Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Instructors

  • clinical instructor

  • Selected Abstracts

    Enhancing Knowledge Transfer in Classroom Versus Online Settings: The Interplay Among Instructor, Student, Content, and Context

    Louise Nemanich
    ABSTRACT This article integrates management education and organizational learning theories to identify the factors that drive the differences in student outcomes between the online and classroom settings. We draw upon theory on knowledge transfer barriers in organizations to understand the interlinking relationships among presage conditions, deep learning process, and product in the 3P model of student learning. We test our model in the context of undergraduate education and find that confidence in the instructor's expertise, perceived content relevance, and the social richness of the classroom learning environment enhance student enjoyment of the course. Confidence in instructor's expertise and perceived content relevance also contribute to greater understanding of causal relationships among course concepts. Enjoyment is positively associated with learning performance in the classroom, but not online, and student ability is positively associated with learning performance in the online context, but not in the classroom. Our results have implications for course designs in the traditional classroom context and the more innovative online environment. [source]

    Putting the pieces together: teaching undergraduate research from a theoretical perspective

    Marjorie C. Dobratz DNSc RN
    Problem/purpose.,Baccalaureate graduates are expected to utilize research across a wide variety of practice settings. While the literature reports a variety of teaching approaches, few studies examine baccalaureate students' comprehension of research content. Teaching techniques that focus on a conceptual or theoretical approach may foster research comprehension. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate teaching/learning outcomes of an undergraduate nursing research course designed from a conceptual or theoretical approach. Procedure/findings.,Two classes of senior baccalaureate nursing students (n = 47) at a private institution, whose curriculum was based on the Roy adaptation model, were surveyed in 1990 and 1991 at the end of their undergraduate research course. The survey tool consisted of seven three-point Likert scale questions, four open-ended questions, and one unstructured comment. Findings showed that 72% strongly agreed that they would continue to read nursing articles in their practice field, 57% disagreed that they were intimidated by research language, and 55% agreed that they trusted their ability to use and utilize nursing research in practice. The most helpful learning activity was the research critique (34%) followed by group work (28%). The support of the teacher and Instructor's use of own research examples was also seen as most helpful (36%), while abstract cards (8%) were least helpful. Nonetheless, 23% requested more group activities, 13% wanted more class examples, and 11% asked for more time to comprehend definitions. Implications.,Students who approached research from the perspective of a nursing conceptual framework indicated that they put the pieces of the research puzzle together by working in groups, being supported by the Instructor, and learning from a variety of teaching methods. [source]

    Student Hits in an Internet-Supported Course: How Can Instructors Use Them and What Do They Mean?

    Andrew, Ellen Baugher Varanelli Weisbord
    ABSTRACT The world of education is changing as Web-based technology and courseware are increasingly used for delivery of course material. In this environment, instructors may need new measures for determining student involvement, and ultimately student performance. This study examines whether hits to a Web site have any value for predicting student performance in a traditional course supported by Web activities. Total Hits at the end of the semester was used as one measure. Hit Consistency, determined by assigning a 0 when no hits occurred between class meetings and by assigning a 1 when one or more hits occurred between class meetings, was another. Hit Consistency was significantly correlated with course average (r= .37, p < .001) for 108 students in two course sections. Hit Consistency started to show a significant relationship with course average by the third week (or class). Total Hits was not found to significantly correlate with course average (r= .08, p > .05) at the end of the semester or during any week. These results suggest that students who consistently access a Web site will perform better than those who do not. When Hit Consistency and Total Hits were entered as independent variables into a stepwise regression with course average as the dependent variable, the model was enhanced by the addition of Total Hits after Hit Consistency was entered (R= .43, p < .001). Hierarchical regression analysis in which cumulative grade point average was entered as the first controlling variable suggested that online access may go beyond the predictive value of achievement alone for predicting course performance with Hit Consistency appearing to be the dominant causal variable. [source]

    Note to Instructors: Ed's Dilemma: Succession Planning at Niagara Paving

    Pramodita Sharma
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A Comparison of the Attitudes of Learners, Instructors, and Native French Speakers About the Pronunciation of French: An Exploratory Study

    Isabelle Drewelow
    The stereotype has it that native French Speakers are annoyed by foreign Speakers' errors in pronunciation. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess beliefs about the importance of accurate pronunciation in French held by three afferent groups: (1) 73 second- and third-semester students of French at a large midwestern research university in the United States, (2) 16 nonnative-speaker instructors of French at the same institution, and (3) 24 native Speakers of French living in France. In a fall Semester, each of the three groups received near mirror-image versions of a questionnaire, ranging from 33 items (for the learners) to 29 items (for the instructors) to 26 items (for the native French Speakers) in true/false format. Acknowledging that attitudes toward foreign accents might be language- and nationality-specific, all questions pertained to Americans speaking French. Percentages were calculated, and corresponding questions on all three questionnaires were grouped according to theme, then compared and cross-referenced with participants' backgrounds. Generally, this study revealed a gap between the attitudes of hypothetical native Speakers, promoted in teaching on the one hand, and the attitudes professed by real native Speakers on the other hand. The results of this study discredit the myth that native French Speakers have a low tolerance for an American accent in French. Instructors, and nonnative Speaker instructors specifically, need to project more realistic goals and refrain from misinforming their students that a perfect native-like pronunciation is vital to successful communication with native Speakers. [source]

    A Successful Peer Writing Assistant Program

    Bonnie L. Youngs PhD
    Since then, writing assistants have been used across three levels (elementauy, intemediate, advanced)of language learning in all seven languages taught at Carnegie Mellon University. Student feedback on the program has been gathered and assessed, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Students indicated that out-of-class peer review is beneficial to them. The writing assistants themselves feel their skills also improve when working with their peers. Instructors appreciate the flexibility of integrating a writing assistant according to the needs and requirements of their particular language(s). In addition to explanations of the data, we offer suggestions for the development, coordination, implementation, and integration of a successful peer writing assistance program. [source]

    Designing and Implementing an Information System for the Dental Office of Branckowitz & Young

    Alex Nikitkov
    ABSTRACT This case provides students with the opportunity to create a functional information system (IS) for a service company. The case facilitates a guided hands-on experience where students learn to analyze a business entity in the context of its environment; recognize what business processes comprise an entity's value chain; and develop, document, and implement a tailor-made IS to support the entity's operation. In order to keep the amount of development realistic and the system transparent for students, the case focuses on a small service company: a dental office. The case uses a resource,events,agents (REA) analytical framework for modeling and Microsoft Access for IS implementation. The case is structured modularly, enabling instructors to either explain material or demonstrate analysis/development of a segment of an IS in class and then challenge the students to complete the module's development following the instructor's example. Instructors have the flexibility to give students fewer (or additional) directions in developing the information system, depending on the students' backgrounds and abilities. Instructors also have a choice to limit the scope of the development and implementation to any number of four business processes. [source]

    How students and instructors using a virtual learning environment perceive the fit between technology and task

    T.J. McGill
    Abstract Virtual learning environments (VLEs) are widespread in higher education today, typically used to deliver instructional materials and facilitate communication within a course. This study aimed to investigate the task,technology fit of VLEs for their two main groups of users: instructors and students, using the VLE WebCT. Task,technology fit, user satisfaction, attitude towards use and anticipated consequences of use were found to be significantly higher for students than for instructors. Instructors were found to have higher perceptions of social norms and higher perceptions of facilitating conditions than students. However, there was no difference between the instructors and students in level of utilization of the VLE. Students perceived that the VLE had higher impacts on their learning compared with instructors' perceptions regarding their teaching. These results suggest that despite high levels of support acknowledged by instructors, they may still be unsure about the contribution of VLEs to their teaching. [source]

    Learning Styles of Interior Design Students as Assessed by the Gregorc Style Delineator

    Stephanie A. Watson Ed.D.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the preferred learning style of undergraduate students majoring in interior design. The Gregorc Style Delineator, a self-report instrument to determine learning style, was administered to 147 undergraduate interior design students enrolled in Foundation for Interior Design Education Research (FIDER) accredited programs located within the Southwest Region of the United States. To determine the dominant learning style of undergraduate interior design students, frequency distributions were compiled. Overall, the most important finding in this study was the diversity of learning styles among interior design students. Not only were all learning styles represented in the sample, but 49% of students exhibited dominance in more than one style,unlike the results of previous studies with non interior design students. The most common learning styles found among interior design students are a logical and hands-on learning style, known as Concrete Sequential, and a combination of experimental, imaginative, and people-oriented learning styles, known as Concrete Random/Abstract Random. Diversity in student learning styles supports the argument for the need for instructors to have a repertoire of teaching methods. Instructors should be knowledgeable in learning style theory, should know their own learning style, and should be able to teach using a variety of styles. [source]

    Relationship between L1 and L2 word-level reading and phonological processing in adults learning English as a second language

    Gina L. Harrison
    Word-level reading and phonological processing measures were administered in English and Chinese to adult ESL students whose first language (L1) was Mandarin and whose second language (L2) was English. Instructors also identified students who may be at risk for L2 reading difficulties based on specific identification criteria. L2 phonological processing measures were related to L2 word-level reading and there was a cross-linguistic relationship between L1 and L2 phonological processing measures. Students considered at risk for L2 reading difficulties also differed significantly from those students not at risk on one L1 and several L2 phonological processing measures. Results are discussed in relation to contemporary theory on the assessment and identification of reading difficulties in English language learners. [source]

    Strategies for the numerical integration of DAE systems in multibody dynamics

    E. Pennestrì
    Abstract The number of multibody dynamics courses offered in the university is increasing. Often the instructor has the necessity to go through the steps of an algorithm by working out a simple example. This gives the student a better understand of the basic theory. This paper provides a tutorial on the numerical integration of differential-algebraic equations (DAE) arising from the dynamic modeling of multibody mechanical systems. In particular, some algorithms based on the orthogonalization of the Jacobian matrix are herein discussed. All the computational steps involved are explained in detail and by working out a simple example. It is also reported a brief description and an application of the multibody code NumDyn3D which uses the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) approach. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 12: 106,116, 2004; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20005 [source]

    Gazing at the Hand: A Foucaultian View of the Teaching of Manipulative Skills to Introductory Chemistry Students in the United States and the Potential for Transforming Laboratory Instruction

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 3 2005
    ABSTRACT Many studies of chemistry have described the rise of the academic chemical laboratory and laboratory skills in the United States as a result of famous men, important discoveries, and international influences. What is lacking is a perspective of the manifestations of the balances of power and knowledge between teacher and student. A Foucaultian analysis of the teaching of manipulative skills to the introductory student in high school and college in the United States during the later half of the 19th and into the 20th century has provided such a perspective. The analysis focuses on the body, specifically students' hands, and how this body has been redescribed in terms of time, space, activity, and their combinations. It is argued in the first part of this article that the teaching of manipulative skills in the chemistry laboratory can be characterized by effects of differential forms of power and knowledge, such as those provided by Foucault's ideas of hierarchical observation, normalization, and the examination. Moreover, it is evident that disciplinary techniques primarily focused on the physical hands of the student have been recast to include a new cognitive-physiological space in which the teaching of manipulative skills currently takes place. In the second part of this article, the author describes his own professional development as a laboratory instructor through a series of reflective statements that are critiqued from a Foucaultian perspective. The personal narratives are presented in order to pro- vide science educators with an alternative way for their students to think about the relationship between one's manipulative skills and the quality of their data. The pedagogical approach is related to the maturation process of the chemist and contextualized in the current paradigm of laboratory practice, inquiry-based science education. [source]

    Capturing Flow in the Business Classroom

    Yi Maggie Guo
    ABSTRACT This study focuses on the flow experience in business education. Flow experience, characterized by concentration, control, and enjoyment, can lead to better learning outcomes. Leading preconditions of flow include the balance of challenge and skill, feedback, and goal clarity. Other situational factors affect the flow experience through the mediating effects of these three factors. In this article, we extend an existing framework linking flow and learning. Using the model as a guide, we start our research effort of flow in business education by conducting a field survey of student learning experience in terms of flow and influential factors. Data were collected using business students taking an introductory Operations Management course. The analysis reveals that flow does exist in classroom learning. Its key dimensions are concentration, sense of control, and enjoyment. The more important leading factor is having clear feedback. Characteristics of both the instructor and students play a role in the flow experience of students during lecture. It is evident that flow theory offers a useful framework for business education research. Suggestions for future research are made. [source]

    An Agency Theory Perspective on Student Performance Evaluation

    Michael E. Smith
    ABSTRACT The emphasis in recent research on the responsibility of college and university business instructors to prepare students for future employment underscores a need to refine the evaluation of student performance. In this article, an agency theory framework is used to understand the trade-offs that may be involved in the selection of various approaches to student evaluation. Understanding these trade-offs may be particularly important as faculty members seek to balance competing obligations, such as research and service requirements, while ensuring instructional effectiveness. This article presents propositions for examining how various institutional, instructor, and student characteristics influence the selection and use of student performance evaluation techniques (i.e., exams, papers, and group assignments). In conclusion, we suggest that agency theory may serve as a foundation for understanding current evaluation practices and guiding instructors in their selection of appropriate evaluation mechanisms. [source]

    Structuring the Classroom for Performance: Cooperative Learning with Instructor-Assigned Teams*

    Gary D. Koppenhaver
    ABSTRACT The main concern is a longstanding one in classroom instruction,the determinants of effective team performance. The paper explicitly examines the effect of teacher-controlled factors on the use and functioning of student teams. From a sample of 500 undergraduate students, data are obtained on aptitude, diversity, instability, motivation, personality style, size, and performance. The regression results suggest that team motivation and instability, which are both partly controlled by the instructor, are particularly important in determining a team's performance. An implication is that instructor decisions about team make-up and incentives can have a significant impact on student achievement. [source]

    Virtual microscopy: An educator's tool for the enhancement of cytotechnology students' locator skills

    Jimmie Stewart III M.D.
    Abstract Virtual microscopy (VM) is being utilized as an educational tool in many areas of pathology. The aim of this study is to analyze the locator and diagnostic skills of cytotechnology students by using the Aperio T3 ScanScope®, and examine VM's viability as an educational tool in cytotechnology. Ten validated cytology slides were digitized and reviewed by three senior cytotechnologist instructors. Each technologist made annotations indicating diagnostic areas on the virtual slide. A subset of the slides was used for locator skill evaluation. Cytotechnology students examined a pristine copy of the virtual slide and made annotations for comparison to those made by experienced instructors. Annotations of the subset were then scored based on the degree of correlation between students and cytotechnologists. A cytopathologist performed a final review of the students' marks; points were then added or subtracted based on this interpretation. Students were graded based on their correlation to senior cytotechnologists. A statistical analysis using modified interrater calculations ranked the students as to locator ability, producing illuminating results. This study shows that VM has promise as a cytotechnology educational tool by allowing the instructor to evaluate students' locator and diagnostic abilities. We have attempted to implement a simple scoring system for evaluation of locator skills where students are compared versus expert cytotechnologists. We anticipate further technological improvements as the products mature. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2008;36:363,368. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Elusive '68: The Challenge to Pedagogy

    William Collins Donahue
    Teaching ,68 presents pedagogical challenges far greater than assembling a set of workable classroom materials. Divisive controversies that were the hallmark of the time,e.g., the debate over the nature and appropriate use of violence,are with us still, though in a somewhat different form. Further, the instructor,s own politics and positionality can hardly be ignored,as they will certainly not be overlooked by our students. Additionally, this essay argues that fundamental terms (such as who qualifies as a ,68er) remain problematic; that the instrumentalization of the Holocaust by the German New Left continues to affect political decisions down to the present; that our investment as teachers in poststructuralist literary theory may,perhaps inadvertently,affect the way we view and therefore teach ,68; and, finally, that there is a pressing need, despite a recent explosion in Germany of publications celebrating the fortieth anniversary of ,68, for a didacticized reader designed for the North American German Studies classroom. [source]

    Randomized controlled trial of an instructional DVD for clinical skills teaching

    Joon C Lee
    Abstract Objective:, To determine the efficacy of clinical skills teaching using a DVD-based teaching medium (interventional group) compared with the traditional, four-step, face-to-face approach (control group). The clinical skill selected for the study was that of paediatric intraosseous (IO) needle insertion. Methods:, Thirty-six candidates who had no exposure to IO needle insertion experience within the past 12 months were randomly allocated into two groups. The interventional group (n = 18) was shown a 10 min instructional DVD and then allowed 10 min each to practise IO insertion with a paediatric training mannequin. The control group (n = 18) was given a 20 min, four-step, face-to-face teaching session with practical exposure and individual use of an IO needle on a training mannequin facilitated by an instructor. Each candidate was assessed using a checklist of critical steps for successful IO needle insertion and given a score out of 10. A modified Likert score reflecting candidates' subjective perceptions of the whole experience was completed after the test. Results:, The interventional group obtained a mean score of 7.56 (SD 1.65) and the control teaching group a mean score of 6.00 (SD 1.84). The mean difference was ,1.56 (P < 0.01, 95% CI ,2.74 to ,0.37). There was no difference in the candidates' perception on the satisfaction, anxiety and confidence level about the teaching experience. Conclusion:, The study suggests that the use of instructional DVD for clinical skills teaching results in improved learning outcomes compared with the traditional face-to-face didactic teaching method. [source]

    Association amongst factors thought to be important by instructors in dental education and perceived effectiveness of these instructors by students

    D. W. Chambers
    It is hypothesised that dental educators have perceptions of their roles as effective teachers. It is expected that subject matter expertise would be amongst the components of such personal philosophies of education, but it is unclear whether faculty member self-perceptions carry over into student ratings of instructors' effectiveness. A 20-item survey of ,Teaching Characteristics' was completed by 86% of full-time and 64% of the part-time faculty members at the University of the Pacific. Respondents distributed 100 points amongst the descriptions of what makes an effective instructor. The responses were factor-analysed, resulting in four general faculty ,types' that explained about 50% of the variance in ratings: expert, enthusiast, judicial and good soldier. Student ratings for the 2 years running up to the date of the survey administration were used to gauge student perceptions of instructor effectiveness. Faculty members who placed emphasis on expertise as key to being a good instructor received significantly lower ratings for teacher effectiveness from students than did other faculty members. Faculty members who conceived their roles as motivating students, explaining difficult concepts, displaying interest in the subject, showing compassion and caring, and being proactive tended to receive high ratings for teaching effectiveness from students. [source]

    A pilot study comparing the effectiveness of conventional training and virtual reality simulation in the skills acquisition of junior dental students

    Frank Quinn
    The use of virtual reality (VR) in the training of operative dentistry is a recent innovation and little research has been published on its efficacy compared to conventional training methods. To evaluate possible benefits, junior undergraduate dental students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: group 1 as taught by conventional means only; group 2 as trained by conventional means combined with VR repetition and reinforcement (with access to a human instructor for operative advice); and group 3 as trained by conventional means combined with VR repetition and reinforcement, but without instructor evaluation/advice, which was only supplied via the VR-associated software. At the end of the research period, all groups executed two class 1 preparations that were evaluated blindly by ,expert' trainers, under traditional criteria (outline, retention, smoothness, depth, wall angulation and cavity margin index). Analyses of resulting scores indicated a lack of significant differences between the three groups except for scores for the category of ,outline form', for group 2, which produced significantly lower (i.e. better) scores than the conventionally trained group. A statistical comparison between scores from two ,expert' examiners indicated lack of agreement, despite identical written and visual criteria being used for evaluation by both. Both examiners, however, generally showed similar trends in evaluation. An anonymous questionnaire suggested that students recognized the benefits of VR training (e.g. ready access to assessment, error identification and how they can be corrected), but the majority felt that it would not replace conventional training methods (95%), although participants recognized the potential for development of VR systems in dentistry. The most common reasons cited for the preference of conventional training were excessive critical feedback (55%), lack of personal contact (50%) and technical hardware difficulties (20%) associated with VR-based training. [source]

    To Assign a Topic or Not: Observing Fluency and Complexity in Intermediate Foreign Language Writing

    Joshua D. Bonzo Assistant ProfessorArticle first published online: 19 MAR 200
    Abstract: The present study examines the written products of third-semester German students' written productions during a timed, in-class writing activity. Topic selection control was modulated from instructor to student during eight 10-minute sessions. To account for order of treatment, two of the four groups were counterbalanced with the other two. Each written product was textually analyzed and categorized into a general fluency index and an overall grammatical complexity score, both of which were correlated and statistically analyzed (ANOVA). ANOVA results indicate that topic control did influence participants' written fluency but not grammatical complexity (though mean scores for complexity were higher during self-selected topic writing). Participants' overall level of fluency was significantly higher when they selected their own topics. [source]

    Anxiety and the True Beginner,False Beginner Dynamic in Beginning French and Spanish Classes

    Diana Frantzen
    Abstract: This study considered true beginners and false beginners in first-semester university French and Spanish classes to: (a) determine whether true beginners and false beginners differ in anxiety, grades, and plans to continue language study; and (b) identify classroom factors that foster anxiety or comfort. Students completed a questionnaire that included the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986), MacIntyre and Gardner Anxiety Subscales (1989, 1994), demographic information, grade expectations, and open-ended questions. Randomly selected students were interviewed about their experiences in the courses. Statistical analyses revealed that (a) although neither group was terribly anxious, true beginners were significantly more anxious overall and during processing and output stages than false beginners; (b) true beginners expected and received lower grades than false beginners; and (c) significantly more true beginners than false beginners planned to continue studying the language. Comments on one written open-ended question and in the interviews pointed to the key role of the instructor in reducing anxiety. [source]

    Literary Discussions and Advanced Speaking Functions: Researching the (Dis) Connection

    Richard Donato PhD
    Motivating this study was the need for research to determine how discussion in advanced undergraduate literature courses provides discourse opportunities to students to develop advanced language functions, as defined in the ACTFL Guidelines. Despite claims that literature classes play an additional role in developing language proficiency, this issue has not received serious research attention. In this study, classroom transcripts were analyzed for the following features: (1) discourse structure of the literary discussion; (2) the use of teacher questions; (3) verb tense distribution; and (4) student uptake. The analysis attempted to uncover how literary discussion afforded opportunities for students to describe, to narrate in major timeframes, to use extended discourse, to share opinions and arguments, to explore alternatives, and to hypothesize,all advanced and superior level speaking functions. The study also included instructor and student interviews to determine their views of foreign language literature classes and to see if what was observed could be explained by the goals the instructor and students had expressed. The findings suggest that simply having a literary discussion does not ensure that students will be pushed to use the language in advanced ways even when faced with tasks requiring critical thinking and advanced language use. One issue that this study reveals is that, for students to experience speaking in the advanced ranges of proficiency, discussions must enable complex thinking in complex language. Other findings suggest that literature instructors should be aware of the discourse opportunities that arise in literary discussions, should make speaking expectations and advanced functions clear to students, and should monitor student language use during discussions. [source]

    Teaching Composition in the College Level Foreign Langua Class: Insights and Activities from Sociocultural Theory

    Regina F. Roebuck
    It is precisely this course, however, that offers learners the opportunity to develop their linguistic and written competencies and the instructor the opportunity to create multiple situations of pedagogical value. This article will draw on several relevant and useful components of sociocultural theory in the organization of a second language composition course and the creation of activities designed to improve students' written skills in the second language [source]

    Visual search and urban driving under the influence of marijuana and alcohol

    C. T. J. Lamers
    Abstract The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of low doses of marijuana and alcohol, and their combination, on visual search at intersections and on general driving proficiency in the City Driving Test. Sixteen recreational users of alcohol and marijuana (eight males and eight females) were treated with these substances or placebo according to a balanced, 4-way, cross-over, observer- and subject-blind design. On separate evenings, subjects received weight-calibrated doses of THC, alcohol or placebo in each of the following treatment conditions: alcohol placebo + THC placebo, alcohol + THC placebo, THC 100,,g/kg + alcohol placebo, THC 100,,g/kg + alcohol. Alcohol doses administered were sufficient for achieving a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of about 0.05,g/dl. Initial drinking preceded smoking by one hour. The City Driving Test commenced 15 minutes after smoking and lasted 45 minutes. The test was conducted over a fixed route within the city limits of Maastricht. An eye movement recording system was mounted on each subject's head for providing relative frequency measures of appropriate visual search at intersections. General driving quality was rated by a licensed driving instructor on a shortened version of the Royal Dutch Tourist Association's Driving Proficiency Test. After placebo treatment subjects searched for traffic approaching from side streets on the right in 84% of all cases. Visual search frequency in these subjects did not change when they were treated with alcohol or marijuana alone. However, when treated with the combination of alcohol and marijuana, the frequency of visual search dropped by 3%. Performance as rated on the Driving Proficiency Scale did not differ between treatments. It was concluded that the effects of low doses of THC (100,,g/kg) and alcohol (BAC,<,0.05,g/dl) on higher-level driving skills as measured in the present study are minimal. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Creating Early Success in Financial Accounting: Improving Performance on Adjusting Journal Entries,

    cognition; écritures comptables; formation; intervention Abstract Adjusting journal entries constitute a necessary component of accrual basis accounting and are critical to the accuracy of financial statements. However, accounting students often struggle to comprehend these accounting entries, which is a concern given that failure to understand early topics in accounting courses has been found to impact course performance and selection of undergraduate major. Perceiving accounting as a language, we utilize psycholinguistic theory to understand how an instructor may improve coherence of students' mental structures of accounting problems. We conduct an experiment to investigate the extent to which a simple instructor intervention, requiring that the initial deferral transaction be recorded, is able to improve student performance on the subsequent deferral adjustments, and whether this improvement is consistent across problem sets that differ in task difficulty. Consistent with our theoretical prediction, we find that this intervention results in improved performance. The beneficial effect of the intervention is found to differ across problem-set task difficulty. Implications for accounting education are discussed. Favoriser dès le départ la réussite en comptabilité générale en améliorant la qualité des écritures de régularisation Résumé Les écritures de régularisation font partie intégrante de la comptabilité d'exercice et sont indispensables à l'exactitude des états financiers. Or, les étudiants en comptabilitééprouvent souvent de la difficultéà comprendre ces écritures comptables, observation préoccupante puisque la méconnaissance de notions élémentaires des cours de comptabilité influe, a-t-on constaté, sur la réussite des cours et le choix d'une majeure au premier cycle. Envisageant la comptabilité comme un langage, les auteurs ont recours à la théorie de la psycholinguistique pour déterminer comment un enseignant peut améliorer la cohérence des structures mentales avec lesquelles les étudiants abordent des problèmes comptables. Ils se livrent à une expérience dans laquelle ils analysent dans quelle mesure la simple intervention de l'enseignant, exigeant la comptabilisation initiale d'une opération de report, peut améliorer la performance de l'étudiant en ce qui a trait aux ajustements de report subséquents, et si cette amélioration demeure constante dans des problématiques où la difficulté de la tâche diffère. Conformément à leur prévision théorique, les auteurs constatent que cette intervention entraîne une amélioration de la performance. Ils observent que l'effet bénéfique de cette intervention diffère selon la difficulté de la tâche associée à la problématique. Enfin, ils analysent les conséquences de ces observations pour la formation comptable. [source]

    An analysis of narratives to identify critical thinking contexts in psychiatric clinical practice

    Mi Suk Mun PhD RN
    Mun MS. International Journal of Nursing Practice 2010; 16: 75,80 An analysis of narratives to identify critical thinking contexts in psychiatric clinical practice The development of students' critical thinking abilities is one of the greatest challenges facing contemporary nursing educators. Nursing educators should know about what kind of contents or situations need critical thinking. The research was undertaken to identify the critical thinking contexts that nursing students confront in psychiatric clinical practices. Students were asked to document their everyday experience. The narratives were analysed and interpreted from the philosophical notion of hermeneutics. Four themes emerged as critical thinking contexts: anxiety, conflict, hyper-awareness, dilemmas. Writing narratives appear to provide opportunities for reflection in addition to facilitating critical thinking and communicative skills in students. Also, for the instructor, students' clinical narratives could provide insight to understand how students are thinking and to share student's personal difficulties. [source]

    The role of the instructor in business games: a comparison of face-to-face and online instruction

    Ana Beatriz Hernández
    This study analyses the role of the instructor in the e-learning process fostered by a business game. To achieve this objective, a comparative analysis was conducted with two groups of students regarding their perceptions of the instructor's role in a business game. The first group was composed of 33 participants and facilitated by an instructor in a face-to-face process. The second group was composed of 23 participants and facilitated by the same instructor online. Our results indicate that the students' assessment of the role of the instructor is clearly different in both cases: the face-to-face group valued the relevance of the instructor's role in the learning process more highly than the online group. Our findings also highlight the importance of the instructor's role in improving the students' learning experience and suggest that extra efforts by online instructors are needed to maximize the e-learning process through business games in management training. [source]

    Cultural barriers in the education of cardiovascular disease patients in Iran

    M.A. Farahani bscn
    Background:, Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for the highest mortality rate in Iran; however, there is a lack of evidence for cultural factors influencing patient education. Such information is important for the provision of effective patient care. Aim:, To identify key issues relating to cultural factors influencing education of cardiovascular disease patients in Iran. Methods:, The qualitative research approach was used in this study, with open-ended interviews used to gather data. Eighteen nurses, four cardiovascular specialists, nine patients with cardiovascular disease and four family members were interviewed at two educational hospitals in Tehran. Interviews were taped, transcribed and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Findings:, Participants expressed a range of cultural factors influencing patient education. Five themes emerged from the analysis: (a) patients' lifestyle, (b) beliefs about disease and treatment, (c) concealment of true diagnosis, (d) different opinions regarding the preferred instructor, and (e) ineffective communication. Conclusion:, Findings show that cultural beliefs may act as risk factors for, or serve to intensify, cardiovascular disease. Consideration of these factors is essential for the success of patient education programmes. [source]

    The On-Road Difficulties of Older Drivers and Their Relationship with Self-Reported Motor Vehicle Crashes

    Joanne M. Wood PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To quantify the driving difficulties of older adults using a detailed assessment of driving performance and to link this with self-reported retrospective and prospective crashes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: On-road driving assessment. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred sixty-seven community-living adults aged 70 to 88 randomly recruited through the electoral roll. MEASUREMENTS: Performance on a standardized measure of driving performance. RESULTS: Lane positioning, approach, and blind spot monitoring were the most common error types, and errors occurred most frequently in situations involving merging and maneuvering. Drivers reporting more retrospective or prospective crashes made significantly more driving errors. Driver instructor interventions during self-navigation (where the instructor had to brake or take control of the steering to avoid an accident) were significantly associated with higher retrospective and prospective crashes; every instructor intervention almost doubled prospective crash risk. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that on-road driving assessment provides useful information on older driver difficulties, with the self-directed component providing the most valuable information. [source]