates of global brain damage based on magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) and cerebral functioning, as measured by neurologic, psychiatric, and cognitive assessments, as well as disease duration in patients with a history of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). Methods In a clinically heterogeneous group of 24 female patients (age range 19,65 years, mean age 35 years) with a history of NPSLE, the correlation values of several volumetric MTI measures and an estimate of cerebral atrophy, neurologic functioning (Kurtzke's Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]), psychiatric functioning (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and cognitive functioning (cognitive impairment score [CIS] derived from the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), as well as several measures of disease duration were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Quantitative volumetric estimates of global brain damage based on MTI and a measure of global brain atrophy correlated significantly with the EDSS, HADS, and CIS scores. No significant correlation was found between the quantitative estimates of global brain damage and the measures of disease duration. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that volumetric MTI parameters and cerebral atrophy reflect functionally relevant brain damage in patients with NPSLE. Furthermore, the absence of a linear relationship between disease duration and results of volumetric MTI measures and atrophy suggests a complicated pattern of accumulating brain damage in patients with NPSLE. [source]


    Memory functioning in familial bipolar I disorder patients and their relatives

    BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 2 2009
    Seema Quraishi
    Objective:, The aim of this study was to compare the memory function of patients with familial bipolar I disorder (BD I) who had shown psychotic features, their non-psychotic, non-bipolar first-degree relatives, and normal controls. Method:, We assessed 38 patients with a lifetime diagnosis of BD I who had experienced psychotic symptoms, 49 of their non-psychotic, non-bipolar first-degree relatives, and 44 controls. Patients and relatives were from families multiply affected with functional psychotic illness. A five-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale,Revised and three Wechsler Memory Scale subtests were administered to all participants. Results:, BD I patients showed deficits in verbal memory and verbal learning but not in visual memory. Compared to controls, relatives showed worse verbal learning at a statistically significant or suggestive level and performed significantly worse in both immediate and delayed verbal memory. Similar to patients, there were no differences between the relatives and control group for visual memory. Conclusion:, Impaired verbal memory and learning were found in patients and their relatives. These deficits may represent candidate endophenotypic markers for bipolar disorder. [source]


    Follow-up of adolescents born extremely preterm: cognitive function and health at 18 years of age

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 9 2010
    Anne-Li Hallin
    Abstract Aim:, To compare cognitive ability, school achievement and self-perceived health aspects in adolescents born extremely preterm and term born controls. Method:, Fifty-two, out of 61, extremely preterm born adolescents (mean age 18.4 years) and 54 matched controls (mean age 18.3 years) born at full term were investigated; intelligence quotient was measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; cognitive flexibility, i.e. a measure of visuomotor speed and attention, with the Trail Making Test; school achievement and choice of upper secondary programmes were reported. Health aspects were investigated in a semi structured interview. Result:, The adolescents born prematurely had significantly lower IQ than the controls, mean 93 (SD 15.4) vs 106 (12.5), p < 0.001; showed slower visuomotor speed; had lower grades from compulsory school (192.7 vs 234.8, p < 0.001); and chose to a greater extent practical upper secondary school programmes. There were no differences between the groups in health care consumption, prevalence of chronic disease, allergy or infectious diseases. Conclusion:, Poorer cognitive performance, in extremely preterm born individuals, seems to persist into late adolescence. Fewer prematurely born than control chose theoretical upper secondary school programmes. However, no difference was noted regarding self-perceived health aspects. [source]


    Cognitive outcome in children and adolescents treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with chemotherapy only

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 1 2009
    G Elisabeth Lofstad
    Abstract Objective: To examine cognitive outcome in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in remission, treated with central nervous system prophylactic chemotherapy only. Method: Thirty-five children and adolescents, age 8.4,15.3 years in long-term remission from ALL, 4.2,12.4 years post diagnosis, without relapse and no prediagnosis history of neurodevelopmental disorder were compared with 35 healthy controls matched for gender and age, on measures of intellectual functioning Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III). Results: All but two of the ALL survivors treated by chemotherapy only obtained WISC-III Total Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores in the normal range (M = 95.3), but their scores were significantly below levels for their matched controls and below normative standards for WISC-III. The difference between patients and controls was significant at the p < 0.001 level for the following measures: Total IQ, Verbal IQ, Verbal Comprehension Index, Freedom from Distraction Index and three verbal subtest scores. Conclusion: The results indicate long-term sequelae in global cognitive functions, and indicate that verbal function, processing speed, attention and complex visual-spatial problem solving may be affected in the chemotherapy only group. [source]


    Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation and Task Performance

    MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION REVIEW, Issue 3 2007
    Soon Ang
    abstract We enhance the theoretical precision of cultural intelligence (CQ: capability to function effectively in culturally diverse settings) by developing and testing a model that posits differential relationships between the four CQ dimensions (metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioural) and three intercultural effectiveness outcomes (cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance in culturally diverse settings). Before testing the model, we describe development and cross-validation (N = 1,360) of the multidimensional cultural intelligence scale (CQS) across samples, time and country. We then describe three substantive studies (N = 794) in field and educational development settings across two national contexts, the USA and Singapore. The results demonstrate a consistent pattern of relationships where metacognitive CQ and cognitive CQ predicted cultural judgment and decision making; motivational CQ and behavioural CQ predicted cultural adaptation; and metacognitive CQ and behavioural CQ predicted task performance. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our model and findings. [source]