Information Systems (information + systems)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Information Science and Computing

Kinds of Information Systems

  • clinical information systems
  • geographic information systems
  • geographical information systems
  • hospital information systems
  • management information systems

  • Terms modified by Information Systems

  • information systems development
  • information systems journal

  • Selected Abstracts


    Edited by W. L. Fisher, F. J. Rahel.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Application of Visual Analytics for Thermal State Management in Large Data Centres

    M. C. Hao
    I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation,Display Algorithms; H.5.0 [Information Systems]: Information Interfaces and Presentation,General Abstract Today's large data centres are the computational hubs of the next generation of IT services. With the advent of dynamic smart cooling and rack level sensing, the need for visual data exploration is growing. If administrators know the rack level thermal state changes and catch problems in real time, energy consumption can be greatly reduced. In this paper, we apply a cell-based spatio-temporal overall view with high-resolution time series to simultaneously analyze complex thermal state changes over time across hundreds of racks. We employ cell-based visualization techniques for trouble shooting and abnormal state detection. These techniques are based on the detection of sensor temperature relations and events to help identify the root causes of problems. In order to optimize the data centre cooling system performance, we derive new non-overlapped scatter plots to visualize the correlations between the temperatures and chiller utilization. All these techniques have been used successfully to monitor various time-critical thermal states in real-world large-scale production data centres and to derive cooling policies. We are starting to embed these visualization techniques into a handheld device to add mobile monitoring capability. [source]

    Preliminary Highway Design with Genetic Algorithms and Geographic Information Systems

    Jyh-Cherng Jong
    A method that integrates geographic information systems (GIS) with genetic algorithms (GAs) for optimizing horizontal highway alignments between two given end points is presented in this article. The proposed approach can be used to optimize alignments in highly irregular geographic spaces. The resulting alignments are smooth and satisfy minimum-radius constraints, as required by highway design standards. The objective function in the proposed model considers land-acquisition cost, environmental impacts such as wetlands and flood plains, length-dependent costs (which are proportional to the alignment length), and user costs. A numerical example based on a real map is employed to demonstrate application of the proposed model to the preliminary design of horizontal alignments. [source]

    The Application of Geographic Information Systems and Global Positioning Systems in Humanitarian Emergencies: Lessons Learned, Programme Implications and Future Research

    DISASTERS, Issue 2 2003
    Reinhard Kaiser
    Geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems and remote sensing have been increasingly used in public health settings since the 1990s, but application of these methods in humanitarian emergencies has been less documented. Recent areas of application of GIS methods in humanitarian emergencies include hazard, vulnerability, and risk assessments; rapid assessment and survey methods; disease distribution and outbreak investigations; planning and implementation of health information systems; data and programme integration; and programme monitoring and evaluation. The main use of GIS in these areas is to provide maps for decision-making and advocacy, which allow overlaying types of information that may not normally be linked. GIS is also used to improve data collection in the field (for example, for rapid health assessments or mortality surveys). Development of GIS methods requires further research. Although GIS methods may save resources and reduce error, initial investment in equipment and capacity building may be substantial. Especially in humanitarian emergencies, equipment and methodologies must be practical and appropriate for field use. Add-on software to process GIS data needs to be developed and modified. As equipment becomes more user-friendly and costs decrease, GIS will become more of a routine tool for humanitarian aid organisations in humanitarian emergencies, and new and innovative uses will evolve. [source]

    Freshwater invasions: using historical data to analyse spread

    Sarina E. Loo
    ABSTRACT Aquatic invasive species cause deleterious environmental and economic impacts, and are rapidly spreading through ecosystems worldwide. Despite this, very few data sets exist that describe both the presence and the absence of invaders over long time periods. We have used Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to analyse time-series data describing the spread of the freshwater invasive New Zealand mudsnail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, in Victoria, Australia, over 110 years. We have mapped the snail's spread, estimated the percentage of stream length invaded through time, calculated the functional form of the spread rate, and investigated the role that the two proposed vectors , fish stocking and angling , have had in this invasion. Since it was first found in 1895, P. antipodarum has expanded its range in Victoria and now occurs throughout much of the southern and central areas of the state. The north of the state is relatively less invaded than the south, with the division corresponding approximately to the presence of the Great Dividing Range. We show that the snail's range has been increasing at an approximately exponential rate and estimate that 20% of total Victorian stream length is currently invaded. We also show that using long-term data can change the outcome of analyses of the relationship between vectors of spread and invasion status of separate catchments. When our time-series data were aggregated through time, the total numbers of fish stocking events and angling activity were both correlated with invasion. However, when the time-series data were used and the number of fish stocking events calculated up until the date of invasion, no relationships with stocking were found. These results underline the role that time-series data, based on both presences and absences, have to play when investigating the spread of invasive species. [source]

    Spatial distribution and environmental correlates of Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2006
    Guido J. Parra
    We present data on the spatial distribution of Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins using boat-based line transect surveys in three adjacent bays located in the Far Northern Section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, northeast Queensland. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and both randomization and Mantel tests to examine the relationship between the spatial distribution of the dolphins and three simple, readily quantified, environmental variables: distance to land, distance to river mouth, and water depth. Mantel tests allowed us to make clear inferences about the correlation of the species' distributions with environmental variables, while taking into account spatial autocorrelation and intercorrelation among variables. Randomization tests indicated snubfin and humpback dolphins occur closer to land than would be expected at random. Two-sample randomization tests indicated snubfin dolphins were found closer to river mouths than were humpback dolphins. Taking spatial autocorrelation into account, Mantel tests indicated all environmental variables were correlated with the spatial distribution of snubfin and humpback dolphins. Interspecific differences in spatial distribution appeared to be related to proximity to river mouths. Preference by snubfin and humpback dolphins for nearshore, estuarine waters is likely related to the productivity of these tropical coastal areas. This spatial analysis suggests that existing protected areas in this region may not include the most critical habitats for snubfin and humpback dolphins. The techniques used here shown relationships between the spatial distribution of the dolphins and environmental features that should facilitate their management and conservation. [source]

    Clinical Information Systems: Instant Ubiquitous Clinical Data for Error Reduction and Improved Clinical Outcomes

    Craig F. Feied MD
    Abstract Immediate access to existing clinical information is inadequate in current medical practice; lack of existing information causes or contributes to many classes of medical error, including diagnostic and treatment error. A review of the literature finds ample evidence to support a description of the problems caused by data that are missing or unavailable but little evidence to support one proposed solution over another. A primary recommendation of the Consensus Committee is that hospitals and departments should adopt systems that provide fast, ubiquitous, and unified access to all types of existing data. Additional recommendations cover a variety of related functions and operational concepts, from backups and biosurveillance to speed, training, and usability. [source]

    Using Data from Hospital Information Systems to Improve Emergency Department Care

    Gregg Husk MD
    Abstract The ubiquity of computerized hospital information systems, and of inexpensive computing power, has led to an unprecedented opportunity to use electronic data for quality improvement projects and for research. Although hospitals and emergency departments vary widely in their degree of integration of information technology into clinical operations, most have computer systems that manage emergency department registration, admission,discharge,transfer information, billing, and laboratory and radiology data. These systems are designed for specific tasks, but contain a wealth of detail that can be used to educate staff and improve the quality of care emergency physicians offer their patients. In this article, the authors describe five such projects that they have performed and use these examples as a basis for discussion of some of the methods and logistical challenges of undertaking such projects. [source]

    A Geographic Information Systems,based, weights-of-evidence approach for diagnosing aquatic ecosystem impairment

    Katherine E. Kapo
    Abstract A Geographic Information Systems,based, watershed-level assessment using Bayesian weights of evidence (WOE) and weighted logistic regression (WLR) provides a method to determine and compare potential environmental stressors in lotic ecosystems and to create predictive models of general or species-specific biological impairment across numerous spatial scales based on limited existing sample data. The WOE/WLR technique used in the present study is a data-driven, probabilistic approach conceptualized in epidemiological research and both developed for and currently used in minerals exploration. Extrapolation of this methodology to a case-study watershed assessment of the Great and Little Miami watersheds (OH, USA) using archival data yielded baseline results consistent with previous assessments. The method additionally produced a quantitative determination of physical and chemical watershed stressor associations with biological impairment and a predicted comparative probability (i.e., favorability) of biological impairment at a spatial resolution of 0.5 km2 over the watershed study region. Habitat stressors showed the greatest spatial association with biological impairment in low-order streams (on average, 56% of total spatial association), whereas water chemistry, particularly that of wastewater effluent, was associated most strongly with biological impairment in high-order reaches (on average, 79% of total spatial association, 28% of which was attributed to effluent). Significant potential stressors varied by land-use and stream order as well as by species. This WOE/WLR method provides a highly useful "tier 1" watershed risk assessment product through the integration of various existing data sources, and it produces a clear visual communication of areas favorable for biological impairment and a quantitative ranking of candidate stressors and associated uncertainty. [source]

    Operational Risk Measurement in Banking Institutions and Investment Firms: New European Evidences

    Enrique Bonsón
    The banking/investment sector must deal with a new variable, Operational Risk, for explaining various recent crises and bankruptcies. Operational Risk, which can be defined briefly as the risk generated by possible failures of a entity's Information Systems (IS), must be measured, covered, mitigated and managed by applying a series of methodologies, each of which assumes that the IS of the bank operates at a certain Stage of Sophistication. The present study proposes a scheme of evolution that details the stages of enhancement in the sophistication of their IS that banking entities may implement, so as to be capable of capturing, mitigating and managing Operational Risk. Using econometric methods, we create a proxy variable to capture the IS Sophistication of each entity. Then, the factor of entity size has been analyzed, and the country effect is explored. Additionally, the importance of intangible assets is weighted, among others entity aspects. The entity size has been revealed as the variable with most influence on the plans formulated in this respect by European entities, against other variables also considered in the present study, such as the country effect or the importance of intangible assets. The work shows how IS decisions referring to Operational Risk management are very influenced by size. It could introduce competition differences in the European banking system. [source]

    Archaeological site distribution by geomorphic setting in the southern lower Cuyahoga River Valley, northeastern Ohio: Initial observations from a GIS database

    Andrew Bauer
    In this study, we compiled unpublished archival documentation of archaeological site locations from the southern part of the Cuyahoga River Valley in northeastern Ohio, USA, registered at the State of Ohio Historic Preservation Office into a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) database. Using digitized soil shapefiles to generate a geomorphic data layer, we assessed the spatial and temporal distribution of 79 known archaeological sites by landform association. This digital compilation indicates that Woodland period, Late Prehistoric, and Historic sites occur in most geomorphic settings along the river valley. In contrast, Paleoindian and Archaic sites only occur on Wisconsinan cut terraces and in upland interfluve settings, indicating that most of these documented sites are in primary contexts and have not been reworked. We discuss the distribution of archaeological sites in the study region as a function of various factors, including cultural activities, taphonomic processes, landform development, and the nature and extent of the original archaeological surveys. Observed spatial patterns of known sites clearly reflect local geomorphological controls; artifactual contexts from the earlier prehistoric periods are underrepresented in the database. We conclude that additional site surveys, as well as the excavation and documentation of new sites in this part of Ohio, are required to understand local prehistoric economies and to ascertain patterns of culturally mediated land use. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    GIS Methods in Time-Geographic Research: Geocomputation and Geovisualization of Human Activity Patterns

    Mei-Po Kwan
    Abstract Over the past 40 years or so, human activities and movements in space-time have attracted considerable research interest in geography. One of the earliest analytical perspectives for the analysis of human activity patterns and movements in space-time is time geography. Despite the usefulness of time geography in many areas of geographical research, there are very few studies that actually implemented its constructs as analytical methods up to the mid-1990s. With increasing availability of geo-referenced individual-level data and improvement in the geo-computational capabilities of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), it is now more feasible than ever before to operationalize and implement time-geographic constructs. This paper discusses recent applications of GIS-based geo-computation and three-dimensional (3-D) geo-visualization methods in time-geographic research. The usefulness of these methods is illustrated through examples drawn from the author's recent studies. The paper attempts to show that GIS provides an effective environment for implementing time-geographic constructs and for the future development of operational methods in time-geographic research. [source]

    Geographic Information Systems for the Social Sciences.

    Investigating Space, Place - By Steven J. Steinberg, Sheila Steinberg
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Spatial prediction of nitrate pollution in groundwaters using neural networks and GIS: an application to South Rhodope aquifer (Thrace, Greece)

    Dr A. Gemitzi
    Abstract Neural network techniques combined with Geographical Information Systems (GIS), are used in the spatial prediction of nitrate pollution in groundwaters. Initially, the most important parameters controlling groundwater pollution by nitrates are determined. These include hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, depth to the aquifer, land uses, soil permeability, and fine to coarse grain ratio in the unsaturated zone. All these parameters were quantified in a GIS environment, and were standardized in a common scale. Subsequently, a neural network classification was applied, using a multi-layer perceptron classifier with the back propagation (BP) algorithm, in order to categorize the examined area into categories of groundwater nitrate pollution potential. The methodology was applied to South Rhodope aquifer (Thrace, Greece). The calculation was based on information from 214 training sites, which correspond to monitored nitrate concentrations in groundwaters in the area. The predictive accuracy of the model developed reached 86% in the training samples, 74% in the overall sample and 71% in the test samples. This indicates that this methodology is promising to describe the spatial pattern of nitrate pollution. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Modelling habitat selection of Common Cranes Grus grus wintering in Portugal using multiple logistic regression

    IBIS, Issue 3 2000
    Predictive models of habitat suitability for the Common Crane Grus grus in a wintering area of southern Portugal were derived using logistic multiple regression and Geographic Information Systems. The study area was characterized by landscape variables and surveyed uniformly for the presence of cranes. The most important variables were distance to roosts, to open Holm Oak woods and to villages, and the occurrence of unpaved roads, shrubby vegetation, slope and orchards. Two models were built, the second having one variable fewer than the first. The selection of the best model was based on statistical and biological criteria. Crane distribution was negatively related to: distance to open Holm Oak Quercus rotundifolia woods and roosts. Additionally, unsuitable vegetation and orchard areas are avoided. In these areas movement is difficult, food availability is reduced and the risk of predation increased. We also found that villages and roads were avoided; disturbance is a significant factor for this species. Some management guidelines are proposed for the area: (1) maintenance of open Holm Oak woodlands, (2) incentives to avoid the abandonment of traditional agriculture and pastoral use of the area, which would lead to an increase of shrubby vegetation areas, (3) preservation of suitable roosting places and (4) management of new patches of forest and orchards. [source]

    Explanation in Information Systems

    Dirk S Hovorka
    Abstract., Explanation of observed phenomena is a major objective of both those who conduct and those who apply research in information systems (IS). Whereas explanation based on the statistical relationship between independent and dependent variables is a common outcome of explanatory IS research, philosophers of science disagree about whether statistical relationships are the sole basis for the explanation of phenomena. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an expanded concept of explanation into the realm of IS research. We present a framework based on the four principle explanation types defined in modern philosophy: covering-law explanation, statistical-relevance explanation, contrast-class explanation and functional explanation. A well-established research stream, media richness, is used to illustrate how the different explanation types complement each other in increasing comprehension of the phenomenon. This framework underlies our argument that explanatory pluralism can be used to broaden research perspectives and increase scientific comprehension of IS phenomena above and beyond the methodological and ontological pluralism currently in use in IS research. [source]

    Towards a distinctive body of knowledge for Information Systems experts: coding ISD process knowledge in two IS journals

    Juhani Iivari
    Abstract., This paper introduces the idea of coding a practically relevant body of knowledge (BoK) in Information Systems (IS) that could have major benefits for the field. In its main part, the paper focuses on the question if and how an underlying body of action-oriented knowledge for IS experts could be distilled from the IS research literature. For this purpose the paper identifies five knowledge areas as the most important parts for an IS expert's BoK. Two of these are claimed as distinct areas of competence for IS experts: IS application knowledge and IS development (ISD) process knowledge. The paper focuses particularly on ISD process knowledge because it allows the organizing of practically relevant IS knowledge in an action-oriented way. The paper presents some evidence for the claim that a considerable body of practically relevant IS process knowledge might, indeed, exist, but also notes that it is highly dispersed in the IS literature. It then argues that the IS research community should take stock of this knowledge and organize it in an action-oriented way. Based on results from prior work it proposes a four-level hierarchical coding scheme for this purpose. In order to test the idea of coding action-oriented knowledge for IS experts, the paper reports the results of a coded literature analysis of ISD research articles published from 1996 to 2000 in two leading IS journals , Information Systems Journal and MIS Quarterly. The results suggest that ISD approaches form a useful framework for organizing practically relevant IS knowledge. [source]

    A report on the use of action research to evaluate a manufacturing information systems development methodology in a company

    Delvin Grant
    Abstract. The paper reports on an action research study that evaluated the usefulness of a Manufacturing Information Systems (MIS) development methodology at a manufacturing technology company. The evaluation process is based upon a five-stage action research method. The ISD methodology, in conjunction with the action research method, was used to solve five technical and organizational problems identified in the Engineering Release Function of the company. Results of the study include reduction in cycle time, work-in-process and rework. [source]

    Analysis and objective mapping of extreme daily rainfall in Catalonia

    M. Carmen Casas
    Abstract The main objective of this study is to determine the maximum daily precipitation in Catalonia for several established return periods with a high spatial resolution. For this purpose, the maximum daily rainfall annual series from 145 pluviometric stations of the Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (INM) (Spanish Weather Service) in Catalonia have been analyzed. Using the L-moments method of Hosking, every series has been fitted by the extreme value distribution function of Gumbel. From this fitting, the maximum daily precipitation for each of the pluviometric stations corresponding to return periods between 2 and 500 years, have been determined. Applying the Cressman method, the spatial analysis of these values has been achieved. Monthly precipitation climatological data, obtained from the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques, have been used as the initial field for the analysis. The maximum daily precipitation at 1 km2 spatial resolution on Catalonia has been objectively determined by the method employed, and structures with wavelength longer than approximately 35 km can be identified. The results show that places where the maximum daily precipitation values are expected are the zone of Guilleries in the Transversal Range, in the highest zones of the Catalan Pyrenees and Cape Creus zone at the northeastern end of Catalonia and in the south, around the Prelittoral Mountain Range between the Mountains of Prades and Montsià. A good fit between the distribution of minimum values and the driest Catalan areas has been found, the lowest values being on the western end of the Central Basin. Copyright © 2006 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

    New centralized automatic vehicle location communications software system under GIS environment

    Omar Al-Bayari
    Abstract Recent advances in wireless communications and networks have integrated relatively new technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS), to the popular Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), second generation cellular systems and the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies. Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) is based on a combination of GPS, GIS and telecommunication technologies. Automatic Vehicle Tracking systems are more and more used for different purposes, especially those related to tracking one vehicle or a fleet of vehicles. In this work, we introduce a new AVL system, which is based and developed under GIS software environment. The centralized software at the control station offers a new technology of transferring the intelligence of tracking system from the car unit, into the control office PC software. Centralized software will reduce the programming efforts in the car unit and will offer better fleet management. Moreover, the core of our system is based on the objects or the controllers of the GIS software, which reduces dramatically the overall system cost. Our system provides an easy access to change the functions of the system, with great possibility to satisfy the local needs. The design of our software will be presented with an explanation of the new supporting technologies that were to create the system. Finally, our software system has been validated using data from local road networks. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Assessing the economic impact of wind farms on tourism in Scotland: GIS, surveys and policy outcomes

    Geoff Riddington
    Abstract The impact of wind farms on the environment and subsequently on tourism is the subject of much heated debate. The research was concerned with making a robust quantitative assessment of the economic impact, to help resolve the debate and inform government policy on planning for renewable energy. In addition to a broad description of the intercept surveys and the advanced local economic models used to ascertain impact, the research details two novel elements; a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) model for the analysis of the number of tourists and bed spaces exposed to wind farms and a large internet-based survey of the willingness to pay for landscape. The research found a very small but significant negative economic impact and, on the basis of the survey information, suggests ways of minimising this impact. Both GIS modelling and internet surveying were found to be extremely useful and, it is suggested, both should become standard tools for the tourism researcher. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Announcements: Reconceptualizing International Borders Through the Application of GIS (Geographic Information Systems): A New Dataset on the "Nature" of Borders

    Harvey Starr
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Reconceptualizing International Borders Through the Application of GIS (Geographic Information Systems): A New Dataset on the "Nature" of Borders

    Harvey Starr
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Analyzing Spatial Drivers in Quantitative Conflict Studies: The Potential and Challenges of Geographic Information Systems

    Nathalie Stephenne
    The objective of this literature review is to understand where Graphical Information Systems (GIS) can be useful to address security issues and how it has been used until now. While the geographic drivers of territorial conflicts have been extensively described by a number of political studies, the quantitative analysis of these drivers is quite new. This study traces an evolution from conceptual research to quantitative development. It then discusses the advantages and challenges of applying new geographic techniques to analyze spatial drivers of conflict. We identify the main spatial components in conflict and security, the existing types of information/data and the quantitative methods used. We describe the spatial component of security by looking at: (i) the main sociopolitical concepts linked to territory, (ii) the kind of geographic concepts linked to territory, (iii) measures used to describe such geographic concepts; and (iv) the issues raised in any attempt to integrate geographic concepts into a GIS. We conclude that GIS tools can be useful in the analysis of civil disputes, particularly where subnational level data exists. This paper shows that spatial processing tools in GIS allow us to represent some spatial components and to address new issues such as the fuzzy complexity of border permeability. [source]

    Digitization and geo-referencing of botanical distribution maps

    Christian A. Schölzel
    Aim In many fields of research, valuable information is stored in atlases and maps which are only available as printed media. Scientists who are interested in computational analysis often seek to digitize the data to make it accessible for numerical calculations. In this paper, an approach using the example of digitizing distribution maps taken from plant-taxonomic atlases is described. For this purpose, a software tool has been built for application in the Sonderforschungsbereich 350 `Interactions between and Modelling of Continental Geosystems' at the University of Bonn. Its functionality has to be simple in use and capable of transforming fields drawn on geographical maps into grid data even where the type of map projection is unknown. Location As an example, plant distributions over Europe and Asia have been digitized. Methods To achieve this aim through an objective statistical analysis, the local deterministic approximation has been used for geo-referencing. Results For this reason the development of a new software tool was required. Although there is a large market for related software from Geographical Information Systems (GIS), none of the available GIS-programs appeared to be capable of geo-referencing maps with unidentified projections. Rather than to give a product comparison, this paper aims on the methodology and mathematical formalism. Main conclusions The developed algorithm is a handy tool to capture data from maps based on obscure projections. Valuable historical maps, which are problematic for standard GIS-programs, can be made accessible for modern research work. [source]

    The Application of Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis to Assess Dumped and Subsequently Scattered Human Remains,

    Mary H. Manhein M.A.
    ABSTRACT: This study utilizes geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis (SA) technology to address the problems associated with prediction of location and effective recovery of dumped and scattered human remains in Louisiana. The goals are to determine if a selective bias exists in Louisiana as to where and when human remains are dumped and to assess whether or not geographically specific patterns exist in the dispersal of human remains. We hypothesized that a positive relationship exists between postmortem interval (PMI) and dispersal distance, and that there are negative relationships between PMI and dispersal direction and between dispersal direction and distance. Our results indicate that, in Louisiana, remains are more often dumped in rural areas away from a structure, and are found within ¼ mile of the nearest road. For Louisiana, no seasonal bias was found in the analysis of when remains are dumped. Furthermore, with the exception of the relationship between PMI and the shortest distance remains were dispersed, no geographically specific patterns were detected in the analyses of dispersal distance, dispersal direction, and PMI. [source]

    Using Interorganizational Information Systems to Support Environmental Management Efforts at ASG

    Teresa M. Shaft
    Summary We examine use of environmental information systems by ASG AB (hereafter ASG), an international logistics and transport firm headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden, as a case study to illustrate the role of information systems in life-cycle-oriented environmental management. This case provides an example of how a firm can use interorganizational information systems (IOISs) to move toward environmentally sustainable business practices. Through the use of IOISs, ASG has been able to improve its environmental performance and that of its suppliers. Further, this improved environmental performance has been a competitive advantage for ASG and enabled it to attract new business. As such, ASG's experiences illustrate how aggressive practices move environmental management beyond compliance and cost control, at which many firms have been successful, to revenue generation. The case also shows how environmentally sustainable business practices can be integrated into a firm's strategy. In addition to illustrating how ASG has used IOISs to improve environmental performance, we compare their use of environmental ISs with the expected evolution of environmental ISs presented in the Shaft and colleagues (1997) framework. Although some of ASG's experiences verify the expected progression of these types of systems, some developments are not as expected. These differences have implications for the framework. [source]

    One Approach to Formulating and Evaluating Student Work Groups in Legal Environment of Business Courses

    Joan E. Camara
    The principal focus of this study is an investigation of whether students' grade point average (GPA) is a viable criterion for forming student work groups in the undergraduate Legal Environment of Business course. More specifically, the research focuses on the impact of: (1) GPA-homogeneous (HO) and GPA-heterogeneous (HE) groups upon student satisfaction with group processes and (2) the impact on individual student performance in both group and nongroup assignments. Data obtained from fourteen HE and fourteen HO student groups, in four separate Legal Environment of Business classes consisting of a mix of Management, Marketing, Computer Information Systems, International Business, Financial Services, and Accounting majors, generated a number of significant results. The most surprising observations dealt with the behavior of low achievers whose individual grades showed substantial improvement after working in HO groups. Researchers who are assessing pedagogical methods which serve to engage a student's active learning and motivation should find these results to be of interest. In addition, the beneficial impact on task and relationship behaviors observed in this study should provide solace or a sense of reward to the larger set of academicians, across disciplines, who attempt to impart realistic organizational skills to their classes. [source]

    History and Trends in Clinical Information Systems in the United States

    Nancy Staggers
    Purpose: To provide a synopsis of issues about clinical information systems for nurses not schooled in nursing informatics. Organizing construct: The past, present, and future of clinical computing, including major factors resulting in the early hospital information systems (HIS) and decision support systems (DSS) in the United States, current advances and issues in managing clinical information, and future trends and issues. Methods: Literature review and analysis. Findings and Conclusions: The first HIS and DSS were used in the late 1960s and were focused on applications for acute care. The change from fee-for-service to managed care required a change in the design of clinical information systems toward more patient-centered systems that span the care continuum, such as the computer-based patient record (CPR). Current difficulties with CPR systems include lack of systems integration, data standardization, and implementation. Increased advances in information and technology integration and increased use of the Internet for health information will shape the future of clinical information systems. [source]

    Modeling software evolution defects: a time series approach

    Uzma Raja
    Abstract The Department of Information Systems, Statistics and Management Science, prediction of software defects and defect patterns is and will continue to be a critically important software evolution research topic. This study presents a time series analysis of multi-organizational multi-project defects reported during ongoing software evolution efforts. Using data from monthly defect reports for eight open source software projects over five years, this study builds and tests time series models for each sampled project. The resulting model accounts for the ripple effects of defect detection and correction by modeling the autocorrelation of code defect data. The autoregressive integrated moving average model (0,1,1) was found to hold for all sampled projects and thus provide a basis for both descriptive and predictive software defect analysis that is computationally efficient, comprehensible, and easy to apply. The model may be used to evaluate and compare the reliability of candidate software solutions, and to facilitate planning for software evolution budget and time allocation. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]