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INHIBITION OF BRAIN RENIN,ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM IMPROVES DIASTOLIC CARDIAC FUNCTION FOLLOWING MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN RATSCLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
SUMMARY 1Recently, we demonstrated that oral captopril treatment improved diastolic function and attenuated cardiac remodelling after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Considering the feasible role of the brain renin,angiotensin system (RAS) in heart failure, in the present study we investigated the role of the captopril injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on the progression of cardiac dysfunction. 2Male Wistar rats underwent experimental MI or sham operation. Infarcted animals received daily i.c.v. injections of captopril (approximately 200 mg/kg; MI + Cap) or saline (MI) from 11 to 18 days after infarction. Electro- and echocardiogram assessments were performed before and after i.c.v. treatment (10 and 18 days after MI, respectively). Water and hypertonic saline ingestion were determined daily between 12 and 16 days after MI. 3Electrocardiograms from the MI and MI + Cap groups showed signs that resembled large MI before and after i.c.v. treatment. However, despite similar systolic dysfunction observed in both groups, only captopril-treated rats exhibited reduced left ventricular (LV) dilatation and improved LV filling, as assessed by echocardiograms, and low levels of water ingestion compared with the saline-treated control group. 4The results of the present study suggest that the brain RAS may participate in the development of cardiac dysfunction induced by ischaemia and that inhibition of the brain RAS may provide a new strategy for the prevention of diastolic dysfunction. [source]
Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Cerebellar InfarctionACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 1 2007
Sean I. Savitz MD
Abstract Background Cerebellar infarctions are an important cause of neurologic disease. Failure to recognize and rapidly diagnose cerebellar infarction may lead to serious morbidity and mortality due to hydrocephalus and brain stem infarction. Objectives To identify sources of preventable medical errors, the authors obtained pilot data on cerebellar ischemic strokes that were initially misdiagnosed in the emergency department. Methods Fifteen cases of misdiagnosed cerebellar infarctions were collected, all seen, or reviewed by the authors during a five-year period. For each patient, they report the presenting symptoms, the findings on neurologic examination performed in the emergency department, specific areas of the examination not performed or documented, diagnostic testing, the follow-up course after misdiagnosis, and outcome. The different types of errors leading to misdiagnosis are categorized. Results Half of the patients were younger than 50 years and presented with headache and dizziness. All patients had either incomplete or poorly documented neurologic examinations. Almost all patients had a computed tomographic scan of the head interpreted as normal, and most of these patients underwent subsequent magnetic resonance imaging showing cerebellar infarction. The initial incorrect diagnoses included migraine, toxic encephalopathy, gastritis, meningitis, myocardial infarction, and polyneuropathy. The overall mortality in this patient cohort was 40%. Among the survivors, about 50% had disabling deficits. Pitfalls leading to misdiagnosis involved the clinical evaluation, diagnostic testing, and establishing a diagnosis and disposition. Conclusions This study demonstrates how the diagnosis of cerebellar infarction can be missed or delayed in patients presenting to the emergency department. [source]
Comparison of Hospital Mortality With Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation Insertion Before vs After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial InfarctionCONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, Issue 5 2010
Scott Harris DO
We hypothesized that the insertion of the IABP before primary PCI might result in better survival of patients with cardiogenic shock compared with postponing the insertion until after primary PCI. We, therefore, retrospectively studied 48 patients who had undergone primary PCI with IABP because of cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction (26 patients received the IABP before and 22 patients after primary PCI). No significant differences were present in the baseline clinical characteristics between the 2 groups. The mean number of diseased vessels was greater in the group of patients treated with the IABP before primary PCI (2.8±0.5 vs 2.3±0.7, P=.012), but the difference in the number of treated vessels was not significant. The peak creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB levels were lower in patients treated with the IABP before primary PCI (median, 1077; interquartile range, 438,2067 vs median, 3299; interquartile range, 695,6834; P=.047 and median, 95; interquartile range, 34,196 vs median, 192; interquartile range, 82,467; P=.048, respectively). In-hospital mortality and the overall incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events were significantly lower in the group of patients receiving the IABP before primary PCI (19% vs 59% and 23% vs 77%, P=.007 and P=.0004, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified renal failure (odds ratio, 15.2; 95% confidence interval, 3.13,73.66) and insertion of the IABP after PCI (odds ratio, 5.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.09,24.76) as the only independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction who undergo primary PCI assisted by IABP have a more favorable in-hospital outcome and lower in-hospital mortality than patients who receive IABP after PCI. Abdel-Wahab M, Saad M, Kynast J, et al. Comparison of hospital mortality with intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation insertion before versus after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2010;105:967,971. [source]
Feasibility of Biventricular Pacing in Patients With Recent Myocardial Infarction: Impact on Ventricular RemodelingCONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, Issue 1 2007
Eugene S. Chung MD
To test the hypothesis that biventricular pacing after a myocardial infarction with reduced ejection fraction can attenuate left ventricular (LV) remodeling, the authors studied 18 patients (myocardial infarction within 30,45 days, ejection fraction ,30%, narrow QRS) randomized to biventricular therapy (biventricular therapy + defibrillator) (biventricular group) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator alone (control group). At 1, 6, and 12 months, there were no differences in functional or clinical parameters (New York Heart Association, quality of life, 6-minute walk). Twelve-month LV volume remained stable in the biventricular group, but increased in the control group (median LV end-diastolic volume increase, 6.5 mL in biventricular vs 35 mL in control; P=.03; median LV end-diastolic volume decrease, 5.5 mL in biventricular vs 30.5-mL increase in control; P=.11). Biventricular therapy also prevented an increase in sphericity index at 12 months (median, ,2% in biventricular vs 37% in control; P=.06). Delivery of biventricular therapy early after myocardial infarction appears safe and feasible and may attenuate subsequent LV dilation. [source]
Electrocardiogram Differentiation of Benign Early Repolarization Versus Acute Myocardial Infarction by Emergency Physicians and CardiologistsACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 9 2006
Samuel D. Turnipseed MD
Abstract Objectives: ST-segment elevation (STE) related to benign early repolarization (BER), a common normal variant, can be difficult to distinguish from acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The authors compared the electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretations of these two entities by emergency physicians (EPs) and cardiologists. Methods: Twenty-five cases (13 BER, 12 AMI) of patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain were identified. Criteria for BER required four of the following: 1) widespread STE (precordial greater than limb leads), 2) J-point elevation, 3) concavity of initial up-sloping portion of ST segment, 4) notching or irregular contour of J point, and 5) prominent, concordant T waves. Additional BER criteria were 1) stable ECG pattern, 2) negative cardiac injury markers, and 3) normal cardiac stress test or angiography. AMI criteria were 1) regional STE, 2) positive cardiac injury markers, and 3) identification of culprit coronary artery by angiography in less than eight hours of presentation. The 25 ECGs were distributed to 12 EPs and 12 cardiologists (four in academic medicine, four in community practice, and four in community academics [health maintenance organization] in each physician group). The physicians were informed of the patients' age, gender, and race, and they then interpreted the ECGs as BER or AMI. Undercalls (AMI misdiagnosed as BER) and overcalls (BER misdiagnosed as AMI) were calculated for each physician group. Results: Cardiologists correctly interpreted 90% of ECGs, and EPs correctly interpreted 81% of ECGs. The proportion of undercalls (missed AMI/total AMI) was 2.8% for cardiologists (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.09% to 5.5%) compared with 9.7% for EPs (95% CI = 4.8% to 14.6%) (p = 0.02). The proportion of overcalls (missed BER/total BER) was 17.3% for cardiologists (95% CI = 11.4% to 23.3%) versus 27.6% for EPs (95% CI = 20.6% to 34.6%) (p = 0.03). The mean number of years in practice was 19.8 for cardiologists (95% CI = 19 to 20.5) and 11 years for EPs (95% CI = 10.5 to 12.0) (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Although correct interpretation was high in both groups, cardiologists, who had significantly more years of practice, had fewer misinterpretations than EPs in distinguishing BER from AMI electrocardiographically. [source]
Recurrent artery of Heubner infarction in infancyDEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 5 2000
Steven P Miller MDCM
Classically, acquired occlusion of the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH) results in hemiparesis with faciobrachial predominance. Infarction in the territory of the RAH represents a specific stroke syndrome not yet described in infancy with a range of motor and functional manifestations. An infant is described with apparent congenital infarction of the recurrent artery of Heubner. The child had prominent involvement of the contralateral upper extremity with athetosis. Neuroimaging changes were evident in the vascular territory classically attributed to the RAH. The clinician should suspect congenital RAH infarction in those infants with congenital upper-extremity athetosis. [source]
Relationship between Strain Rate Imaging and Coronary Flow Reserve in Assessing Myocardial Viability after Acute Myocardial InfarctionECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2010
Ph.D., Seong-Mi Park M.D.
Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between strain rate (SR) imaging and coronary flow reserve (CFR) in assessing viability of akinetic myocardium after acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Forty patients with acute first ST-elevation MI were analyzed. SR imaging and CFR by intracoronary flow measurement were obtained on the same day, 3,5 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Viability of the akinetic myocardium was determined on 6-week echocardiography. Results: Systolic SR (SRs, ,0.42 ± 0.10 vs. ,0.35 ± 0.11 per second, P = 0.03), early diastolic SR (SRe, 0.68 ± 0.31 vs. 0.41 ± 0.22 per second, P = 0.003), and systolic strain (Ss, ,5.9 ± 3.4 vs. ,2.5 ± 4.0%, P = 0.04) were greater in akinetic, but viable myocardium of 21 patients than in akinetic and nonviable myocardium of 19 patients. CFR was also higher in patients with akinetic, but viable myocardium (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 1.5 ± 0.5, P < 0.001). SRs, SRe, and Ss were significantly related to CFR (r =,0.50, r = 0.58, r =,0.56, respectively, all P , 0.001) and SRe was most related to CFR (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity to predict myocardial viability were 85.7% and 68.4% for CFR (cutoff = 1.75), and 90.5% and 57.9% for SRe (cutoff = 0.37 per second), respectively. Conclusions: The degree of myocardial deformation determined by SR imaging was related to the degree of microvascular integrity determined by CFR, and can be used as a noninvasive method to predict myocardial viability after acute MI. (Echocardiography 2010;27:977-984) [source]
Regional Diastolic and Systolic Function by Strain Rate Imaging for the Detection of Intramural Viability during Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in a Porcine Model of Myocardial InfarctionECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2010
Carsten Schneider M.D.
The aim of this study was to evaluate diastolic and systolic strain rate measurements for differentiation of transmural/nontransmural infarction during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). An ameroid constrictor was placed around the circumflex artery in 23 pigs inducing chronic vessel occlusion. Five pigs without constrictor served as controls. During high-dose DSE systolic strain rates (SRsys), systolic and postsystolic strain values (,sys, ,ps) and early and late diastolic strain rates (SRE and SRA) were determined. At week 6, animals were evaluated regarding myocardial fibrosis. Histology revealed nontransmural in 14 and transmural infarction in 9 animals. In controls, dobutamine induced a linear increase of SRsys to 12.3 ± 0.4 s,1 at 40 ,g/kg per minute (P = 0.001) and a linear decrease of SRE to ,6.6 ± 0.3 s,1 (P = 0.001). In the nontransmural group, SRsys, ,sys, ,ps at rest, and during DSE were higher and SRE was lower than in the transmural infarction group (P = 0.01). Best predictors for viability were SRsys (ROC 0.96, P = 0.0003), SRE at 10 ,g/kg per minute dobutamine stimulation (ROC 0.94, P = 0.001) and positive SR values during isovolumetric relaxation at 40 ,g/kg per minute dobutamine (ROC 0.86, P = 0.004). The extension of fibrosis correlated with SRsys at rest, ,sys at rest, and SRE at rest (P < 0.001). For the detection of viability similar diagnostic accuracies of SRE and SRsys were seen (sensitivity 93%/93%, specificity 96%/94%, respectively). Diastolic SR analysis seems to be equipotent for the identification of viable myocardium in comparison to systolic SR parameters and allows the differentiation of nontransmural from transmural myocardial infarction with high diagnostic accuracy. (Echocardiography 2010;27:552-562) [source]
Aortic Valve Closure: Relation to Tissue Velocities by Doppler and Speckle Tracking in Patients with Infarction and at High Heart RatesECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2010
Ph.D., Svein A. Aase M.Sc.
Aim: To resolve the event in tissue Doppler (TDI)- and speckle tracking-based velocity/time curves that most accurately represent aortic valve closure (AVC) in infarcted ventricles and at high heart rates. Methods: We studied the timing of AVC in 13 patients with myocardial infarction and in 8 patients at peak dobutamine stress echo. An acquisition setup for recording alternating B-mode and TDI image frames was used to achieve the same frame rate in both cases (mean 136.7 frames per second [FPS] for infarcted ventricles, mean 136.9 FPS for high heart rates). The reference method was visual assessment of AVC in the high frame rate narrow sector B-mode images of the aortic valve. Results: The initial negative velocities after ejection in the velocity/time curves occurred before AVC, 44.9 ± 21.0 msec before the reference in the high heart rate material, and 25.2 ± 15.2 msec before the reference in the infarction material. Using this time point as a marker for AVC may cause inaccuracies when estimating end-systolic strain. A more accurate but still a practical marker for AVC was the time point of zero crossing after the initial negative velocities after ejection, 5.4 ± 15.3 msec before the reference in high heart rates and 8.2 ± 12.9 msec after the reference in the infarction material. Conclusion: The suggested marker of AVC at high heart rate and in infarcted ventricles was the time point of zero crossing after the initial negative velocities after ejection in velocity/time curves. (Echocardiography 2010;27:363-369) [source]
Myocardial Viability Detected by Myocardial Contrast Echocardiography,Prognostic Value in Patients after Myocardial InfarctionECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2010
Maria Olszowska M.D., Ph.D.
Objective: This study aimed to assess the role of myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) as a predictor of cardiac events and death in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: Eighty-six patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary angioplasty for AMI. Segmental perfusion was estimated by MCE in real time at mean 5 days after PCI using low MI (0.3) after 0.3,0.5 ml bolus injection of intravenous Optison. MCE was scored semiquantitatively as: (1) normal perfusion (homogenous contrast effect), (2) partial perfusion (patchy myocardial contrast enhancement), (3) lack of perfusion (no visible contrast effect). A contrast score index (CSI) was calculated as the sum of MCE scores in each segment divided by the total number of segments. The patients were followed up for cardiac events and death. Results: A CSI of >1.68 was taken to be a predictor of cardiac events and death. Death occurred only in patients with CSI >1.68. Patients with CSI >1.68 had a significantly (P = 0.03) higher incidence of cardiac death or cardiac events (75%) compared to those with CSI <1.68 (27%). The absence of residual perfusion within the infarct zone was an independent predictor of death and cardiac events (P = 0.02). Conclusions: The absence of residual myocardial viability in the infarct zone supplied by an infarct-related artery is a powerful predictor of cardiac events in patients after AMI. (Echocardiography 2010;27:430-434) [source]
Prosthetic Valve Thrombosis Presenting as an Acute Embolic Myocardial Infarction in a Pregnant Patient: Issues on Anticoagulation Regimens and Thrombolytic TherapyECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 9 2006
Padmini Varadarajan M.D.
Mechanical valves are inherently thrombogenic and require meticulous anticoagulation. Pregnancy produces a hypercoagulable state and achieving adequate anticoagulation is difficult. We present a pregnant patient who had a nonobstructive thrombus of mechanical mitral valve causing embolic acute myocardial infarction. Issues surrounding management of anticoagulation and use of thrombolytic therapy during pregnancy are discussed. Education regarding the critical nature of adequate anticoagulation in these patients is important. [source]
The Effect of Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms on Doppler Blood Flow Parameters of Carotid and Brachial Arteries in Patients with Myocardial InfarctionECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2006
Onder Ozturk M.D.
Background: Genetic influence on Doppler blood flow parameters of carotid and brachial arteries (BA) is uncertain. We investigated the relationship between the angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) gene polymorphism and the blood flow characteristics of common carotid arteries (CCA) and BA by color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in patients with a first anterior acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods and Results: Sixty-seven patients (15 women and 52 men), aged 25,77 years, with anterior AMI were studied. The AT1R genotypes were established. Based on the polymorphism of the AT1R, they were classified into three groups: AT1R AA genotype (Group1, n = 42 patients), AT1R AC genotype (Group 2, n = 17 patients), and AT1R CC genotype (Group 3, n = 8 patients). Peak-systolic velocity (PSV) and end-diastolic velocity (EDV) of right and left CCA, PSV of right BA, and intimal-medial thickness (IMT) of both CCA were measured by CDUS. All results evaluated statistically. The AT1R genotypes were distributed as follows: 63% AA, 25% AC, and 12% CC. PSV of BA and both CCA were higher in patients with CC and AC than AA (P < 0.05). Also, IMT of both CCA were also higher in the same groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that AT1R gene polymorphism influences Doppler blood flow parameters of both BA and CCA, and IMT of CCA. Although further studies are required. [source]
Possible Paradoxical Embolism as a Rare Cause for an Acute Myocardial InfarctionECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2006
Aleksandr Rovner M.D.
Paradoxical embolus is a rare entity and it has been incriminated as a cause of both cryptogenic strokes and myocardial infarctions (MI). Herein, we present a case of a patient diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism 1 week prior who now presented with an acute MI. Subsequent evaluation revealed a patent foramen ovale and a large thrombus in the right pulmonary artery. It was presumed that the etiology of her infarct was due to paradoxical embolus. The management of the patient is discussed and the literature is reviewed. [source]
Myocardial Performance Index (Tei Index) Does Not Reflect Long-Term Changes in Left Ventricular Function after Acute Myocardial InfarctionECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2003
Torstein Hole M.D.
Aims: To evaluate whether changes in myocardial performance index (MPI or Tei index) were related to changes in other Doppler echocardiographic parameters after acute myocardial infarction, or had any independent prognostic impact in a 2-year observational study. Methods and Results: Seventy-one patients with acute myocardial infarction without heart failure were examined at baseline, 3 months, and 2 years. MPI was significantly related to end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes, ejection fraction, maximal velocity, and time velocity integral of early mitral filling wave at 3 months and 2 years. MPI did not contribute significantly to the prediction of any changes in the measures of diastolic or systolic function at 3 months or 2 years. Baseline MPI was significantly higher in patients who later developed heart failure(0.55 ± 0.16)than in other patients(0.43 ± 0.13, P = 0.006), but had no independent predictive power for the development of heart failure or death relative to end-systolic volume index and deceleration time of early mitral filling wave. Conclusion: MPI did not accurately reflect changes in Doppler and two-dimensional echocardiographic measures of diastolic or systolic function during a 2-year follow-up after acute myocardial infarction, and did not have any independent prognostic impact. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 20, January 2003) [source]
Electrocardiographic ST-segment Elevation: Correct Identification of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and Non-AMI Syndromes by Emergency PhysiciansACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 4 2001
William J. Brady MD
Abstract. Objective: To determine the emergency physician's (EP's) ability to identify the cause of ST-segment elevation (STE) in a hypothetical chest pain patient. Methods: Eleven electrocardiograms (ECGs) with STE were given to EPs; the patient in each instance was a 45-year-old male with a medical history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus with the chief complaint of chest pain. The EP was asked to determine the cause of the STE and, if due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), to decide whether thrombolytic therapy (TT) would be administered (the patient had no contraindication to such treatment). Rates of TT administration were determined; appropriate TT administration was defined as that occurring in an AMI patient, while inappropriate TT administration was defined as that in the non-AMI patient. Results: Four hundred fifty-eight EPs completed the questionnaire; levels of medical experience included the following: postgraduate year 2-3, 193 (42%); and attending, 265 (58%). The overall rate of correct interpretation of the study ECGs was 94.9% (4,782 correct interpretations out of 5,038 instances). Acute myocardial infarction with typical STE, ventricular paced rhythm, and right bundle branch block were never misinterpreted. The remaining conditions were misinterpreted with rates ranging between 9% (left bundle branch block, LBBB) and 72% (left ventricular aneurysm, LVA). The overall rate of appropriate thrombolytic agent administration was 83% (1,525 correct administrations out of 1,832 indicated administrations). The leading diagnosis for which thrombolytic agent was given inappropriately was LVA (28%), followed by benign early repolarization (23%), pericarditis (21%), and LBBB without electrocardiographic AMI (5%). Thrombolytic agent was appropriately given in all cases of AMI except when associated with atypical STE, where it was inappropriately withheld 67% of the time. Conclusions: In this survey, EPs were asked whether they would give TT based on limited information (ECG). Certain syndromes with STE were frequently misdiagnosed. Emergency physician electrocardiographic education must focus on the proper identification of these syndromes so that TT may be appropriately utilized. [source]
Prospective Validation of a Modified Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction Risk Score in Emergency Department Patients With Chest Pain and Possible Acute Coronary SyndromeACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 4 2010
Erik P. Hess MD
Abstract Objectives:, This study attempted to prospectively validate a modified Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score that classifies patients with either ST-segment deviation or cardiac troponin elevation as high risk. The objectives were to determine the ability of the modified score to risk-stratify emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain and to identify patients safe for early discharge. Methods:, This was a prospective cohort study in an urban academic ED over a 9-month period. Patients over 24 years of age with a primary complaint of chest pain were enrolled. On-duty physicians completed standardized data collection forms prior to diagnostic testing. Cardiac troponin T-values of >99th percentile (,0.01 ng/mL) were considered elevated. The primary outcome was acute myocardial infarction (AMI), revascularization, or death within 30 days. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the risk scores was compared by generating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and comparing the area under the curve. The performance of the risk scores at potential decision thresholds was assessed by calculating the sensitivity and specificity at each potential cut-point. Results:, The study enrolled 1,017 patients with the following characteristics: mean (±SD) age 59.3 (±13.8) years, 60.6% male, 17.9% with a history of diabetes, and 22.4% with a history of myocardial infarction. A total of 117 (11.5%) experienced a cardiac event within 30 days (6.6% AMI, 8.9% revascularization, 0.2% death of cardiac or unknown cause). The modified TIMI risk score outperformed the original with regard to overall diagnostic accuracy (area under the ROC curve = 0.83 vs. 0.79; p = 0.030; absolute difference 0.037; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.004 to 0.071). The specificity of the modified score was lower at all cut-points of >0. Sensitivity and specificity at potential decision thresholds were: >0 = sensitivity 96.6%, specificity 23.7%; >1 = sensitivity 91.5%, specificity 54.2%; and >2 = sensitivity 80.3%, specificity 73.4%. The lowest cut-point (TIMI/modified TIMI >0) was the only cut-point to predict cardiac events with sufficient sensitivity to consider early discharge. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified and original TIMI risk scores at this cut-point were identical. Conclusions:, The modified TIMI risk score outperformed the original with regard to overall diagnostic accuracy. However, it had lower specificity at all cut-points of >0, suggesting suboptimal risk stratification in high-risk patients. It also lacked sufficient sensitivity and specificity to safely guide patient disposition. Both scores are insufficiently sensitive and specific to recommend as the sole means of determining disposition in ED chest pain patients. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE,2010; 17:368,375 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]
Acute Myocardial Infarction With Sumatriptan: A Case Report and Review of the LiteratureHEADACHE, Issue 5 2009
Flavio Devetag Chalaupka MD
We report a case of myocardial infarction associated with the use of sumatriptan and review the literature regarding similar cases. A 54-year-old woman with a history of migraine without aura, mild arterial hypertension, depression, and no history of coronary artery disease was admitted to our hospital for acute myocardial infarction, 30 minutes after using 6 mg of subcutaneous sumatriptan. Coronary angiography performed several days later revealed a normal coronary arterial system. Although at discharge the patient was advised to permanently avoid triptans, she continued the use of oral sumatriptan at low dosage (25-50 mg) without any problems. [source]
Evaluation of Interventions Proposed for Altered Tissue Perfusion: Cardiopulmonary in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Myocardial InfarctionINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NURSING TERMINOLOGIES AND CLASSIFICATION, Issue 2003
Ivanise Maria Gomes
PURPOSE To evaluate the effectiveness and efficacy of the interventions proposed for patients with altered tissue perfusion: cardiopulmonary, according to NIC and NOC taxonomies. METHODS Prospective and descriptive study carried out in the cardiology unit of a school hospital with patients under clinical treatment followed from admission until discharge. Patient data were collected using the unit's assessment tool and nursing diagnoses were established. Daily activities were proposed for these patients based on NIC interventions "cardiac care: acute,""cardiac care," and "cardiac care: rehabilitative." Results were evaluated according to indicators selected from NOC's Tissue Perfusion: Cardiac. FINDINGS The sample comprised 25 patients (12 males, 13 females), age range 39 to 83 years. Days hospitalized averaged 3.5 in the coronary unit and 3.5 in the cardiology infirmary, for a total of 7 hospital days. The nursing diagnosis was made based on defining characteristics: enzymatic and ECG changes were found in 100% of the patients, chest pain (96%), diaphoresis (80%), and nausea (72%). The related factor in evidence for 100% of the sample was coronary arterial flow interruption. Patients were evaluated according to NOC outcomes both before starting activities and daily, with the following results: chest pain , 64% of patients initially presented pain with score 1, most (72%) presented scores 4 and 5 on day 2; on days 3, 5, 6, and 7 of hospitalization, all patients reported absence of pain (score 5). On day 4 only, 4% of patients reported pain with intensity 7 (score 2). Profuse diaphoresis was found in 80% of the sample on day 1 of hospitalization, and that disappeared in the course of the remaining days. Nausea was found in 44% of the population with score 1 on day 1 of hospitalization, and disappeared subsequently. Most the patients (84%) did not present with vomiting. Also, no evidence was found of vital sign changes in most of the sample. ECG presented score 1 in 72% of the sample on day 1, greatly decreasing from day 2. Cardiac enzymes appeared in 100% of the sample, decreasing in subsequent days. Heart ejection fraction, pulmonary artery pressure, heart rate, and myocardial scanning indicators were not measured. CONCLUSIONS Indicators evaluated achieved score 5 (no compromise) on hospital discharge in 100% of patients, which evidences effectiveness of the interventions performed. [source]
Door-to-Balloon Time: Performance Improvement in the Multidisciplinary Treatment of Myocardial InfarctionJOURNAL FOR HEALTHCARE QUALITY, Issue 4 2010
J. Mark Peterman
Abstract: The treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction with primary percutaneous coronary intervention is a time-sensitive process, with outcomes correlated with the speed with which the healthcare team can make the diagnosis, start preliminary treatment, and successfully perform the intervention. This requires multidisciplinary teamwork involving Emergency Medical Services, Emergency Medicine and Nursing, the cardiac catheterization laboratory team, and interventional cardiology. The success of effectively delivering treatment is enhanced through focused analysis of key steps within the care process to identify systems problems and implement quality improvement initiatives. This article reviews the process whereby our institution achieved top decile performance in this multidisciplinary treatment. [source]
Old Age and Outcome After Primary Angioplasty for Acute Myocardial InfarctionJOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 5 2010
Menko-Jan De Boer MD
OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of age as an independent factor determining the prognosis and outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treated using primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). DESIGN: A retrospective analysis from a dedicated database. SETTING: A high-volume interventional cardiology center in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Four thousand nine hundred thirty-three consecutive patients with AMI. MEASUREMENTS: Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes after 30 days and 1 year were compared according to age categorized in three groups: younger than 65, 65 to 74, and 75 and older. A more-detailed analysis was performed with six age groups, from younger than 40 to 80 and older. RESULTS: Of the 4,933 consecutive patients with AMI treated with PCI between 1992 and 2004, 643 were aged 75 and older. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients aged 65 to 75 had a greater risk of 1-year mortality than those younger than 65 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.15,2.16) and that those aged 75 and older had a greater risk of 1-year mortality than those younger than 65 (AOR=3.03, 95% CI=2.14,4.29). CONCLUSION: In this retrospective analysis, older age was independently associated with greater mortality after PCI for AMI. Patients aged 65 and older had a higher risk of mortality than younger patients, and those aged 75 and older had the highest risk of mortality. [source]
Association Between Functional Status and Use and Effectiveness of Beta-Blocker Prophylaxis in Elderly Survivors of Acute Myocardial InfarctionJOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 4 2004
Gail Vitagliano MD
Objectives: To examine whether physical and cognitive impairments explain low use of beta-blockers in elderly patients and whether functionally impaired older adults have improved survival if a beta-blocker is prescribed at hospital discharge. Design: Cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study. Setting: Acute care hospitals in the United States. Participants: National cohort of 45,370 elderly acute myocardial infarction survivors, with no chart-documented contraindications to beta-blocker treatment. Measurements: The main outcome measures were beta-blocker prescription at hospital discharge and 1-year survival. Results: Fifty percent (n=22,683) of eligible patients were prescribed a beta-blocker at discharge. Older age and functional impairments (incontinence, mobility impairment, and cognitive impairment) were independently associated with decreased use of beta-blockers. The odds ratios for prescribing a beta-blocker at hospital discharge were 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.77,0.86), 0.63 (95% CI=0.56,0.71), and 0.40 (95% CI=0.32,0.51) for persons with one, two, and three impairments, respectively, compared with those with no impairments. In survival analysis, patients prescribed a beta-blocker were 21% less likely than nonrecipients to die within 1 year of follow-up (relative risk=0.79, P=.0001). Similar survival benefit was observed in patients with and without functional impairments. Conclusion: This study shows a strong association between functional impairment and the use of beta-blockers after acute myocardial infarction in elderly patients. The results suggest that increasing use of beta-blockers in this group provides an opportunity to improve outcomes. [source]
The Effect of Dementia on Outcomes and Process of Care for Medicare Beneficiaries Admitted with Acute Myocardial InfarctionJOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 2 2004
Frank A. Sloan PhD
Objectives: To determine differences in mortality after admission for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and in use of noninvasive and invasive treatments for AMI between patients with and without dementia. Design: Retrospective chart review. Setting: Cooperative Cardiovascular Project. Patients: Medicare patients admitted for AMI (N=129,092) in 1994 and 1995. Measurements: Dementia noted on medical chart as history of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, chronic confusion, or senility. Outcome measures included mortality at 30 days and 1-year postadmission; use of aspirin, beta-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, thrombolytic therapy, cardiac catheterization, coronary angioplasty, and cardiac bypass surgery compared by dementia status. Results: Dementia was associated with higher mortality at 30 days (relative risk (RR)=1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09,1.22) and at 1-year postadmission (RR=1.18, 95% CI=1.13,1.23). There were few to no differences in the use of aspirin and beta-blockers between patients with and without a history of dementia. Patients with a history of dementia were less likely to receive ACE inhibitors during the stay (RR=0.89, 95% CI=0.86,0.93) or at discharge (RR=0.90, 95% CI=0.86,0.95), thrombolytic therapy (RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.74,0.90), catheterization (RR=0.51, 95% CI=0.47,0.55), coronary angioplasty (RR=0.58, 95% CI=0.51,0.66), and cardiac bypass surgery (RR=0.41, 95% CI=0.33,0.50) than patients without a history of dementia. Conclusion: The results imply that the presence of dementia had a major effect on mortality and care patterns for this condition. [source]
Efficacy of Thrombolysis in Younger and Older Adult Patients Suffering Their First Acute Q-Wave Myocardial InfarctionJOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 2 2002
Claudio Napoli MD, FACA
First page of article [source]
Abdominal Aortic Calcification Detected on Lateral Spine Images From a Bone Densitometer Predicts Incident Myocardial Infarction or Stroke in Older WomenJOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2008
John T Schousboe MD
Abstract Among a cohort of elderly women, abdominal aortic calcification scored on baseline lateral spine densitometric images intended for vertebral fracture assessment was associated with subsequent myocardial infarction or stroke over a median 4-yr period, independent of clinical cardiovascular disease risk factors. Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among older women is not adequately captured by traditional CVD risk factors. Lateral spine images obtained on bone densitometers for vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) can detect abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), an important marker of subclinical CVD. Our objective was to estimate the association between AAC scored on VFA images and subsequent myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke in elderly women. Materials and Methods: Among participants in a randomized controlled trial (women; age >75 yr) of clodronate versus placebo, those who sustained an MI or stroke during the median 4-yr follow-up study period were selected as cases (n = 408), and 408 controls were randomly selected from the remainder of the parent study population. Baseline VFA images were scored for AAC with a previously validated 24-point scale and a newer, simpler 8-point scale. Results: The OR of incident MI or stroke for those in the middle and top tertiles, respectively, compared with the bottom tertile of AAC score were 1.14 (95% CI, 0.79,1.66) and 1.74 (95% CI, 1.19,2.56) for the 24-point scale and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.98,2.05) and 1.77 (95% CI, 1.22,2.55) for the 8-point scale, adjusted for age, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, smoking, renal function, health status, and baseline diagnoses of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, angina, and prior stroke. Conclusions: AAC scored on VFA images is independently associated with incident MI or stroke. Because bone densitometry is indicated for all women ,65 yr of age, VFA imaging offers an opportunity to capture this CVD risk factor in postmenopausal women undergoing bone densitometry at very little additional cost. [source]
Simultaneous Left Ventricular Pseudo-Aneurysm and Ruptured Ventricular Septal Defect Following an Acute Myocardial InfarctionJOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 5 2010
Mohammed Hassan M.D.
No abstract is available for this article. [source]
Giant Left Ventricular Aneurysm Complicating Silent Inferoposterior Myocardial InfarctionJOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 6 2009
Vijayakumar Subban M.D.
A 54-year-old male was evaluated for recurrent heart failure. Method: The echocardiogram showed large aneurysm arising from the inferoposterior wall of the left ventricle and severe mitral regurgitation. Results: The coronary angiogram revealed occluded right coronary artery (RCA) in the mid segment. Conclusion: The patient underwent aneurysm repair and coronary artery bypass grafting to RCA. [source]
Postcardiac Surgery Mediastinitis Mimicking Acute Inferior Myocardial InfarctionJOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 5 2000
Pedro A. Catarino F.R.C.S.
Typically, inflammation affects the whole myocardium, resulting in characteristic electrocardiographic changes in all epicardial leads. We describe a case of poststernotomy mediastinitis which produced electrocardiographic changes mimicking an acute inferior myocardial infarction. [source]
Quantitative Analysis of the Duration of Slow Conduction in the Reentrant Circuit of Ventricular Tachycardia After Myocardial InfarctionJOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 9 2008
YI-GANG LI M.D.
Background: Few data are available to define the circuits in ventricular tachycardia (VT) after myocardial infarction and the conduction time (CT) through the zone of slow conduction (SCZ). This study assessed the CT of the SCZ and identified different reentrant circuits. Methods: During VTs, concealed entrainment (CE) was attempted. The SCZ was identified by a difference between postpacing interval (PPI) and VT cycle length (VTcl) ,30 ms. Since the CT in the normally conducting part of the VT circuit is constant during VT and CE, a CE site within the reentrant circuit with (S-QRS)/PPI , 50% was classified as an inner reentry in which the entire circuit was within the scar, and a CE site with (S-QRS)/PPI < 50% as a common reentry in which part of the circuit was within the scar and part out of the scar. Results: CE was achieved in 20 VTs (12 patients). Six VTs (30%) with a (S-QRS)/PPI ,50% were classified as inner reentry and 14 VTs (70%) with a (S-QRS)/PPI <50% during CE mapping as common reentry. The EG-QRS interval (308 ± 73 ms vs 109 ± 59 ms, P < 0.0001) was significantly longer and the incidence of systolic potentials higher (4/6 vs 0/12, P < 0.001) in the inner reentry group. For the 14 VTs with a common reetry, the CT of the SCZ was 348 ± 73 ms, while the CT in the normal area was 135 ± 50 ms. Conclusion: According to the proposed classification, 30% of VTs after myocardial infarction had an entire reentrant circuit within the scar. In VTs with a common reentrant circuit, the CT of the SCZ is approximately four times longer than the CT in the normal area, accounting for more than 70% of VTcl. [source]
Mapping of Epicardial Activation in a Rabbit Model of Chronic Myocardial Infarction:JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 8 2007
Endocardial, Epicardial Pacing, Response to Atrial
Introduction: This study examines the consequences of a large transmural apical infarct on the epicardial electrical activity in isolated rabbit hearts. Methods and Results: Hearts were isolated 8 weeks after coronary artery ligation. Membrane voltage from the epicardial surface of the left ventricle (LV) including the infarct was monitored using the voltage sensitive dye RH237. Optical action potentials were detected from the epicardial surface of the infarct; the signal amplitude was ,20% of those in the noninfarcted zone (NZ). Epicardial activation mapping of the LV free wall showed that during right atrial (RA) pacing, the activation sequence was not significantly different between infarcted and sham-operated groups. However, direct stimulation of the epicardium in the NZ revealed an area of slow conduction velocity (CV ,5 cm/s,1, ,10% of normal values) at the margin of the infarct zone (IZ). Within the IZ, CV was ,50% of normal. A prominent endocardial rim of myocardium in the infarct was not the source of epicardial optical signals because chemical ablation of the endocardium did not affect the epicardial activation pattern. Concluson: Therefore, remnant groups of myocytes in the mid-wall and epicardium of the infarct scar support normal electrical activation during RA pacing. Areas of delayed conduction emerge only on epicardial stimulation. [source]
Human Histopathology of Electroanatomic Mapping After Cooled-Tip Radiofrequency Ablation to Treat Ventricular Tachycardia in Remote Myocardial InfarctionJOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 11 2005
THOMAS DENEKE M.D.
Introduction: Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in remote myocardial infarction (MI) often requires excessive mapping procedures. Documentation of the electrical substrate via electrogram amplitude may help to identify regions of altered myocardium resembling exit areas of reentrant VTs. Methods and Results: A patient with multiple symptomatic monomorphic VTs (biventricular ICD, remote MI) underwent electroanatomic substrate mapping (CARTOŌ) for VT ablation. Regions of scar (bipolar electrogram amplitudes ,0.5 mV), normal myocardium (,1.5 mV), and "altered" myocardium (0.5,1.5 mV) were identified. Ablation was directed to regions with "altered" myocardium based on pace map correlation. After ablation the clinical VT did not reoccur. The patient died due to worsening of heart failure 7 days afterward. During postmortal evaluation specified sites of electroanatomic mapping were correlated to histopathological findings. Annotated scar areas were documented to consist of areas with massive fibrosis (,80% of mural composition). Ablations were found to span through regions with intermediate fibrosis (21,79%) mapped as "altered" myocardium. Ablation produced transmural coagulation necrosis of mesh-like fibrotic tissue with interspersed remnants of myocardial cells up to a maximum depth of 7.0 mm. Subendocardial intramural bleedings were universal findings 7 days after ablation. Conclusions: Electroanatomic substrate mapping for VT ablation sufficiently identified regions of scar and normal myocardium. Regions with bipolar electrogram amplitudes between 0.5 and 1.5 mV were found to correlate to areas of "intermediate" fibrosis (21,79%) with only remnant strands of myocardial cells and were identified as target region for ablation. Cooled-tip endocardial radiofrequency ablation lead to transmural coagulation necrosis up to a depth of 7.0 mm. [source]