Induced VF (induced + vf)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A Model of Ischemically Induced Ventricular Fibrillation for Comparison of Fixed-dose and Escalating-dose Defibrillation Strategies

James T. Niemann MD
Abstract Objectives: Fixed- and escalating-dose defibrillation protocols are both in clinical use. Clinical observations suggest that the probability of successful defibrillation is not constant across a population of patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF). Common animal models of electrically induced VF do not represent a clinical VF etiology or reproduce clinical heterogeneity in defibrillation probability. The authors hypothesized that a model of ischemically induced VF would exhibit heterogeneous defibrillation shock strength requirements and that an escalating-dose strategy would more effectively achieve prompt defibrillation. Methods:Forty-six swine were randomized to fixed, lower-energy (150 J) transthoracic shocks (group 1) or escalating, higher-energy (200 J,300 J,360 J) shocks (group 2). VF was induced by balloon occlusion of a coronary artery. After 1 or 5 minutes of VF, countershocks with a biphasic waveform were administered. The primary endpoint was successful defibrillation (termination of VF for 5 seconds) with ,3 shocks. Results: VF was induced with occlusion or after reperfusion in 35 animals. Only five of 17 group 1 animals (29%, 95% CI = 10 to 56) could be defibrillated with ,3 shocks; 15 of 18 group 2 animals (83%, 95% CI = 59 to 96) were defibrillated with ,3 shocks (p < 0.002 vs. group 1). Nine of the group 1 animals (75%) that could not be defibrillated with 150-J shocks were rescued with ,3 shocks ranging from 200 to 360 J. Conclusions: In this ischemic VF animal model, defibrillation shock strength requirements varied among individuals, and when defibrillation was difficult, an escalating-dose strategy was more effective for prompt defibrillation than fixed, lower-energy shocks. [source]

Significance of Inducible Ventricular Flutter-Fibrillation After Myocardial Infarction

Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with the induction of ventricular flutter/fibrillation (VFl/VF)and its prognostic significance in post-myocardial infarction. Methods: Programmed ventricular stimulation was performed after myocardial infarction (MI) for syncope (n = 232) or systematically (n = 755); 230 patients had an induced VFl/VF and were followed during 4 ± 2 years. Results: VFl/VF was induced in 49/232 patients (21%) with syncope versus 181/755 asymptomatic patients (24%) (NS) and 94/410 patients (23%) with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40% versus 136/577 patients (22.5%) with LVEF >40% (NS). Cardiac mortality was 9%; LVEF was 33 ± 15% in patients who died, 43 ± 13% in alive patients (P < 0.004). In patients with LVEF <40%, induced VFl/VF, mortality rate was 31% in those with syncope, 10% in asymptomatic patients (P < 0.001), because of an increase of deaths by heart failure; patients with LVEF >40% with or without syncope had a low mortality (5% and 3%). After linear logistic regression, VFl/VF and LVEF were predictors of total cardiac mortality, but only LVEF <40% predicted sudden death. Conclusion: Syncope and the level of LVEF did not increase the incidence of VFl/VF induction after MI, but modified the cardiac mortality: induced VF increased total cardiac mortality in patients with syncope and LVEF <40%, but did not increase sudden death. In patients with LVEF >40%, induced VFl/VF has no significance neither in asymptomatic patients nor in those with syncope. [source]

Intravenous Administration of Class I Antiarrhythmic Drug Induced T Wave Alternans in an Asymptomatic Brugada Syndrome Patient

A 53-year-old man with an abnormal ECG was referred to the Nihon University School of Medicine. The 12-lead ECG showed right bundle branch block and saddleback-type ST elevation in leads V1,V3 (Brugada-type ECG). Signal-averaged ECG showed positive late potentials. Double ventricular extrastimuli (S1: 500 ms, S2: 250 ms, S3: 210 ms) induced VF. Amiodarone (200 mg/day) was administered for 6 months and programmed ventricular stimulation was repeated. VF was induced again by double ventricular stimuli (S1: 600 ms, S2: 240 ms, S3: 170 ms). Intravenous administration of class Ic antiarrhythmic drug, pilsicainide (1 mg/kg), augmented ST-T elevation in leads V1,V3, and visible ST-T alternans that was enhanced by atrial pacing was observed in leads V2 and V3. Visible ST-T wave alternans disappeared in 15 minutes. However, microvolt T wave alternans was present during atrial pacing at a rate of 70/min without visible ST-T alternans. (PACE 2003; 26:1900,1903) [source]

Presenting Rhythm in Sudden Deaths Temporally Proximate to Discharge of TASER Conducted Electrical Weapons

Charles D. Swerdlow MD
Abstract Objectives:, Sudden deaths proximate to use of conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) have been attributed to cardiac electrical stimulation. The rhythm in death caused by rapid, cardiac electrical stimulation usually is ventricular fibrillation (VF); electrical stimulation has not been reported to cause asystole or pulseless electrical activity (PEA). The authors studied the presenting rhythms in sudden deaths temporally proximate to use of TASER CEWs to estimate the likelihood that these deaths could be caused by cardiac electrical stimulation. Methods:, This was a retrospective review of CEW-associated, nontraumatic sudden deaths from 2001 to 2008. Emergency medical services (EMS), autopsy, and law enforcement reports were requested and analyzed. Subjects were included if they collapsed within 15 minutes of CEW discharge and the first cardiac arrest rhythm was reported. Results:, Records for 200 cases were received. The presenting rhythm was reported for 56 of 118 subjects who collapsed within 15 minutes (47%). The rhythm was VF in four subjects (7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3% to 17%) and bradycardia-asystole or PEA in 52 subjects (93%; 95% CI = 83% to 97%). None of the eight subjects who collapsed during electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring had VF. Only one subject (2%) collapsed immediately after CEW discharge. This was the only death typical of electrically induced VF (2%, 95% CI = 0% to 9%). An additional 4 subjects (7%) collapsed within 1 minute, and the remaining 51 subjects (91%) collapsed more than 1 minute later. The time from collapse to first recorded rhythm was 3 minutes or less in 35 subjects (62%) and 5 minutes or less in 43 subjects (77%). Conclusions:, In sudden deaths proximate to CEW discharge, immediate collapse is unusual, and VF is an uncommon VF presenting rhythm. Within study limitations, including selection bias and the possibility that VF terminated before the presenting rhythm was recorded, these data do not support electrically induced VF as a common mechanism of these sudden deaths. [source]