Insufficient Resources (insufficient + resource)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Obstacles to Bottom-Up Implementation of Marine Ecosystem Management

manejo de ecosistemas; manejo marino basado en ecosistemas; participación de partes interesadas; planificación de la conservación Abstract:,Ecosystem management (EM) offers a means to address multiple threats to marine resources. Despite recognition of the importance of stakeholder involvement, most efforts to implement EM in marine systems are the product of top-down regulatory control. We describe a rare, stakeholder-driven attempt to implement EM from the bottom up in San Juan County, Washington (U.S.A.). A citizens advisory group led a 2-year, highly participatory effort to develop an ecosystem-based management plan, guided by a preexisting conservation-planning framework. A key innovation was to incorporate social dimensions by designating both sociocultural and biodiversity targets in the planning process. Multiple obstacles hindered implementation of EM in this setting. Despite using a surrogate scheme, the information-related transaction costs of planning were substantial: information deficits prevented assessment of some biodiversity targets and insufficient resources combined with information deficits prevented scientific assessment of the sociocultural targets. Substantial uncertainty, practical constraints to stakeholder involvement, and the existence of multiple, potentially conflicting, objectives increased negotiation-related costs. Although information deficits and uncertainty, coupled with underinvestment in the transaction costs of planning, could reduce the long-term effectiveness of the plan itself, the social capital and momentum developed through the planning process could yield unforeseeable future gains in protection of marine resources. The obstacles we identified here will require early and sustained attention in efforts to implement ecosystem management in other grassroots settings. Resumen:,El manejo de ecosistemas es un medio para abordar múltiples amenazas a los recursos marinos. No obstante el reconocimiento de la importancia de la participación de las partes interesadas, la mayoría de los esfuerzos para implementar el manejo de ecosistemas en sistemas marinos son producto del control normativo de arriba hacia abajo. Describimos un intento raro, conducido por las partes interesadas, por implementar el manejo del ecosistema de abajo hacia arriba en el Condado San Juan, Washington (E.U.A.). Un grupo consultivo de ciudadanos dirigió un esfuerzo altamente participativo para desarrollar un plan de manejo basado en el ecosistema, guiados por un marco de planificación de la conservación preexistente. Una innovación clave fue la incorporación de dimensiones sociales al incluir objetivos tanto socioculturales como de biodiversidad en el proceso de planificación. Múltiples obstáculos dificultaron la implementación del manejo del ecosistema en este escenario. No obstante que se utilizó un plan sustituto, los costos de transacción de la planificación relacionados con la información fueron mayores de lo que el grupo pudo superar: los déficits de información impidieron la evaluación de algunos objetivos de biodiversidad y la insuficiencia de recursos combinada con los déficits de información impidieron la evaluación científica de los objetivos socioculturales. Los costos relacionados con la negociación incrementaron por la incertidumbre, por limitaciones prácticas en la participación de partes interesadas y la existencia de objetivos múltiples, potencialmente conflictivos. Aunque los déficits de información y la incertidumbre, aunados con la baja inversión en los costos de transacción de la planificación, pudieran reducir la efectividad a largo plazo del plan mismo, el capital social y el ímpetu desarrollados durante el proceso de planificación podrían producir ganancias futuras imprevisibles para la protección de recursos marinos. Los obstáculos que identificamos aquí requerirán de atención temprana y sostenida en los esfuerzos para implementar el manejo de ecosistemas en otros escenarios de base popular. [source]

Temporal dynamics and spatial variability in the enhancement of canopy leaf area under elevated atmospheric CO2

Abstract Increased canopy leaf area (L) may lead to higher forest productivity and alter processes such as species dynamics and ecosystem mass and energy fluxes. Few CO2 enrichment studies have been conducted in closed canopy forests and none have shown a sustained enhancement of L. We reconstructed 8 years (1996,2003) of L at Duke's Free Air CO2 Enrichment experiment to determine the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) on L before and after canopy closure in a pine forest with a hardwood component, focusing on interactions with temporal variation in water availability and spatial variation in nitrogen (N) supply. The dynamics of L were reconstructed using data on leaf litterfall mass and specific leaf area for hardwoods, and needle litterfall mass and specific leaf area combined with needle elongation rates, and fascicle and shoot counts for pines. The dynamics of pine L production and senescence were unaffected by elevated [CO2], although L senescence for hardwoods was slowed. Elevated [CO2] enhanced pine L and the total canopy L (combined pine and hardwood species; P<0.050); on average, enhancement following canopy closure was ,16% and 14% respectively. However, variation in pine L and its response to elevated [CO2] was not random. Each year pine L under ambient and elevated [CO2] was spatially correlated to the variability in site nitrogen availability (e.g. r2=0.94 and 0.87 in 2001, when L was highest before declining due to droughts and storms), with the [CO2]-induced enhancement increasing with N (P=0.061). Incorporating data on N beyond the range of native fertility, achieved through N fertilization, indicated that pine L had reached the site maximum under elevated [CO2] where native N was highest. Thus closed canopy pine forests may be able to increase leaf area under elevated [CO2] in moderate fertility sites, but are unable to respond to [CO2] in both infertile sites (insufficient resources) and sites having high levels of fertility (maximum utilization of resources). The total canopy L, representing the combined L of pine and hardwood species, was constant across the N gradient under both ambient and elevated [CO2], generating a constant enhancement of canopy L. Thus, in mixed species stands, L of canopy hardwoods which developed on lower fertility sites (,3 g N inputs m,2 yr,1) may be sufficiently enhanced under elevated [CO2] to compensate for the lack of response in pine L, and generate an appreciable response of total canopy L (,14%). [source]

Marketing networks as a form of strategic alliance among craft enterprises

Ann M. Torres
Craft enterprises are a unique form of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) and represent an amalgam between the manufacture of products and the fulfilment of artistic vision. Craft enterprises typically have insufficient resources, inadequate access to specialised expertise and limited opportunities to make an impact on the marketplace. One way to redress these limitations and to improve the competitive position of craft enterprises is by forming networks, or cooperative alliances. The case study of ,Homethrown', a successful marketing network for potters, provides insight into the advantages and limitations of this type of strategic alliance, as well as guidelines for fostering cooperation and moderating conflict. Copyright © 2002 Henry Stewart Publications [source]

Kangaroo Mother Care: 25 years after

Nathalie Charpak
Abstract The components of the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) intervention, their rational bases, and their current uses in low-, middle-, and high-income countries are described. KMC was started in 1978 in Bogotá (Colombia) in response to overcrowding and insufficient resources in neonatal intensive care units associated with high morbidity and mortality among low-birthweight infants. The intervention consists of continuous skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the infant, exclusive breastfeeding, and early home discharge in the kangaroo position. In studies of the physiological effects of KMC, the results for most variables were within clinically acceptable ranges or the same as those for premature infants under other forms of care. Body temperature and weight gain are significantly increased, and a meta-analysis showed that the kangaroo position increases the uptake and duration of breastfeeding. Investigations of the behavioral effects of KMC show rapid quiescence. The psychosocial effects of KMC include reduced stress, enhancement of mother,infant bonding, and positive effects on the family environment and the infant's cognitive development. Conclusion: Past and current research has clarified some of the rational bases of KMC and has provided evidence for its effectiveness and safety, although more research is needed to clearly define the effectiveness of the various components of the intervention in different settings and for different therapeutic goals. [source]