And Health (and + health)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of And Health

  • medicine and health

  • Selected Abstracts

    Manual of Travel Medicine and Health

    Robert Steffen
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Developmental plasticity in fat patterning of Ache children in response to variation in interbirth intervals: A preliminary test of the roles of external environment and maternal reproductive strategies

    Jack Baker
    A firm link between small size at birth and later more centralized fat patterning has been established in previous research. Relationships between shortened interbirth intervals and small size at birth suggest that maternal energetic prioritization may be an important, but unexplored determinant of offspring fat patterning. Potential adaptive advantages to centralized fat storage (Baker et al., 2008: In: Trevathan W, McKenna J, Smith EO, editors. Evolutionary Medicine and Health: New Perspectives. New York: Oxford) suggest that relationships with interbirth intervals may reflect adaptive responses to variation in patterns of maternal reproductive effort. Kuzawa (2005: Am J Hum Biol 17:5,21; 2008: In: Trevathan W, McKenna J, Smith EO, editors. Evolutionary Medicine and Health: New Perspectives. New York: Oxford) has argued that maternal mediation of the energetic quality of the environment is a necessary component of developmental plasticity models invoking predictive adaptive responses (Gluckman and Hanson 2004: Trends Endocrinol Metab 15:183,187). This study tested the general hypothesis that shortened interbirth intervals would predict more centralized fat patterning in offspring. If long-term maternally mediated signals are important determinants of offspring responses, then we expected to observe a relationship between the average interbirth interval of mothers and offspring adiposity, with no relationship with the preceding interval. Such a finding would suggest that maternal, endogenous resource allocation decisions are related to offspring physiology in a manner consistent with Kuzawa's description. We observed exactly such a relationship among the Ache of Paraguay, suggesting that maternally mediated in utero signals of postnatal environments may be important determinants of later physiology. The implications of these findings are reviewed in light of life history and developmental plasticity theories and ourability to generalize the results to other populations. Recommendations for further empirical research are briefly summarized. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Book review: Evolutionary Medicine and Health: New Perspectives

    Julienne N. Rutherford
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Identification of occupational cancer risk in British Columbia: A population-based case,control study of 2,998 lung cancers by histopathological subtype

    Amy C. MacArthur MHSc
    Abstract Background Few studies have investigated occupational lung cancer risk in relation to specific histopathological subtypes. Methods A case,control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between lung cancer and occupation/industry of employment by histopathological subtype. A total of 2,998 male cases and 10,223 cancer controls, diagnosed between 1983 and 1990, were identified through the British Columbia Cancer Registry. Matched on age and year of diagnosis, conditional logistic regression analyses were performed for two different estimates of exposure with adjustment for potentially important confounding variables, including tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, marital status, educational attainment, and questionnaire respondent. Results For all lung cancers, an excess risk was observed for workers in the primary metal (OR,=,1.31, 95% CI, 1.01,1.71), mining (OR,=,1.53, 95% CI, 1.20,1.96), machining (OR,=,1.33, 95% CI, 1.09,1.63), transport (OR,=,1.50, 95% CI, 1.08,2.07), utility (OR,=,1.60, 95% CI, 1.22,2.09), and protective services (OR,=,1.27, 95% CI, 1.05,1.55) industries. Associations with histopathological subtypes included an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma in construction trades (OR,=,1.25, 95% CI, 1.06,1.48), adenocarcinoma for professional workers in medicine and health (OR,=,1.73, 95% CI, 1.18,2.53), small cell carcinoma in railway (OR,=,1.62, 95% CI, 1.06,2.49), and truck transport industries (OR,=,1.51, 95% CI, 1.00,2.28), and large cell carcinoma for employment in the primary metal industry (OR,=,2.35, 95% CI, 1.11,4.96). Conclusions Our results point to excess lung cancer risk for occupations involving exposure to metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and asbestos, as well as several new histopathologic-specific associations that merit further investigation. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:221,232, 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]