Intact Protein Sources (intact + protein_source)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Dietary arginine requirement of fingerling Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) based on growth, nutrient retention efficiencies, RNA/DNA ratio and body composition

S. F. Abidi
Summary To quantify the optimum dietary arginine requirement of fingerling Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (4.10 0.04 cm; 0.62 0.02 g), an 8-week growth trial was conducted in eighteen 70-L indoor circular aqua-coloured troughs provided with a flow-through system at 28 1C. Isonitrogenous (40 g 100 g,1 crude protein) and isocaloric (4.28 kcal g,1 gross energy) amino acid test diets containing casein and gelatin as intact protein sources with graded levels of arginine (0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75 g 100 g,1 dry diet) were fed to triplicate groups of fish to apparent satiation at 07:00, 12:00 and 17:30 hours. Growth performance of fish fed the above diets was evaluated on the basis of absolute weight gain (AWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein retention efficiency (PRE) and energy retention efficiency (ERE). Maximum AWG (2.61), SGR (2.80), best FCR (1.35), highest PER (1.85), PRE (37%) and ERE (76%) were recorded at 1.25 g 100 g,1 dietary arginine. Maximum body protein (18.88 g 100 g,1) and RNA/DNA ratio (5.20) were also obtained in a 1.25 g 100 g,1 arginine dry diet. Except for the reduced growth performance in fish fed arginine-deficient diets, no other deficiency signs were apparent. Based on the broken-line and second-degree polynomial regression analysis of the AWG, SGR, FCR, PER, PRE and ERE data, the optimum arginine requirement for fingerling Labeo rohita was found to be in the range of 1.22,1.39 g 100 g,1 of the dry diet, corresponding to 3.05,3.47 g 100 g,1 of dietary protein. [source]

Influence of dietary amino acid profiles on growth performance and body composition of juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides

Z. Luo
Summary A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary amino acid (AA) profiles on growth performance and body composition of juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides (initial mean weight: 68.1 1.0 g, mean SD). Five diets contained 30% fishmeal, 12% soy protein concentrate and 20% crystalline amino acids (CAAs); the control diet contained 54% fishmeal and 17% soy protein concentrate as intact protein sources. CAAs were added to the five diets to simulate the AA pattern found in white fishmeal protein (WFP), brown fishmeal protein (BFP), hen egg protein (HEP), grouper E. coioides juvenile protein (GJP) and red sea bream egg protein (REP), respectively. The highest WG and SGR were obtained in fish fed the control diet, followed by fish fed the diets with AA profiles of WFP and GJP. Fish fed the diets with AA profiles of BFP, REP and HEP showed relatively poor growth performance. Feed utilization showed a similar trend in growth parameters. Protein content of whole body among these treatments showed no significant differences (P > 0.05), but lipid content of whole body showed the highest value in the control group (P < 0.05). Dietary AA profiles significantly influenced plasma protein, cholesterol, triacylglycerol and glucose concentrations (P < 0.05). Dietary AA profiles significantly influenced the condition factor, hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio (P < 0.05). [source]

Effect of methionine on intestinal enzymes activities, microflora and humoral immune of juvenile Jian carp (cyprinus carpio var. Jian)

Abstract An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary methionine supplementation on intestinal microflora and humoral immune of juvenile Jian carp (initial weight of 9.9 0.0 g) reared in indoor flow-through and aerated aquaria. Eight amino acid test diets (350 g kg,1 crude protein, CP), using fish meal, soybean-condensed protein and gelatin as intact protein sources supplemented with crystalline amino acids, were formulated to contain graded levels of methionine (0.6,22.0%) at a constant dietary cystine level of 3 g kg,1. Each diet was randomly assigned to three aquaria. Growth performance and feed utilization were significantly influenced by the dietary methionine levels (P < 0.05). Maximum weight gain, feed intake occurred at 12 g kg,1 dietary methionine (P < 0.05). Methionine supplementation improved hepatopancreas and intestine weight, hepatosomatic and intestine index, intestinal ,-glutamyltransferase and creatine kinase activity, Lactobacillus count, Bacillus count, lysozyme activities, lectin potency, sim-immunoglobulin M content, addiment C3,C4 contents and serum total iron-binding capacity and declined Escherichia coli and Aeromonas counts. Quadratic regression analysis of weight gain against dietary methionine levels indicated that the optimal dietary methionine requirement for maximum growth of juvenile Jian carp is 12 g kg,1 of the dry diet in the presence of 3 g kg,1 cystine. [source]

Estimating digestible protein requirements of silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus Mitchell

G L Allan
Abstract In this study, we estimated requirements for digestible protein, using intact protein sources, at one digestible energy content. Using digestibility data for silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus Mitchell) for a large number of ingredients, we formulated a ,summit' diet to contain between 1.4 and 1.8 times the ,expected requirements' for digestible essential amino acids (based on requirements for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque). A ,diluent' diet was formulated to contain 0.4,0.5 times the expected requirements of digestible essential amino acids. Both ,summit' and ,diluent' diets contained similar digestible energy (14.7 MJ digestible energy kg,1 for the summit and 13.4 MJ digestible energy kg,1 for the diluent). Six diets were prepared with the following amounts of summit,diluent diets: 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100. A practical diet widely used by commercial farmers was also included as a control. Ten juvenile fish (2.1,2.6 g) were stocked into each experimental 70-L acrylic aquarium, and each dietary treatment was randomly assigned to five replicate aquaria. Fish were fed twice daily to apparent satiation for 54 days. Final individual fish weight ranged from 4,15.5 g. Results were analysed using intersecting linear regression analysis. The optimum digestible dietary protein for diets with 13.4,14.7 MJ digestible energy kg,1, after which protein deposition did not increase significantly, was 28%. Although this study did not determine requirements for individual amino acids, for diets with the digestible energy content used here, requirements for individual amino acids obviously did not exceed the content in the 28% protein diet. These contents are useful as an estimate of ,recommended levels' for silver perch diets with 13.4,14.7 MJ digestible energy kg,1. The proximate composition of fish was affected by diet. Whole body protein and moisture increased, whereas lipid content decreased with increasing dietary protein content (and increasing protein,energy ratio and decreasing lipid). Fish size was also affected by diet; however, the changes in whole carcass proximate composition also occurred for fish fed diets 60:40, 80:20 and the summit diet which were a similar final weight. [source]