Industry Structure (industry + structure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Exploring the Role of Industry Structure in New Venture Internationalization

ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 4 2007
Stephanie A. Fernhaber
While we have gained considerable knowledge since the late 1980s regarding the phenomena of international new ventures, less is known about the influence of industry structure on these ventures. In the present paper, we draw on literature from industrial economics, international business and entrepreneurship to identify industry structure variables that fit within the theoretical framework of international new ventures. We then offer propositions as to how the identified industry structure variables individually and jointly influence the likelihood of new venture internationalization. [source]


Learning-by-Doing, Organizational Forgetting, and Industry Dynamics

ECONOMETRICA, Issue 2 2010
David Besanko
Learning-by-doing and organizational forgetting are empirically important in a variety of industrial settings. This paper provides a general model of dynamic competition that accounts for these fundamentals and shows how they shape industry structure and dynamics. We show that forgetting does not simply negate learning. Rather, they are distinct economic forces that interact in subtle ways to produce a great variety of pricing behaviors and industry dynamics. In particular, a model with learning and forgetting can give rise to aggressive pricing behavior, varying degrees of long-run industry concentration ranging from moderate leadership to absolute dominance, and multiple equilibria. [source]


Exploring the Role of Industry Structure in New Venture Internationalization

ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 4 2007
Stephanie A. Fernhaber
While we have gained considerable knowledge since the late 1980s regarding the phenomena of international new ventures, less is known about the influence of industry structure on these ventures. In the present paper, we draw on literature from industrial economics, international business and entrepreneurship to identify industry structure variables that fit within the theoretical framework of international new ventures. We then offer propositions as to how the identified industry structure variables individually and jointly influence the likelihood of new venture internationalization. [source]


Information technology innovation diffusion: an information requirements paradigm

INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2008
Nigel Melville
Abstract., Information technology (IT) innovation research examines the organizational and technological factors that determine IT adoption and diffusion, including firm size and scope, technological competency and expected benefits. We extend the literature by focusing on information requirements as a driver of IT innovation adoption and diffusion. Our framework of IT innovation diffusion incorporates three industry-level sources of information requirements: process complexity, clock speed and supply chain complexity. We apply the framework to US manufacturing industries using aggregate data of internet-based innovations and qualitative analysis of two industries: wood products and beverage manufacturing. Results show systematic patterns supporting the basic thesis of the information processing paradigm: higher IT innovation diffusion in industries with higher information processing requirements; the salience of downstream industry structure in the adoption of interorganizational systems; and the role of the location of information intensity in the supply chain in determining IT adoption and diffusion. Our study provides a new explanation for why certain industries were early and deep adopters of internet-based innovations while others were not: variation in information processing requirements. [source]


Vertical Networks, Integration, and Connectivity

JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS & MANAGEMENT STRATEGY, Issue 2 2009
Pinar Do
This paper studies competition in a network industry with a stylized two layered network structure, and examines: (i) price and connectivity incentives of the upstream networks, and (ii) incentives for vertical integration between an upstream network provider and a downstream firm. The main result of this paper is that vertical integration occurs only if the initial installed-base difference between the upstream networks is sufficiently small, and in that case, industry is configured with two vertically integrated networks, which yields highest incentives to invest in quality of interconnection. When the installed-base difference is sufficiently large, there is no integration in the industry, and neither of the firms have an incentive to invest in quality of interconnection. An industry configuration in which only the large network integrates and excludes (or raises cost of) its downstream rival does not appear as an equilibrium outcome: in the presence of a large asymmetry between the networks, when quality of interconnection is a strategic variable, the large network can exercise a substantial market power without vertical integration. Therefore, a vertically separated industry structure does not necessarily yield procompetitive outcomes. [source]


External Liberalization and Foreign Presence: Cross-Industry Evidence From Poland and Hungary

JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS & MANAGEMENT STRATEGY, Issue 3 2000
Robert E. Kennedy
External liberalization,the relaxation of restrictions on cross-border trade and inbound direct investment,has played an important role in the programs of economic transition in central Europe. While liberalization is widely heralded, there has been little empirical analysis of the links between liberalization and industry structure. This analysis examines changes in foreign presence following external liberalization in Poland and Hungary. I show that the presence of proprietary and intangible assets explains much of the cross-industry variation in patterns of foreign presence and, for a given level of foreign presence, whether this will occur via trade or inbound direct investment. [source]


External Liberalization and Foreign Presence: Cross-Industry Evidence from Poland and Hungary

JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS & MANAGEMENT STRATEGY, Issue 2 2000
Robert E. Kennedy
External liberalization,the relaxation of restrictions on cross-border trade and inbound direct investment,has played an important role in the programs of economic transition in central Europe. While liberalization is widely heralded, there has been little empirical analysis of the links between liberalization and industry structure. This analysis examines changes in foreign presence following external liberalization in Poland and Hungary. I show that the presence of proprietary and intangible assets explains much of the cross-industry variation in patterns of foreign presence and, for a given level of foreign presence, whether this will occur via trade or inbound direct investment. [source]


Banning subtherapeutic antibiotics in U.S. swine production: a simulation of impacts on industry structure

AGRIBUSINESS : AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
Michael G. Hogberg
Recent discussions of a subtherapeutic antibiotic ban in U.S. livestock gives rise to much speculation regarding industry impacts. Swine producers are heterogeneous; thus, a ban on subtherapeutic antibiotics could affect producers of different sizes, cost structures, different production systems and management styles differently. The authors combine average cost data with physical production data to simulate the impact of a subtherapeutic antibiotics ban on high, middle, and low-cost producers in different types of swine production operations. Their results suggest that although economies of scale would still be important, the ban would potentially limit or reduce economies of scale in the swine industry. [JEL Codes: L11, Q12, Q13]. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


The packaging technology and science of ancient transport amphoras,

PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, Issue 4 2002
Diana Twede
Abstract Commercial transport amphoras are large ceramic vessels that were used from 1500 BC to 500 AD to ship wine and other products throughout the Mediterranean. The most large-scale use was to serve the ancient Greek and Roman empires. Although their form is much different from our own packages, the shape and design were clearly the result of the same reasoning that we use to design successful packaging today. They were designed to be economical to produce and ship. The unusual shapes, and especially the pointed base, facilitated handling, storage, transport and use in logistical systems that were very differently shaped from those that we use today. This paper investigates amphoras as a packaging system from a functional approach. It describes their protective physical properties, manufacturing process and industry structure, logistical and marketing advantages, and illustrates the value of such packaging artifacts in documenting the history of trade. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Changing Skill Intensity in Australian Industry

THE AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 1 2007
Ross Kelly
This article examines changes in industry skill scores for Australia for the period 1991 to 2001 using indices of cognitive skill for industry based on Census employment data. Changes in mean industry cognitive skill levels are analysed, as are the relative contributions of changes to the occupational structure within industry and changes to the industry structure of employment. The main findings are that the drivers of skill change differed substantially between the two Census periods. Prior to 1996 the majority of the change was due to shifts towards industries with a more highly skilled workforce. After 1996 changes in the economy-wide skill level were dominated by within-industry changes in occupational composition. This coincided with a sharp pickup in the rate of capital expenditure on information and communication technologies. The increasing use of part-time employment overall had a deskilling effect. [source]


Affiliation, integration, and information: ownership incentives and industry structure

THE JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECONOMICS, Issue 2 2004
Thomas N. Hubbard
This paper presents theory and evidence on horizontal industry structure. At issue is the question: what makes industries necessarily fragmented? The theoretical model examines trade-offs associated with affiliation and integration, and how they are affected by the contracting environment. I show how contractual incompleteness can lead industries to be necessarily fragmented. I also show that contractual improvements will tend to lead to a greater concentration of brands, but whether they lead industries to be more or less concentrated depends on what becomes contractible. I then discuss the propositions generated by the model through a series of case study examples. [source]


The Influence of Knowledge Accumulation on Buyer-Supplier Codevelopment Projects

THE JOURNAL OF PRODUCT INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 5 2003
Melissa M. Appleyard
This article investigates innovation across a supply chain and considers how knowledge accumulation as a consequence of buyer-supplier codevelopment projects can influence the projects' specifications. The setting is the semiconductor industry, and the players are chip producers who cooperate with their suppliers to modify their manufacturing equipment used to produce new semiconductor devices. Two detailed case studies were undertaken to determine the tradeoffs encountered by the buyer and supplier when setting the parameters that govern codevelopment projects. The findings from the case studies inform a conceptual framework that outlines the net payoffs to buyers when deciding whether to "make" or "buy" their production equipment. If buyers pursue the "make" option, they then have to decide the degree to which they sponsor modifications tailored to their production processes or modifications more generally applicable across the industry. More generally applicable modifications likely would prompt suppliers to invest relatively more in follow-on knowledge creation for upgrades and field support while leading to lower equipment costs due to economies of scale from larger production runs of the new equipment. The framework suggests that when making this sequence of decisions, an innovative buyer also weighs the importance of codevelopment for securing intellectual property rights, guaranteeing early access to new equipment enabling early product launch, and achieving high production yields quickly due to "previewing" the equipment. The conceptual framework leads to a multi-period model that focuses on the importance of knowledge accumulation for project parameterization. As captured by the model, buyers may prefer generally applicable modifications to customized ones, because generally applicable modifications may lead to greater knowledge accumulation at the supplier. This knowledge accumulation may be either "embodied" in equipment upgrades or "unembodied" in improved field support. In addition to shaping the nature of particular codevelopment projects, knowledge accumulation also may have profound implications for long-run industry structure. As seen in the semiconductor industry, knowledge accumulation at equipment suppliers has contributed to the rise of contract manufacturers, because these manufacturers can outfit their production facilities with equipment that embodies the accumulated knowledge. These findings suggest that for both short-run and long-run reasons, the dynamics of knowledge accumulation merit thorough attention when members of a supply chain cooperate during the course of new product development. [source]


Evaluating the British Model of Electricity Deregulation

ANNALS OF PUBLIC AND COOPERATIVE ECONOMICS, Issue 3 2004
by Stephen Thomas
It was expected that replacement of monopolies in some areas by markets and price-setting in monopoly areas using a simple incentive formula would mean that regulation of the industry would be ,light'. This article examines how regulation has turned out in practice. It concludes that the promise of ,light' regulation has not been fulfilled. Regulation of competitive markets is a major regulatory activity, incentive regulation has evolved into a complex and intrusive form of rate-of-return, while regulation of industry structure has allowed the industry to descend into a concentrated, vertically integrated structure, at odds with the aims of the reforms. [source]


The Sensitivity of Canadian Corporate Investment to Liquidity

CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES, Issue 3 2000
Sean Cleary
This study examines the investment behaviour of 201 Canadian firms over the 1987-94 period and confirms that liquidity is a significant determinant of Canadian corporate investment. Contrary to recent US evidence, the investment-liquidity sensitivity of financially constrained firms is not found to be significantly different from that of unconstrained firms. Surprisingly, partially constrained firms exhibit higher investment-liquidity sensitivity than both constrained and unconstrained firms. The difference from the US results is attributed to the industry structure and closely held nature of Canadian firms. Finally, this study highlights the importance of sample size by demonstrating how sensitive the results can be to the behaviour of a small number of firms. This represents an important observation, since the conclusions of several previous studies are based on small sample results. Résumé Cette étude passe en revue la gestion des investissements de 201 sociétés canadiennes durant les années 1987-94 et confirme que, en ce qui concerne le milieu d'affaires canadien, la liquidité est un facteur important dans la mise de fonds. Contrairement aux données récentes provenant des EU, l'importance de la liquidité des placements chez les maisons de commerce sous con-traintes fiscales ne s'avère pas ,tre très différente de celle chez les maisons sans pareilles contraintes. De façon surprenante, les maisons sous contraintes fiscales partielles démontrent une sensibilité plus accrue à la liquidité des placements que les maisons davantage contraintes, ou encore sans aucune contrainte. L'écart entre ces données et celles provenant des EU s'explique en fonction de l'organisation industrielle et de la plus haute concentration des actionnaires dans les maisons de commerce canadiennes. Enfin, cette étude souligne l'importance de l'ampleur de l'échantillonage en démontrant à quel point les données peuvent varier en fonction d'un nombre restraint de maisons de commerce. Etant donné que les conclusions de plusieurs études précédentes étaient tirées d'échantillonages plus restreints, cette observation gagne en portée. [source]


The Microfoundations of Corporatist Intervention: Dairying's Collective Action Problems in Canada and England during the 1930s Depression,

CANADIAN REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY/REVUE CANADIENNE DE SOCIOLOGIE, Issue 4 2000
Roy C. Barnes
Dans cet article, nous démontrons l'utilité d'une approche microfondamentale dans la compréhension de phénomènes sociaux de plus grande ampleur. Grâce à l'analyse des questions de recours collectifs, qui se sont posées aux différents acteurs, au Canada et en Angleterre, nous établissons un lien informel entre la macrovariable de « structure de l'industrie » et les formes divergentes de réglementation corporatiste instaurées dans les années 1930. Après avoir expliqué les caracteéristiques centrales de l'approche microfondamentale et souligné les aspects importants de la théorie des jeux et du concept de choix rationnel, nous examinons les témoignages élaborés, présentés dans le cadre de commissions et de comités du gouvernement. Ces données comparatives et historiques fournissent les bases qui permettent de comprendre la manière dont les différentes structures de l'industrie ont causé des problèmes de réglementation uniques pour les gouvernements canadien et britannique. This paper argues for the utility of a microfoundational approach to understanding larger social phenomena. Through an analysis of the collective action problems experienced by the various actors in both Canada and England, I wish to establish a causal link between the macro-level variable "industry structure" and the divergent forms of corporatist regulation instituted in the 1930s. After clarifying the central features of my microfoundational approach and highlighting important aspects of game theory and rational choice explanations, I review the extensive sets of testimonies given before governmental commissions and committees. These comparative and historical data provide the foundations for understanding how distinct industry structures produced unique sets of regulatory problems for the Canadian and British governments. [source]


Co-Opting the Wolves: National Film Industry Reform in China After 1978

ASIAN POLITICS AND POLICY, Issue 1 2010
Katherine Kit Ling Chu
This article is about the relationship between the film industry, society, and the state, in the context of economic reforms. I first provide an overview of current writings on the field and then explain the film industry's structure since 1949. I also examine policy changes over the past 30 years. What exactly did the state change? And why did it change? By way of analyzing Chinese cinema, this article examines the relationship between the market, the state, society, and transnational capital. Although the government has increasingly been in favor of a market economy, it has never given up its official ideology over films. Moreover, the domestic film industry did not collapse after the entry of transnational capital; instead, the state successfully co-opted the "wolves" not only to save the film industry but also to enable the state to accumulate both economic and political capital. [source]