Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Instruction

  • classroom instruction
  • clinical instruction
  • direct instruction
  • explicit instruction
  • formal instruction
  • grammar instruction
  • hygiene instruction
  • language instruction
  • literacy instruction
  • online instruction
  • oral hygiene instruction

  • Selected Abstracts


    Two studies were conducted to examine the effect of prompting self-regulation, an intervention designed to improve learning from technology-delivered instruction. In Study 1, trainees who were prompted to self-regulate gradually improved their declarative and procedural knowledge over time, relative to the other conditions, whereas test scores declined over time for trainees who were not prompted to self-regulate. In Study 2, basic performance remained stable over time and strategic performance improved over time for trainees who were prompted to self-regulate, relative to the other conditions, whereas performance declined over time for trainees who were not prompted to self-regulate. Trainees' cognitive ability moderated the effect of the prompts on basic performance and task-specific self-efficacy moderated the effect of the prompts on strategic performance. Prompting self-regulation resulted in stronger performance gains over time for trainees with higher ability or higher self-efficacy. These results demonstrate prompting self-regulation improved performance over time, relative to the other conditions, in both online, work-related training and laboratory settings. The results are consistent with theory suggesting self-regulation is a dynamic process that has a gradual effect on performance and highlight the importance of using a within-subjects design in self-regulation research. [source]

    Gazing at the Hand: A Foucaultian View of the Teaching of Manipulative Skills to Introductory Chemistry Students in the United States and the Potential for Transforming Laboratory Instruction

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 3 2005
    ABSTRACT Many studies of chemistry have described the rise of the academic chemical laboratory and laboratory skills in the United States as a result of famous men, important discoveries, and international influences. What is lacking is a perspective of the manifestations of the balances of power and knowledge between teacher and student. A Foucaultian analysis of the teaching of manipulative skills to the introductory student in high school and college in the United States during the later half of the 19th and into the 20th century has provided such a perspective. The analysis focuses on the body, specifically students' hands, and how this body has been redescribed in terms of time, space, activity, and their combinations. It is argued in the first part of this article that the teaching of manipulative skills in the chemistry laboratory can be characterized by effects of differential forms of power and knowledge, such as those provided by Foucault's ideas of hierarchical observation, normalization, and the examination. Moreover, it is evident that disciplinary techniques primarily focused on the physical hands of the student have been recast to include a new cognitive-physiological space in which the teaching of manipulative skills currently takes place. In the second part of this article, the author describes his own professional development as a laboratory instructor through a series of reflective statements that are critiqued from a Foucaultian perspective. The personal narratives are presented in order to pro- vide science educators with an alternative way for their students to think about the relationship between one's manipulative skills and the quality of their data. The pedagogical approach is related to the maturation process of the chemist and contextualized in the current paradigm of laboratory practice, inquiry-based science education. [source]

    The Role of Explicit Information in Instructed SLA: An On-Line Study with Processing Instruction and German Accusative Case Inflections

    Hillah Culman
    The present study reports the findings of an experiment on the effects of explicit information on the learning of German case markings. Fifty-nine learners of first- and second-year German received computer-based processing instruction on German accusative case marking and word order. These learners were divided into two groups: one received explicit information on the nature and form of case marking in German prior to the treatment, and one group did not. We measured the effects of explicit information by tracking correct responses on the computer as participants made their way through the activities. Analyses revealed that explicit information had an effect: those who received explicit information began to correctly respond to stimulus sentences (i.e., began to correctly indicate who did what to whom) sooner than those who did not. These results contradict previous research and suggest a hidden role for explicit information within processing instruction. [source]

    Indoctrination, Moral Instruction, and Nonrational Beliefs: A Place for Autonomy?

    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 4 2005
    Michael S. Merry
    The manner in which individuals hold various nonevidentiary beliefs is critical to making any evaluative claim regarding an individual's autonomy. In this essay, I argue that one may be both justified in holding nonrational beliefs of a nonevidentiary sort while also being capable of leading an autonomous life. I defend the idea that moral instruction, including that which concerns explicitly religious content, may justifiably constitute a set of commitments upon which rationality and autonomy are dependent. I situate this discussion against the backdrop of a minimalist notion of autonomy. I then consider the case for nonrational beliefs, examining the difference between those whose content is objectionable on evidentiary grounds and those that are immune to verification. Next, I consider the indoctrination/moral instruction distinction through examining the various ways in which indoctrination is defined. I also consider the role that value coherence plays in shaping our identities, paying particular attention to fundamental commitments as defined by our respective families, cultures, and communities. Finally, I argue that individual psychology is central to our ability to assess the outcome of an upbringing purported to be indoctrinatory, and I emphasize the important role that experience and agency play in enabling us to evaluate our beliefs. [source]

    EMCyberSchool An Evaluation of Computer-assisted Instruction on the Internet

    Kevin M. Baumlin MD
    Abstract. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that integration of the EMCyberSchool, a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) tool available on the Internet, into the curriculum of a senior medical student subinternship in emergency medicine (EM) would improve exam scores and course satisfaction. Methods: Students were prospectively randomized, by four-week blocks, into a CAI group and a no-CAI group. All students were surveyed on previous computer experience and their use and opinion of the EMCyberSchool. Results: Completed data were obtained from 100 of 120 students. Sixty-five percent of the students said they wanted CAI as an adjunct to their course curricula; only 28% actually used the educational tool. The students who used the site rated it useful (4.2/5), easy to use (4.4/5), and easy to access (4.1/5). Of the students who had access, and chose not to use the EMCyberSchool, 77.8% reported not having enough time as the reason for not using the site. The mean exam scores were 72.8% for the students in the CAI group and 68.2% for those in the no-CAI group (p = 0.058). In the CAI group, 77.5% (31/40) of the students rated the course as outstanding or excellent; compared with 66% (33/50) in the no-CAI group (p = 0.23). Conclusions: Although desired, it remains unclear whether CAI on the Internet is a useful adjunct for teaching EM to medical students. [source]

    The Combined Effects of Immersion and Instruction on Second Language Pronunciation

    Gillian Lord
    Abstract: This preliminary study investigates the acquisition of second language phonology with respect to two variables: immersion in a target language community, and explicit instruction in the form of a phonetics/pronunciation class. Specifically, the research examines the second language acquisition (SLA) of specific properties of the Spanish phonology system as achieved by native speakers of English participating in a summer program in Mexico, some of whom had previously taken a Spanish phonetics course. Results suggest that it is not one factor or another in isolation that is most beneficial, but rather the combination of the two. The findings are analyzed not only in terms of how the SLA of sound systems develops, but also with respect to pedagogical, curricular, and administrative implications. [source]

    Development of the Spanish Subjunctive by Advanced Learners: Study Abroad Followed by At-Home Instruction

    Article first published online: 31 DEC 200, Casilde A. Isabelli
    This study investigates whether or not abstract-level linguistic features, not successfully acquired abroad, will be acquired once the advanced language learner returns from a study abroad program and is exposed to linguistic instruction. The goal of the study was to measure the development of the Spanish subjunctive in adverbial clauses collected via oral interviews among 24 learners who were exposed to advanced subjunctive instruction upon returning from a study abroad program, and to compare them to 19 learners who were exposed to advanced subjunctive instruction without ever having studied abroad. The results show a positive effect on the development of the Spanish subjunctive with linguistic instruction. However, those who had previous study abroad experience benefited even more from this instruction in that they produced more complex subjunctive-related structures. [source]

    The Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA): Connecting Assessment to Instruction and Learning

    Bonnie Adair-Hauck
    ABSTRACT: This article reports on Beyond the OPI: Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA) Design Project, a three-year (1997,2000) research initiative sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education International Research and Studies Program. The primary goal of the project was to develop an integrated skills assessment prototype that would measure students' progress towards the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (National Standards, 1999, 2006). A second goal of the project was to use the assessment prototype as a catalyst for curricular and pedagogical reform. This paper presents the Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA) prototype, illustrates a sample IPA, and discusses how classroom-based research on the IPA demonstrated the washback effect of integrated performance-based assessment on teachers' perceptions regarding their instructional practices. [source]

    Literary Texts and Grammar Instruction: Revisiting the Inductive Presentation

    Article first published online: 31 DEC 200, Kate Paesani
    In this approach, which employs strategies from the teaching of grammar and the teaching of reading, literary texts serve as the basis of the inductive presentation of new grammatical forms and as a springboard for communicative practice of these forms after explicit instruction. The goal is to provide learners with meaning-bearing input to assist their acquisition of grammatical forms, to raise students' consciousness about the target language, to encourage meaningful communication among learners, and to develop skills and strategies in the reading of literary texts. The presentation of the proposed technique is followed by an example of teaching French relative pronouns based upon Prévert's (1949) poem "Le Message." [source]

    Literary Texts and Grammar Instruction: Revisiting the Inductive Presentation

    Article first published online: 31 DEC 200, Kate Paesani PhD
    In this approach, which employs strategies from the teaching of grammar and the teaching of reading, literary texts serve as the basis of the inductive presentation of new grammatical forms and as a springboard for communicative practice of these forms after explicit instruction. The goal is to provide learners with meaning-bearing input to assist their acquisition of grammatical forms, to raise students' consciousness about the target language, to encourage meaningful communication among learners, and to develop skills and strategies in the reading of literary texts. The presentation of the proposed technique is followed by an example of teaching French relative pronouns based upon Prévert's (1949) poem "Le Message." [source]

    Teaching Gambits: The Effect of Instruction and Task Variation on the Use of Conversation Strategies by Intermediate Spanish Students

    2Article first published online: 10 SEP 200, Gregory Taylor
    This study, based in part on previous research by Wildner-Bassett (1984), examined (1) whether gambit use in Spanish can be taught effectively in the classroom, allowing the student to use gambits appropriately in unplanned speech; (2) how the type of interactional situation (a friendly discussion versus a complaint) affects the production of gambits; and (3) what types of gambits show the greastest increases in use for each interactional situation. Participants were intermediate students. A repeated-measures design was used. Results suggest that students can be taught to use gambits effectively and appropriately in the classroom. In addition, the nature of the interactional situation seemed to make a difference in the ability of the students to produce gambits in spontaneous interaction and in the types of gambits they produced. [source]

    Enhancing Learners' Communication Skills through Synchronous Electronic Interaction and Task-Based Instruction

    Lina Lee
    ABSTRACT: Online interactive exchange offers the learner many opportunities to use the target language to negotiate both meaning and form in a social context that is crucial for second language acquisition. This paper discusses a pilot study using synchronous electronic chats combined with task-based instruction (TBI) to enhance learners' communication skills. TBI focuses on the two-way exchange of information on real-life topics. This pilot study shows that computer-mediated communication using less structure-controlled but more open-ended exchange had a significant impact on the process of language learning. Students benefited from online task-based activities because they had to access different functional skills to construct and negotiate meaning collaboratively. However, foreign language educators need to be aware that the quick cyberspace interactions impeded students from producing correct and coherent discourse, especially during learner-learner interaction. One corrective technique is to make students reexamine and revise their exchanges with guided instruction. [source]

    Effect of an In-Home Occupational and Physical Therapy Intervention on Reducing Mortality in Functionally Vulnerable Older People: Preliminary Findings

    Laura N. Gitlin PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a multicomponent intervention on mortality and the role of control-oriented strategy use as the change mechanism. DESIGN: Two-group randomized design with survivorship followed for 14 months. Participants were randomized to intervention or a no-treatment control group. SETTING: Urban, community-living older people. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred nineteen people aged 70 and older with functional difficulties. INTERVENTION: Occupational therapy and physical therapy sessions involving home modifications, problem solving, and training in energy conservation, safe performance, balance, muscle strength, and fall recovery techniques. MEASUREMENTS: Survival time was number of days between baseline interview and date of death or final interview if date unknown. Control-oriented strategy use was measured using eight items. RESULTS: Intervention participants exhibited a 1% rate of mortality, compared with a 10% rate for no-treatment control participants (P=.003, 95% confidence interval=2.4,15.04%). At baseline, those who subsequently died had more days hospitalized and lower control-oriented strategy use 6 months before study enrollment than survivors. No intervention participants with previous days hospitalized (n=31) died, whereas 21% of control group counterparts did (n=35; P=.001). Although intervention participants with low and high baseline control strategy use had lower mortality risk than control participants, mortality risk was lower for intervention participants with low strategy use at baseline (P=.007). CONCLUSION: An occupational and physical therapy intervention to ameliorate functional difficulties may reduce mortality risk in community-dwelling older people overall and benefit those most compromised. Instruction in control-oriented strategies may account for the intervention's protective effects on survivorship. [source]

    Computer-assisted vs. teacher-directed teaching of numeracy in adults


    Abstract, Whilst a good deal of research literature has been published on using Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) to help teach children with learning disabilities, there are fewer published studies examining the use of CAI with adults with a mild learning disability. This paper reports on an experiment comparing computer-assisted and teacher-implemented instruction in numeracy with this population, with a third group acting as a control group. All groups were pre-tested on two psychometric tests of numeracy, after which the experimental groups received one half-day per week training in numeracy, with all groups being reassessed after three months and after six months. It was found that overall the three groups improved in their numeracy scores, and that teacher-led and computer groups improved more as a function of time on the intervention than did the control group. The issue of how much teacher support is required when this population uses CAI is discussed, as are some of the strengths and weaknesses of the software used in the study. [source]

    Simulated Computer-Mediated/Video-Interactive Distance Learning: A Test of Motivation, Interaction Satisfaction, Delivery, Learning & Perceived Effectiveness

    Ruth Guzley
    This paper reports on an innovative, computer-mediated, educational technology application in a simulated distance learning environment. As an initial evaluation, real student groups completed an entire university course using this state-of-the-art, two-way synchronous audio/visual communication technology, Distributed Tutored Video Instruction (DTVI). The study reported here explored student perceptions of a simulated distance learning environment using the system. The learning environment was characterized by videotaped lectures by the course instructor, delivered in computer-mediated small group settings. Six separate groups made up of six to eight students and a facilitator were studied. Group members were in separate locations, interacting via synchronous audio and visual computer channels. Our findings indicate an overall high level of perceived effectiveness and satisfaction with the instructional mode. In addition, significant relationships were established between facilitator effectiveness and student satisfaction, student motivation and class participation, student exam grades and perceived amount of group discussion. Findings indicate innovations in computer-mediated instructional designs can achieve desired levels of participant interaction considered critical to effective distance education technology. [source]

    Implications to ethics education of recent neuroscience research on emotions

    Richard H. Mccuen
    As it is currently taught, instruction in engineering ethics centers on cognitive learning even to the extent of suppressing the involvement of emotions in ethical decision making. The common belief is that emotional involvement will increase the likelihood of poor judgment. Recent neuroscience research with positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging indicates that emotions actually play a significant role in ethical decision making. It then follows that emotions should be part of ethics education: That is, discussions of ethics should not be limited to cognitive thought. Instruction to improve emotional maturity must be accompanied by teaching of cognitive subject matter if long-term learning is to occur. Emotions influence the solution of ethical problems as they affect the accuracy of the problem assessment and the accuracy, intensity, and duration of an emotive response. Specific emotions that relate to ethical decisions are listed. A theory of emotive learning is presented, and its application to the teaching of engineering ethics is discussed. Strategies for emotive learning are also presented. [source]

    Introduction: Investigating Form-Focused Instruction

    Rod Ellis
    The Introduction has three main aims. First, it provides a historical sketch of form-focused instruction research, documenting the origins of this branch of second language acquisition, the research questions that have been addressed, and current trends. Second, it seeks to define and conceptualize what is meant by "form-focused instruction" by distinguishing it from "meaning-focused instruction" and by describing three types of form-focused instruction in terms of whether the primary focus is on form or meaning and whether the instructional attention to target forms is intensive or extensive. Various instructional options relating to each type are also described. Third, the Introduction offers a discussion of the main research methods that have been used to investigate form-focused instruction in terms of a broad distinction between confirmatory and interpretative research. Methods of measuring "acquisition" in form-focused instruction research are also considered. [source]

    A Tiered Intervention Model for Early Vocabulary Instruction: The Effects of Tiered Instruction for Young Students At Risk for Reading Disability

    Paige C. Pullen
    Vocabulary knowledge at school entry is a robust predictor of later reading achievement. Many children begin formal reading instruction at a significant disadvantage due to low levels of vocabulary. Until recently, relatively few research studies examined the efficacy of vocabulary interventions for children in the early primary grades (e.g., before fourth grade), and even fewer addressed vocabulary intervention for students at increased risk for reading failure. In more recent work, researchers have begun to explore ways in which to diminish the "meaningful differences" in language achievement noted among children as they enter formal schooling. This article provides a review of a particularly effective model of vocabulary intervention based on shared storybook reading and situates this model in a context of tiered intervention, an emerging model of instructional design in the field of special education. In addition, we describe a quasi-experimental posttest-only study that examines the feasibility and effectiveness of the model for first-grade students. Participants were 224 first-grade students of whom 98 were identified as at risk for reading disability based on low levels of vocabulary. Results of a multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences on measures of target vocabulary knowledge at the receptive and context level, suggesting that students at risk for reading failure benefit significantly from a second tier of vocabulary instruction. Implications for classroom practice as well as future research are provided. [source]

    Evidence-Based Strategies for Reading Instruction of Older Students with Learning Disabilities

    Greg Roberts
    Over a quarter of 8th-grade students and more than one-third of 4th graders do not read well enough to understand important concepts and acquire new knowledge from grade-level text. For students with learning disabilities, the numbers are more troubling. This article describes features of evidence-based instruction for students who continue to struggle with reading in late elementary, middle, and high school. Recommendations are organized into 5 areas that are critical to the reading improvement of older struggling readers: (1) word study, (2) fluency, (3) vocabulary, (4) comprehension, and (5) motivation. Much of the content in this article reflects our efforts with the Special Education and Reading Strands at the National Center on Instruction, funded by the Office of Special Education Programs and the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. Two reports, both available at, have particular relevance,Interventions for Adolescent Struggling Readers: A Meta-Analysis with Implications for Practice and Academic Literacy Instruction for Adolescents: A Guidance Document from the Center on Instruction. [source]

    Integrating Reform-Oriented Math Instruction in Special Education Settings

    Brian A. Bottge
    This mixed-methods study assessed the effects of Enhanced Anchored Instruction (EAI) on the math performance of adolescents with learning disabilities in math (MLD). A quasi-experimental pretest,posttest control group design with switching replications was used to measure students' computation and problem-solving skills on EAI compared to control conditions. Scores on the curriculum-aligned and standardized measures showed improved problem-solving skills but results were mixed for computation. To augment the numerical data, a qualitative inquiry captured day-to-day classroom activities. The findings showed that problem-based curricula such as EAI have the potential for helping students with MLD develop deeper understandings of math concepts but that considerable effort is required to structure and teach these concepts in ways students with MLD understand. [source]

    Graphic Organizers Applied to Secondary Algebra Instruction for Students with Learning Disorders

    Bob Ives
    Students who have particular difficulty in mathematics are a growing concern for educators. Graphic organizers have been shown to improve reading comprehension and may be applied to upper level secondary mathematics content. In two systematic replications, one randomly assigned group was taught to solve systems of linear equations through direct instruction and strategy instruction. The other group was taught with the same methods with the addition of a graphic organizer. Students who received instruction with the graphic organizers outperformed those who received instruction without the organizers. They also better understood the related concepts as measured by immediate posttests in both replications. The difference in understanding concepts was maintained on a 2,3 week posttest. [source]

    Responsiveness to General Education Instruction as the First Gate to Learning Disabilities Identification

    Deborah L. Speece
    Most definitions of learning disabilities (LD) include a qualification that adequate general education instruction was received and the child with LD did not benefit. Rarely is this tenet assessed in either practice or research before a diagnosis is made. We review three studies that investigated children's responsiveness to general education reading instruction as an indicator of need for more intensive interventions. Adequacy of instruction was quantified by children's level and rate of progress, compared to classmates, as measured by curriculum-based measures of oral reading fluency. We found that the response-to-instruction model tested was valid in that (1) children who differ from their peers on level and slope of performance (dual discrepancy) have more severe academic and behavioral problems than children who have IQ-achievement discrepancies or low achievement; (2) children who demonstrate persistent nonresponsiveness over three years differ from other at-risk children on reading, reading-related, and behavioral measures; and (3) at-risk children who participated in specially designed general education interventions had better outcomes than at-risk children who did not participate. We conducted additional analyses to assess low achievement definitional variations and found that they lack sensitivity and coverage compared to a dual discrepancy definition. [source]

    Effects of Instruction in an Assignment Completion Strategy on the Homework Performance of Students with Learning Disabilities in General Education Classes

    Charles A. Hughes
    Homework is an important activity in the lives of school-aged children, including students with learning disabilities (LD). Characteristics often associated with LD (e.g., poor organizational skills) may adversely impact the rate and quality of homework completion. In this study, a multiple-probe across-students design (Horner & Baer, 1978) was used to evaluate the effects of instruction in a comprehensive, independent assignment completion strategy with regard to homework completion rates and the quality of products completed in response to assignments given in general education classrooms. Eight of nine students mastered use of the strategy, and their homework completion rates and the quality of their homework products improved. Associated with these improvements were increases in quarterly grades and teacher ratings of the quality of the assignments. Thus, direct instruction in a comprehensive strategy comprised of organizational behaviors can result in independent completion of more homework by students with LD. Nevertheless, instruction in organizational skills alone appears insufficient to produce a 100 percent submission rate: student motivation to complete assignments and mastery of the skills required, as well as the appropriateness of assignments for students, need to be addressed. [source]

    Grammar Acquisition and Processing Instruction: Secondary and Cumulative Effects,by BENATI, ALESSANDRO G., & JAMES F. LEE

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    When Grammar Instruction Undermines Cohesion in L2 Spanish Classroom Discourse

    Paul D. Toth
    This article compares ordinary conversational topics and targeted second language (L2) forms for their effectiveness in building and maintaining classroom discourse cohesion. In this study, 16 learners participated in 2 lessons, 1 with teacher turns determined by a grammatical object of instruction, and the other with turns determined by conversation topics. Based on research by Sperber and Wilson (1995) and Vuchinich (1977), extended latency gaps and remedy sequences in learner turns were taken as evidence of poor cohesion. Both lessons were videotaped, transcribed, and coded. Of the 16 learners, 5 volunteers viewed the videotapes and offered written explanations for their extended latencies. Longer latencies and more frequent remedy sequences occurred during the grammatically-determined discourse, with volunteers likewise indicating greater difficulty understanding the instructor, than during the conversational lesson. It is argued that for grammar instruction to work effectively, a focus on form must be transparent as the instructional objective, and targeted L2 forms must themselves be properly treated as discourse topics. [source]

    Designing an Effective Concurrent Enrollment Program: A Focus on Quality of Instruction and Student Outcomes

    Margaret Peterson
    At Salt Lake Community College the concurrent enrollment department has structured a program that provides quality instruction for students by focusing on faculty development, and it creates a healthy partnership between public and higher education institutions. [source]

    Looking for Bias in All the Wrong Places: A Search for Truth or a Witch Hunt in Student Ratings of Instruction?

    Michael Theall
    Through a half-century of research on student ratings, the constant quest has been to prove or disprove the existence of biasing factors. What have we learned, and what has happened as a result? This chapter examines some of these supposed biases and presents some guidelines for improving practice. [source]

    Supplemental instruction at a community college: The four pillars

    Joyce Ship Zaritsky
    This chapter describes how a well-respected peer-led academic support model, Supplemental Instruction (SI), has been successful in improving grades and reducing failure in high-risk courses at LaGuardia Community College since 1993. [source]

    Psychometric Properties of Student Ratings of Instruction in Online and On-Campus Courses

    Debbie E. McGhee
    This study compares mean ratings, inter-rater reliabilities, and the factor structure of items for online and paper student-rating forms from the University of Washington's Instructional Assessment System. [source]

    Implementing Small-Group Instruction: Insights from Successful Practitioners

    James L. Cooper
    Common questions and concerns expressed by faculty members who adopt small-group approaches, and the ways they respond to them, are presented here. [source]