Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Infections

  • Pseudomona aeruginosa infections
  • acute lower respiratory tract infections
  • acute respiratory infections
  • adenoviral infections
  • adenovirus infections
  • albican infections
  • aspergillus infections
  • aureu infections
  • bacterial infections
  • bacterial skin infections
  • blood-borne infections
  • bloodstream infections
  • c infections
  • c virus infections
  • canal infections
  • candida infections
  • candidal infections
  • catheter infections
  • catheter-related infections
  • central nervous system infections
  • cervical infections
  • chest infections
  • childhood infections
  • chlamydia trachomati infections
  • chlamydial infections
  • chronic infections
  • chronic viral infections
  • cmv infections
  • coli infections
  • common infections
  • community-acquired infections
  • cutaneous infections
  • cytomegalovirus infections
  • dermatophyte infections
  • device-related infections
  • diabetic foot infections
  • double infections
  • dual infections
  • e. coli infections
  • endodontic infections
  • enteric infections
  • experimental infections
  • fatal infections
  • foot infections
  • fungal infections
  • gastrointestinal infections
  • genital infections
  • genital tract infections
  • gram-negative infections
  • h. pylori infections
  • hav infections
  • hbv infections
  • hcv infections
  • healthcare-associated infections
  • helicobacter infections
  • helicobacter pylori infections
  • helminth infections
  • helminthic infections
  • hepatitis c virus infections
  • herpes virus infections
  • herpesviru infections
  • hiv infections
  • hospital-acquired infections
  • hpv infections
  • human infections
  • human papillomavirus infections
  • intestinal infections
  • invasive fungal infections
  • invasive infections
  • invasive pneumococcal infections
  • joint infections
  • louse infections
  • lower respiratory tract infections
  • lower urinary tract infections
  • lung infections
  • major infections
  • maternal infections
  • microbial infections
  • mixed infections
  • mould infections
  • mrsa infections
  • mucosal infections
  • multiple infections
  • mycobacterial infections
  • mycotic infections
  • nail infections
  • natural infections
  • neck infections
  • nematode infections
  • nervous system infections
  • new infections
  • nosocomial infections
  • ocular infections
  • odontogenic infections
  • opportunistic infections
  • oral infections
  • other infections
  • p. aeruginosa infections
  • papillomavirus infections
  • parasite infections
  • parasitic infections
  • periodontal infections
  • persistent infections
  • pneumococcal infections
  • pneumoniae infections
  • postoperative infections
  • primary infections
  • protozoan infections
  • pulmonary infections
  • pylori infections
  • recurrent bacterial infections
  • recurrent infections
  • repeated infections
  • respiratory infections
  • respiratory tract infections
  • respiratory viral infections
  • root canal infections
  • secondary infections
  • serious bacterial infections
  • serious infections
  • severe infections
  • single infections
  • site infections
  • skin infections
  • soft tissue infections
  • soft-tissue infections
  • staphylococcus aureu infections
  • streptococcal infections
  • surgical site infections
  • system infections
  • systemic fungal infections
  • systemic infections
  • tissue infections
  • trachomati infections
  • tract infections
  • transmit infections
  • transmitted infections
  • upper respiratory infections
  • upper respiratory tract infections
  • urinary tract infections
  • urogenital infections
  • varicella infections
  • various infections
  • viral infections
  • virus infections
  • wolbachia infections
  • wound infections

  • Terms modified by Infections

  • infections worldwide

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2010
    Peter A. Staves
    Understanding the reasons why different parasites cause different degrees of harm to their hosts is an important objective in evolutionary biology. One group of models predicts that if hosts are infected with more than one strain or species of parasite, then competition between the parasites will select for higher virulence. While this idea makes intuitive sense, empirical data to support it are rare and equivocal. We investigated the relationship between fitness and virulence during both inter- and intraspecific competition for a fungal parasite of insects, Metarhizium anisopliae. Contrary to theoretical expectations, competition favored parasite strains with either a lower or a higher virulence depending on the competitor: when in interspecific competition with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae, less virulent strains of the fungus were more successful, but when competing against conspecific fungi, more virulent strains were better competitors. We suggest that the nature of competition (direct via toxin production when competing against the nematode, indirect via exploitation of the host when competing against conspecific fungal strains) determines the relationship between virulence and competitive ability. [source]


    Monique Rothan-Tondeur PhD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Child Health 2005; 41: 4
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    JOURNAL OF RENAL CARE, Issue 3 2008
    Caroline Taylor
    SUMMARY Background: Intravenous catheters for haemodialysis increase the risk of sepsis. This study investigates the use of a taurolidine/citrate catheter-locking agent for patients receiving hospital-based haemodialysis, auditing the number and cost of infections before and after its introduction. Methods: The incidence and cost of treatment of catheter sepsis occurring in all patients receiving haemodialysis via a line were investigated over 6-month periods before and after introducing the taurolidine/citrate line-locking agent. Results: A reduction of 4.62 infections per 1000 catheter days, or 88.5%, was shown after the introduction of the new line-locking agent. The total costs of line infections in the first 6 months were ,52 500, (£41 000); after the introduction of the taurolidine/citrate locks, these reduced to ,33 300, (£26 000), a reduction of ,19 200 (£15 000). Conclusions: The use of a taurolidine/citrate haemodialysis catheter-locking agent in our haemodialysis population has significantly reduced the line sepsis rate, with a positive impact on morbidity, mortality and cost. [source]


    J Ogeer-Gyles
    Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs with urinary catheters in intensive care units (ICUs) are frequent. Historically, multi-drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli account for about 10% of the UTIs. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of E. coli infections and of MDR E. coli in dogs with UTIs in our ICU, and to assess whether the MDR E. coli were community-acquired or nosocomial in origin. Methods: Over a 1-year period, rectal swabs were taken from all dogs in the ICU on the day of admission (D0) and on days 3 (D3), 6 (D6), 9 (D9) and 12 (D12). Urine was collected on these days from dogs with an indwelling urinary catheter (n=190). Rectal swabs and urine were routinely cultured. E. coli isolates were identified by biochemical tests. Using NCCLS guidelines, antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by disk diffusion method on fecal and urinary E. coli isolates. Twelve antimicrobial agents were used: nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, trimethoprim-sulfa, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to compare MDR E. coli UTI strains with fecal E. coli strains from the same patient and with MDR fecal E. coli from patients that were adjacent to, or housed in the same cages. Results: E. coli was cultured from 12 (48%) of 25 UTIs. Two of the E. coli were MDR. For one dog, PFGE showed no similarities among fecal E. coli and the urinary MDR E. coli isolates from the patient or between these isolates and fecal E. coli from a dog housed in the same kennel on the previous day. The MDR E. coli UTI was likely acquired prior to admission to the ICU, as it was present on D0. For the other dog, PFGE showed genetic similarity but not complete identity between the D3 MDR E. coli urinary isolate and the D3, D6, D9 fecal MDR isolates. This suggests that the UTI originated with the fecal E. coli. Using selective plates, fecal MDR E. coli were not found on D0. Selection of the MDR strain in the intestine by the use of antibiotics occurred while the dog was in the ICU and possibly led to the UTI. Conclusions: Multi-drug resistant E. coli accounted for 2 of 12 E. coli UTIs in dogs in the ICU over a 1-year period. Genotyping showed that one of the two MDR E. coli infections could possibly be of nosocomial origin. [source]


    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    G Dogra


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 7 2007
    Yoke-Fong Chiew
    Background: The surveillance of surgical site infections (SSI) has been undertaken in many centres worldwide to ascertain the extent of the problem and where possible, to improve the incidence rates, thereby decreasing the undesirable outcomes. The study investigates the processes and outcomes of total hip replacement SSI surveillance carried out in Dunedin Public Hospital in 2004. Methods: Two hundred and six patients were enlisted in the study and 189 primary replacements and 22 revision replacements were carried out. Four methods of diagnosis of SSI were applied: (i) clinician diagnosis; (ii) ASEPSIS score; (iii) presence of pus cells; and (iv) assessment by a clinical microbiologist. Infection rates were calculated according to the risk indexes. Results: The incidence of infections varies considerably among these four methods. The infection rates for risk index 0 were 4.35% (method 1), 2.61% (method 2), 0.87% (methods 3 and 4); and for risk indexes 1 and 2 were 4.17% (method 1), 2.08% (method 2), 1.04% (methods 3 and 4). Conclusion: There is a need for accurate infection data so that the appropriate follow-up responses, including infection control measures for total hip replacement SSI can be carried out. The preponderance of elderly patients in the study who are frequently on ,polypharmacy' regimens adds pressure to the need to obtain true infection rates. This is because when antimicrobials are prescribed to them, drug interactions, adverse effects of the antimicrobials and the selective pressure of antimicrobials causing resistances may occur. More resources and a multidisciplinary approach are required for future studies of similar nature. [source]

    Cost analysis of the treatment of acute childhood lymphocytic leukaemia according to Nordic protocols

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 4 2000
    J Rahiala
    Some attempts have been made to reduce the costs incurred in the therapy of leukaemia, but no studies are available regarding costs of the entire treatment in children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL). We analysed all the direct costs of treatment of 11 children with ALL diagnosed and treated in Kuopio University Hospital. The follow-up continued from diagnosis until the end of treatment for each patient. Patient treatment on the ward lasted for 84-210 d and in the outpatient clinic for 24-66 d, depending on the risk group. From 11-54 of the inpatient days were required for the treatment of infections. Total mean cost of the entire treatment was US $103 250 (US $55 196-166 039) per patient, 53% of which were basic hospital costs and 47% patient-specific costs. Laboratory tests and radiology accounted for 18% of all direct costs and cytostatic drugs for 13%, but blood products accounted for only 4% of the total. Infections were the most important extra cause of costs, accounting for 18% of the mean total costs per patient. The complete treatment of a child with ALL came to a total of US $103 250. However, since 80% of children with ALL are long-term survivors, the cost must be regarded as a good investment. [source]

    Atypical Mycobacterial Infections Following Cutaneous Surgery

    First page of article [source]

    The Encyclopedia of Arthropod-transmitted Infections of Man and Domesticated Animals: Book Review

    Willem Takken
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Equine dental disease Part 4: a long-term study of 400 cases: apical infections of cheek teeth

    P. M. Dixon
    Summary Of 400 horses referred because of equine dental disease, 162 suffered from primary apical infections of their cheek teeth (CT), including 92 with maxillary CT infections and 70 with mandibular CT infections. Maxillary swellings and sinus tracts were more common (82 and 26% incidence, respectively) with infections of the rostral 3 maxillary CT, than with infections of the caudal 3 maxillary CT(39 and 5% incidence, respectively). Nasal discharge was more commonly present with caudal (95%) than rostral (23%) maxillary CT infections. Mandibular CT apical infections commonly had mandibular swellings (91%) and mandibular sinus tracts (59%) and these infections were closely related to eruption of the affected CT. A variety of treatments, including medical treatment, apical curettage, repulsion and oral extraction of affected teeth were utilised in these cases, with oral extraction appearing to be most satisfactory. Infections of caudal maxillary CT with a secondary paranasal sinusitis were most refractory to treatment, with a complete response to the initial treatment achieved in just 33% of these cases. Most other cases responded fully to their initial treatment. The long-term response to treatment was good in most cases. [source]

    The Effect of Hemosporidian Infections on White-Crowned Sparrow Singing Behavior

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    Sarah Gilman
    Relatively little is known about the effects of specific parasites on sexually selected behavioral traits. We subjected free-living mountain white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha) to a playback experiment to identify the effect of hemosporidian parasites on potentially sexually selected song characteristics. We recorded song after a playback of a novel white-crowned sparrow song, meant to simulate a territorial intrusion. Infections with Leucocytozoon or Plasmodium influenced singing behavior, while infection with Haemoproteus had no detectable effect. Specifically, song consistency, as measured using a spectrogram correlation, was influenced by both Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon infection. Additionally, birds infected with Plasmodium sang fewer songs following experimental playback. Thus, relatively widespread parasites, like Plasmodium, may have a strong effect on potentially sexually selected song characteristics. [source]

    Impaired nutritional status in common variable immunodeficiency patients correlates with reduced levels of serum IgA and of circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes

    M. Muscaritoli
    Background Common variable immunodeficiency (CVI) is a primary defect of the immune system. Infections, persistent diarrhoea and malabsorption may result in malnutrition, which may in turn contribute to increased morbidity. In this paper, the prevalence of malnutrition in CVI was evaluated. Patients and methods Forty CVI patients (20 male, 20 female, aged 17,75 years) underwent anthropometric measurements from which body mass index, arm fat and muscle area were calculated. Body mass index values <,18·5 and arm fat and muscle area values <,10th percentile were considered indicative of malnutrition. Patients were divided into four groups according to circulating CD4+ T cells (lower or greater than 300 µL,1) and serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels (detectable and undetectable). Results Body mass index <,18·5, arm fat and muscle area <,10th percentile were observed in 23%, 58% and 44%, respectively, of patients. Lower values of body mass index, arm fat and muscle area were more frequent in patients with low CD4+ cells and undetectable IgA. Low arm fat values were more frequent in patients with diarrhoea (P = 0·03). Infectious episodes were more frequent in undetectable IgA than in detectable IgA patients (P = 0·04). Conclusions Anthropometric measurements revealed an increased rate of malnutrition in CVI patients, particularly in those with low CD4+ and undetectable IgA, suggesting that selected CVI subjects could be considered for standard or specialized nutritional support. [source]

    Infections of the Central Nervous System

    K. A. Jellinger
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Novel vaccine strategies with protein antigens of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Edwin Swiatlo
    Abstract Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are a major cause of mortality throughout the world. This organism is primarily a commensal in the upper respiratory tract of humans, but can cause pneumonia in high-risk persons and disseminate from the lungs by invasion of the bloodstream. Currently, prevention of pneumococcal infections is by immunization with vaccines which contain capsular polysaccharides from the most common serotypes causing invasive disease. However, there are more than 90 antigenically distinct serotypes and there is concern that serotypes not included in the vaccines may become more prevalent in the face of continued use of polysaccharide vaccines. Also, certain high-risk groups have poor immunological responses to some of the polysaccharides in the vaccine formulations. Protein antigens that are conserved across all capsular serotypes would induce more effective and durable humoral immune responses and could potentially protect against all clinically relevant pneumococcal capsular types. This review provides a summary of work on pneumococcal proteins that are being investigated as components for future generations of improved pneumococcal vaccines. [source]

    Viral zoonoses in Europe

    Hannimari Kallio-Kokko
    Abstract A number of new virus infections have emerged or re-emerged during the past 15 years. Some viruses are spreading to new areas along with climate and environmental changes. The majority of these infections are transmitted from animals to humans, and thus called zoonoses. Zoonotic viruses are, as compared to human-only viruses, much more difficult to eradicate. Infections by several of these viruses may lead to high mortality and also attract attention because they are potential bioweapons. This review will focus on zoonotic virus infections occurring in Europe. [source]

    Characteristics of the Cryphonectria parasitica isolated from Quercus in Slovakia

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    K. Adam, ķkovį
    Summary The occurrence of chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) on oaks in mixed chestnut-oak forests was studied in 2003,2008 in Slovakia. Infections on living Quercus trees were found at four of seven localities. The disease incidence on oaks ranged from 1.3% to 15.8%. The symptoms on infected oaks were similar to those on chestnut, but less conspicuous. Cankers of C. parasitica were found only on Quercus robur and Q. petraea. A total of 22 isolates of C. parasitica, all virulent, were isolated. Each site yielded only a single vc type (EU12 or EU13). Field inoculation experiments on chestnuts with seven strains of C. parasitica from oaks and an isolate from Castanea sativa showed no differences in virulence. On Quercus robur stems, the cankered area was significantly smaller than on C. sativa and the cankers developed very slowly. [source]

    Foliar susceptibility of eastern oak species to Phytophthora infection

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    Y. Balci
    Summary Seven different Phytophthora species were used to test the foliar susceptibility of the common eastern US oak species and understory plants to Phytophthora infection. The Phytophthora species employed were Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Phytophthora citricola, Phytophthora europaea, Phytophthora quercetorum, Phytophthora quercina -like and Phytophthora sp1. Inoculation of detached-leaves with agar plugs containing mycelia of Phytophthora provided an estimate of their relative susceptibility. Lesions were always greater when foliage was wounded and young. On deciduous plants, lesion sizes were considerably reduced with the increasing foliar age, although with evergreen plants lesion sizes remained similar regardless of foliar age when more aggressive isolates were tested. Infections seldom resulted when foliage was not wounded. With young and mature foliage, P. citricola usually produced the largest lesions. Young foliage of Quercus rubra was the most susceptible to infection followed by Castanea dentata for both wounded and non-wounded inoculations. Mature foliage of Hamamelis virginiana, Kalmia latifolia and Quercus alba were the most susceptible to wound and non-wound inoculations. [source]

    Infections of Valdensinia heterodoxa and Pucciniastrum vaccinii on bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus).

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Implications for monitoring ground vegetation
    Summary Two fungi, Valdensinia heterodoxa and Pucciniastrum vaccinii, have been found to have impact on the leaf coverage of bilberry plants. When studying forest ground vegetation assessors should therefore be aware of the biotic impact of pathogens on plants. [source]

    Chytrid infections of Daphnia pulicaria: development, ecology, pathology and phylogeny of Polycaryum laeve

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    Summary 1. We combined ecological surveys, life table studies, microscopy and molecular sequencing to determine the development, ecology, pathology and phylogeny of Polycaryum laeve, an endoparasite of cladocerans. We report the first records of P. laeve from North America, where we have used a polymerase chain reaction primer and microscopic examination to confirm infections in 14 lakes. Infections are highly pathogenic and caused increased mortality, reduced growth, and reproductive castration in Daphnia pulicaria during life table studies. 2. Biweekly data from Allequash Lake (Wisconsin, U.S.A.) throughout 2003 indicated that fecundity and infection prevalence were inversely correlated. Infection prevalence was highest in late winter and early spring (up to 80%) and lowest during late summer. Epidemics were generally followed by sharp declines in host population density (up to 99%). 3. Within the haemocoel of its host, P. laeve forms thick-walled sporangia, which occur systemically in later stages of infection. Fungal thalli associate closely with muscle fibres and connective tissue, leading to degeneration as the infection becomes advanced. Following death of the host, flagellated zoospores are released through an exit papilla on the sporangium. Based on the infection-induced castration of the host and increases in infection prevalence with Daphnia size, we postulate that transmission is horizontal, but may be indirect through an additional host or free-living stage. 4. Molecular and morphological data clearly indicate that P. laeve belongs in the fungal phylum Chytriodiomycota, order Blastocladiales. Based on ribosomal RNA gene sequences and morphological features, we transfer the genus Polycaryum from the Haplosporidia to the Chytridiomycota, and designate a lectotype and epitype for P. laeve. Considering the high prevalence of P. laeve infection within Daphnia populations, the frequency with which we detected infections among lakes, and the keystone importance of large-bodied Daphnia in aquatic food webs, we suggest that P. laeve may exert a regulatory influence on Daphnia populations in lake ecosystems. [source]

    Central venous lines in haemophilia

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 2003
    R. Ljung
    Summary., Infections and technical problems are the most frequent complications when using implantable central venous access devices in patients with haemophilia. There are two major experiences reported concerning infections in noninhibitor patients: one is approximately 0.2 infections per 1000 days and the other approximately 1.0 (0.7,1.6) per 1000 days. Infections are more frequent in inhibitor patients and approximately one infection per 6,12 months of use can be expected. The figures are low for clinically apparent thrombosis in the larger series on record, but routine venograms were not carried out in most of these series. In studies where this has been done, a high frequency of abnormalities on venograms has been seen in some but not in others. The final decision to use a central line has to take into account the medical goal, the patient's bleeding tendency, the social situation and the expected risk of complications at the particular haemophilia centre. Some of the complications may be reduced by adequate aseptic measures both during implantation and in subsequent use, and by clear basic routines for surveillance of the systems and repeated education of the users. [source]

    Associations Between Helicobacter pylori Infection, Co-Morbid Infections, Gastrointestinal Symptoms, and Circulating Cytokines in African Children

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 2 2010
    Sarah Cherian
    Abstract Background:, Refugee children have complex medical needs and often have multiple infections. The relationship between infection, gastrointestinal symptoms, and systemic inflammation is poorly understood. We investigated these parameters in refugee children with a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori, helminth, and malaria infection. Materials and Methods:, African refugee children were recruited at resettlement health screening. Data were collected on demography, gastrointestinal symptoms, co-morbid infection, and serum for peripheral cytokine levels. Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed by a fecal-based immunoassay. Results:, Data from 163 children were analyzed, of which 84.0% were positive for H. pylori. Infected children were significantly older (9.2 years ± 3.7 vs 7.1 years ± 3.9, p = .01). Half the cohort (84/163, 51.5%) described gastrointestinal symptoms but these were not strongly associated with co-morbid infections. Helicobacter pylori -infected children had significantly lower circulating log-interleukin-8 (IL-8) (odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40, 0.94, p = .025). Helminth infections were common (75/163, 46%) and associated with elevated log-IL-5 (,: 0.42, 95% CI 0.077, 0.76). Children with malaria (15/163, 9.2%) had elevated log-tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF,) and log-IL-10 (,: 0.67, 95% CI 0.34, 1.0 and ,: 1.3, 95% CI 0.67, 1.9, respectively). IL-10 : IL-12 ratios were increased in H. pylori- infected children with malaria or helminth infections. Symptoms were generally not associated with levels of circulating peripheral cytokines irrespective of co-morbid infection diagnosis. Conclusions:, There is a high prevalence of asymptomatic H. pylori infection in recently resettled African refugee children. Gastrointestinal symptoms were not predictive of H. pylori nor of helminth infections. Serum cytokines, particularly IL-5, IL-10, and TNF,, were significantly elevated in children with malaria and helminth infections but not in those with H. pylori infection. [source]

    Immunoblot Analysis as an Alternative Method to Diagnose Enterohepatic Helicobacter Infections

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 3 2009
    Torkel Wadström
    Abstract Introduction: Enterohepatic Helicobacter species have been associated with chronic infections of the hepatobiliary tract and lower bowel in naturally and experimentally infected mice, Helicobacter -infected animals should thus not be used in studies of diseases associated with chronic inflammation. Helicobacter species induce inflammation and modulate host immune responses, thus emphasizing the need to diagnose these infections in laboratory animals. Materials and Methods: An immunoblot assay was developed to analyze antibodies to enterohepatic Helicobacter species in naturally colonized laboratory mouse colonies. We evaluated the serum antibody responses to cell surface proteins of H. bilis, H. hepaticus, and H. ganmani in 188 mouse sera from four different university animal facilities. Lower bowel tissue specimens from 56 of these animals were available and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and the results compared with matched immunoblot patterns. Results: Specific antibody reactivity to H. bilis was detected in 8 of 186 (4.3%) sera, to H. hepaticus in 45 of 184 (24%) sera, and to H. ganmani in 51 of 188 (27%) of tested sera. These results were compared with PCR-DGGE analyses of tissue samples of corresponding animals, and concordance between the two diagnostic tests was found in 96% for H. bilis, in 91% for H. hepaticus, and in 82% for H. ganmani. The PCR-DGGE also detected DNA of H. typhlonius, H. sp. flexispira, and H. rodentium. Conclusions: Infection with enterohepatic species was common in the laboratory mouse colonies tested, independent of strain and stock. Immunoblot analysis seems to be a promising diagnostic tool to monitor enterohepatic Helicobacter species infections of laboratory rodents. [source]

    Problem of Distinguishing False-Positive Tests from Acute or Transient Helicobacter pylori Infections

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 2 2006
    Zhannat Z. Nugalieva
    Abstract Background:, Reliable detection of acute Helicobacter pylori infections remains problematic. The high prevalence of false-positive non-invasive tests in low H. pylori prevalence populations makes identification of acute and transient infections difficult. Methods:, We explored the use of serum pepsinogens (PG) for diagnosis of acute infection in patients following H. pylori challenge such that the onset of the infection was known. We then compared those findings to a group of children with presumed acute infections defined as a positive urea breath test (UBT) and negative IgG serology. Results:, We examined the pattern and calculated cut-off values of PG levels in 18 adult volunteers with known acute H. pylori infection. We then compared the results with sera from nine symptomatic children with presumed acute H. pylori infection and a matched control group of nine children who did not meet criteria for acute H. pylori infection. In acute infection, both PGI and II levels increased following H. pylori infection reaching a peak by 2 weeks post-infection. The frequency of a positive test defined as a value > mean +2 SD was 17, 71, and 94% at week 1, 2, and 4 post-infection, respectively. Only one child with presumed acute H. pylori infection had an elevated serum PGI and one had an elevated PGII. Five of the children had follow-up UBTs and four were negative consistent with the diagnosis of false-positive UBT. H. pylori infection was confirmed in the child with an elevated PGI level. Conclusions:, These data suggest that a single positive noninvasive test in populations of low prevalence is most likely a false-positive result. This suggests that a single positive test requires confirmation preferably using a test that measures a different parameter (e.g., UBT confirmed by stool antigen test). It appears that most "transient"H. pylori infections are diagnosed on the basis of false-positive tests. PG levels are possible candidates as the confirmatory test. [source]

    Risk factors for infection during treatment with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Robert Roomer
    Neutropenia during treatment with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common cause of dose reductions of peginterferon alfa. These reductions are performed to prevent bacterial and fungal infections, which are common during HCV treatment and can be attributed to neutropenia. The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of infections and their relation to neutropenia and to identify potential risk factors for infections during HCV treatment. In this single-center cohort study, 2,876 visits of 321 patients treated with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin were evaluated for neutropenia, infections, dose reductions, and potential risk factors for infection during HCV treatment. The baseline mean absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was 3,420 cells/,L, and 16 patients had a baseline ANC of <1,500 cells/,L. During treatment, neutropenia, which was defined as ANC <750 cells/,L, was observed in 95 patients (29.7%) and ANC <375/,L was observed in 16 patients (5%). Ninety-six infections were observed in 70 patients (21.8%). Thirteen infections (13.5%) were defined as severe. Infections were not correlated with neutropenia during treatment. Dose reductions did not lead to a decrease in infection rate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age >55 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-3.56, P = 0.01) and baseline hyperglycemia (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.15-4.10, P = 0.016) were associated with an increased risk of infection during HCV treatment. Cirrhosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were not risk factors for infection. Conclusion: Bacterial infections during treatment with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin are not associated with neutropenia. Older patients and patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus have a greater risk of developing infections during HCV treatment. (HEPATOLOGY 2010) [source]

    Disseminated infection due to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in a patient with AIDS: case report and review

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 3 2000
    S Fournier
    Objective and methods Infections due to microsporidia are increasingly recognized as opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS. We describe here a case of disseminated infection due to Encephalitozoon cuniculi and review the literature on this microsporidial infection. Results All 12 patients reported in the literature had AIDS and nine presented with disseminated infection involving the kidneys, sinuses, lungs, brain and conjunctiva. Asymptomatic infection was seen in three patients. Microsporidia were detected by light microscopy examination of urine samples in all the cases. Species identification was performed by various genotypic methods or transmission electron microscopy. Eight of 12 patients who received albendazole therapy experienced clinical improvement with documented clearance of spores in five of these eight patients. Two patients relapsed. Conclusions E. cuniculi infection should be considered in severely immunocompromised HIV-infected patients with multi-organ involvement and fever, especially when renal failure is present. Microsporidial spores are usually seen in urine samples and in the involved organ. Albendazole therapy seems to be effective. [source]

    Methods to avoid infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Faten N Aberra MD, MSCE
    Abstract Abstract Infections have been reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially in association with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory medications used to treat IBD. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of information on infectious complication risk in patients with IBD. This review describes infectious complications reported in patients with IBD and provides a framework for future studies to assess potential risk factors and incidence for infection. Recommendations are also provided for prevention of infection. [source]

    Avian influenza surveillance in wild birds in the European Union in 2006

    Uta Hesterberg
    Abstract Background, Infections of wild birds with highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) subtype H5N1 virus were reported for the first time in the European Union in 2006. Objectives, To capture epidemiological information on H5N1 HPAI in wild bird populations through large-scale surveillance and extensive data collection. Methods, Records were analysed at bird level to explore the epidemiology of AI with regard to species of wild birds involved, timing and location of infections as well as the applicability of different surveillance types for the detection of infections. Results, In total, 120,706 records of birds were sent to the Community Reference Laboratory for analysis. Incidents of H5N1 HPAI in wild birds were detected in 14 EU Member States during 2006. All of these incidents occurred between February and May, with the exception of two single cases during the summer months in Germany and Spain. Conclusions, For the detection of H5N1 HPAI virus, passive surveillance of dead or diseased birds appeared the most effective approach, whilst active surveillance offered better detection of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. No carrier species for H5N1 HPAI virus could be identified and almost all birds infected with H5N1 HPAI virus were either dead or showed clinical signs. A very large number of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were tested in 2006 and while a high proportion of LPAI infections were found in this species, H5N1 HPAI virus was rarely identified in these birds. Orders of species that appeared to be very clinically susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus were swans, diving ducks, mergansers and grebes, supporting experimental evidence. Surveillance results indicate that H5N1 HPAI virus did not establish itself successfully in the EU wild bird population in 2006. [source]

    Lymphocutaneous nocardiosis and cutaneous pheohyphomycosis in a liver transplant recipient

    Isabel Hidalgo Parra
    Background, Infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in transplanted patients. The increasing number of immunocompromised patients has not only augmented infections by specific pathogens, but also by opportunistic microbial agents. Methods, A mixed cutaneous infection caused by Nocardia brasiliensis and Exophiala jeanselmei is reported in a liver transplant patient. Results, The cutaneous lesions were painful nodules which drained purulent material. They were located on the right lower limb, with lymphadenopathies in the groin. Conclusions, The patient was treated with itraconazole (600 mg/day) plus trimethoprim (1600 mg/day),sulfamethoxazole (320 mg/day) for 8 weeks, with complete remission of the lesions. [source]

    Profile of opportunistic infections among patients on immunosuppressive medication

    Srinivas REDDY
    Abstract Background:, The widespread use of immunosuppressives in treating systemic autoimmune disorders has resulted in opportunistic infections (OIs) following such therapy. Current data regarding the possibility of infection due to these drugs or from the primary disease, per se, is conflicting. Objectives:, We aimed to analyse the profile of patients requiring hospitalization for OIs among those being treated with glucocorticoids and other immunosuppressive agents as part of management of systemic autoimmune disorders and to analyse the host factors in relation to OIs. Method:, In this descriptive analysis, all patients hospitalized the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India, under medicinal units for OIs that occurred following and during treatment with corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents for treatment of systemic autoimmune disorders from February 2002 to January 2003, were studied. All hospitalized patients received antibiotics according to the nature of infection and sensitivity reports. All relevant clinical details were recorded in a standard pro forma. Descriptive statistics were used. The Institute Ethics Committee's permission was secured prior to study commencement. Results:, Nineteen patients (16 female) were admitted because of OIs. Their mean age (± SD) was 37.32 (± 19.9) years. Ten patients had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), two had SLE with overlap, five had rheumatoid arthritis, and one each had vasculitis and scleroderma with polymyositis. There were 28 infections. One (5.3%) patient had four infections, one (5.3%) had three, six (31.6%) had two, nine (47.4%) had one, and in two (10.5%) patients the infection was not localized. Of the 19 cases, 10 (52.6%) received > 10 mg of prednisolone each day (median = 1130 mg). The remaining nine (47.4%) were on < 10 mg prednisolone each day (median = 880 mg). Methylprednisolone was given to two (6.3%) patients. Bacteria accounted for most of the infections. There were two fungal infections and one patient each with tuberculosis and peritonitis. Infections occurred predominantly in the chest, urine and skin. Septicemia was diagnosed in three patients. There were two deaths, one each with SLE and rheumatoid arthritis. Conclusion:, Since infections can occur at low doses of corticosteroids, we suggest that these disorders may be, per se, responsible for an increased risk of infection. [source]