Integration Mechanisms (integration + mechanism)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A multimodal fusion system for people detection and tracking

Mau-Tsuen Yang
Abstract Because a people detection system that considers only a single feature tends to be unstable, many people detection systems have been proposed to extract multiple features simultaneously. These detection systems usually integrate features using a heuristic method based on the designers' observations and induction. Whenever the number of features to be considered is changed, the designer must change and adjust the integration mechanism accordingly. To avoid this tedious process, we propose a multimodal fusion system that can detect and track people in a scalable, accurate, robust, and flexible manner. Each module considers a single feature and all modules operate independently at the same time. A depth module is constructed to detect people based on the depth-from-stereo method, and a novel approach is proposed to extract people by analyzing the vertical projection in each layer. A color module that detects the human face, and a motion module that detects human movement are also developed. The outputs from these individual modules are fused together and tracked over time, using a Kalman filter. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Imaging Syst Technol, 15, 131,142, 2005; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/ima.20046 [source]

Ascorbic acid and reproduction in fish: endocrine regulation and gamete quality

K Dabrowski
Abstract High ascorbic acid concentrations have been associated with gonad and brain tissues in teleost fishes. Although a direct dietary effect on gamete quality has been given some attention recently, the mechanism of action of ascorbate along the cascade of reproductive events in the hypothalamus, pituitary and gonads has not been defined. Data relating to gamete production and quality, as well as a possible protective role for ascorbate against cumulative genetic defects during gametogenesis and congenital malformation during gestation (embryonic development) is reviewed. It is suggested that the gonad growth in response to gonadotropin stimulation involves direct interaction between catecholamines and steroid hormones and their receptor sites. This interaction acts as a regulatory mechanism of ascorbate absorption, transfer and metabolism (degradation and/or renewal) in the reproductive system. We conclude that ascorbic acid is a leading nutrient in reproductive tissue functions and further research is needed on: (1) its antioxidant effect on gametes' (sperm and ova) capacity to prevent DNA damage occurring prior to (endogenous) and after spawning (environmental insults); (2) its dietary requirement to optimize survival and physiological recovery in multiple spawners; (3) the integration mechanism of ascorbic acid action as part of the overall endocrine regulation of neurohormonal,hormonal pathway in fish reproduction; and (4) the possible role for ascorbate in regulating fish maturation and/or infertility in the presence of enhanced UV-radiation or conditions of intensive aquaculture (hypoxia, oxygen supersaturation, dietary pro,, and antioxidants). [source]

Afferent-induced facilitation of primary motor cortex excitability in the region controlling hand muscles in humans

H. Devanne
Abstract Sensory inputs from cutaneous and limb receptors are known to influence motor cortex network excitability. Although most recent studies have focused on the inhibitory influences of afferent inputs on arm motor responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), facilitatory effects are rarely considered. In the present work, we sought to establish how proprioceptive sensory inputs modulate the excitability of the primary motor cortex region controlling certain hand and wrist muscles. Suprathreshold TMS pulses were preceded either by median nerve stimulation (MNS) or index finger stimulation with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) ranging from 20 to 200 ms (with particular focus on 40,80 ms). Motor-evoked potentials recorded in the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), first dorsalis interosseus and extensor carpi radialis muscles were strongly facilitated (by up to 150%) by MNS with ISIs of around 60 ms, whereas digit stimulation had only a weak effect. When MNS was delivered at the interval that evoked the optimal facilitatory effect, the H-reflex amplitude remained unchanged and APB motor responses evoked with transcranial electric stimulation were not increased as compared with TMS. Afferent-induced facilitation and short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) mechanisms are likely to interact in cortical circuits, as suggested by the strong facilitation observed when MNS was delivered concurrently with ICF and the reduction of SICI following MNS. We conclude that afferent-induced facilitation is a mechanism which probably involves muscle spindle afferents and should be considered when studying sensorimotor integration mechanisms in healthy and disease situations. [source]

High efficiency site-specific genetic engineering of the mosquito genome

D. D. Nimmo
Abstract Current techniques for the genetic engineering of insect genomes utilize transposable genetic elements, which are inefficient, have limited carrying capacity and give rise to position effects and insertional mutagenesis. As an alternative, we investigated two site-specific integration mechanisms in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. One was a modified CRE/lox system from phage P1 and the other a viral integrase system from Streptomyces phage phi C31. The modified CRE/lox system consistently failed to produce stable germline transformants but the phi C31 system was highly successful, increasing integration efficiency by up to 7.9-fold. The ability to efficiently target transgenes to specific chromosomal locations and the potential to integrate very large transgenes has broad applicability to research on many medically and economically important species. [source]

Analyzing the determinants of firm's absorptive capacity: beyond R&D

R & D MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2008
Jaider Vega-Jurado
This article proposes a new model for analyzing the determinants of absorptive capacity in companies. We suggest that absorptive capacity is determined not only by research and development activities, but also by a set of internal factors, which we group into three basic categories: organizational knowledge, formalization, and social integration mechanisms. In addition, we suggest that these factors may influence all components of the firm's absorptive capacity, and that the influence can be positive or negative depending on the applicability of the knowledge being absorbed. This paper thus advances the understanding of absorptive capacity by exploring a largely ignored aspect in the literature: the role of knowledge attributes. We show how the model can be operationalized and empirically tested and provide preliminary evidence supporting most of the propositions in the analytical model. [source]