Induced Liver Damage (induced + liver_damage)

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Selected Abstracts

Oral administration of diphenyl diselenide potentiates hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

Cristina W. Nogueira
Abstract Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a model for studying free radical-induced liver injury and screening hepato-protective drugs. Numerous studies have reported the involvement of oxidative stress in CCl4 -induced liver damage and the hepato-protective effects mediated by different antioxidants. The present study examined the effects of diphenyl diselenide, (PhSe)2, on hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in rats. To this end, male Wistar rats received (PhSe)2 by oral route at the dosage of 31.2 mg/kg for one or two days. After the second day of treatment, rats received CCl4 orally in a single dose. The liver and kidney were utilized for determination of histopathology, biochemical [aspartate (ALT) and alanine (AST) aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirrubin (TB) and gamaglutamyl transferase (GGT)] and toxicological parameters [thiobarbituric reactive species (TBARS) levels, catalase activity, ascorbic acid, nonprotein thiols (NPSH) and aminolevulinate dehydratase (, -ALA-D) activity]. Repeated administration of (PhSe)2 caused a marked potentiation of hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 exposure, as manifested by an increase in biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, GGT and BT) and severe alteration in histopathology. This study also demonstrated a potentiation of TBARS levels and a consequent depletion of important antioxidant defenses including catalase and ascorbic acid. Pre-treatment with a single dose of (PhSe)2 prevented the effect of strychnine, a substrate for CYPs, abolishing lethality in mice. This result indicates that (PhSe)2 prevented animal death, suggesting an activator action of (PhSe)2 in CYPs. This study clearly indicates that (PhSe)2 potentiated acute hepatic damage induced by CCl4. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Galactosamine-induced hepatotoxic effect and hepatoprotective role of a protein isolated from the herb Cajanus indicus L in vivo,

Prasenjit Manna
Abstract dd(+)-Galactosamine is a well-known experimental hepatotoxin. The present study was conducted to determine the protective role of a 43-kD protein isolated from the leaves of the herb Cajanus indicus L against dd(+)-galactosamine (GalN) induced liver damage in mice. Both preventive and curative effects of the protein have been investigated in the study. The protein was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight for 4 days before and after GalN intoxication at a dose of 800 mg/kg body weight for 3 days. The increased activities of serum marker enzymes, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase because of GalN administration, were significantly reduced by the protein treatment. The protein also normalized the altered activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione- S -transferase as well as the levels of cellular metabolites, reduced glutathione, glutathione disulfide, and total thiols. In addition, the enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation because of GalN intoxication was also effectively inhibited by the protein treatment. Results suggest that GalN caused hepatic damages via oxidative insult and that the protein provided protection through its antioxidant mechanism. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 21:13,23, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/jbt.20154 [source]

Melatonin reduces dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats

Veysel Tahan
Abstract:, Increased deposition of the extracellular matrix components, particularly collagen, is a central phenomenon in liver fibrosis. Stellate cells, the central mediators in the pathogenesis of fibrosis are activated by free radicals, and synthesize collagen. Melatonin is a potent physiological scavenger of hydroxyl radicals. Melatonin has also been shown to be involved in the inhibitory regulation of collagen content in tissues. At present, no effective treatment of liver fibrosis is available for clinical use. We aimed to test the effects of melatonin on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver damage in rats. Wistar albino rats were injected with DMN intraperitoneally. Following a single dose of 40 mg/kg DMN, either saline (DMN) or 100 mg/kg daily melatonin was administered for 14 days. In other rats, physiologic saline or melatonin were injected for 14 days, following a single injection of saline as control. Hepatic fibrotic changes were evaluated biochemically by measuring tissue hydroxyproline levels and histopathogical examination. Malondialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation, and glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were evaluated in blood and tissue homogenates. DMN caused hepatic fibrotic changes, whereas melatonin suppressed these changes in five of 14 rats (P < 0.05). DMN administration resulted in increased hydroxyproline and MDA levels, and decreased GSH and SOD levels, whereas melatonin reversed these effects. When melatonin was administered alone, no significant changes in biochemical parameters were noted. In conclusion, the present study suggests that melatonin functions as a potent fibrosuppressant and antioxidant, and may be a therapeutic choice. [source]

Allicin, the active component of garlic, prevents immune-mediated, concanavalin A-induced hepatic injury in mice

Rafael Bruck
Abstract: Background/Aim: Allicin, the immunologically active component of garlic, has been found to affect oxidative stress and immune response in several experimental systems. In the present study, we examined the ability of allicin to prevent immune-mediated, concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver damage in mice. Methods: Mice were pretreated with allicin for 7 days before their inoculation with Con A (15 mg/kg). The serum levels of liver enzymes and liver histology were examined 24 h after Con A administration. The effect of Con A and allicin on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,) and nuclear factor-,B (NF-,B) activation in the liver were examined 2 h after Con A administration, in a separate group of rats, and the effect of allicin on Con A-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was determined by western blot analysis 24 h after Con A injection. Results: The histopathologic damage in the mouse livers, and the Con A-induced increase of aminotransferases and TNF-, were markedly inhibited in the mice pretreated with allicin before Con A injection (P<0.01). NF-,B binding activity to the nucleus, which increased 2 h after Con A administration, was attenuated by allicin. The expression of iNOS protein which was induced following Con A administration was significantly attenuated by allicin. In vitro studies showed that allicin inhibited TNF-,-mediated T cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components and to endothelial cells. Allicin also inhibited TNF-,-mediated intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression on human vascular endothelial cells. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that immune-mediated liver damage in mice can be prevented by allicin, probably because of its immunomodulatory effects on T cells and adhesion molecules and inhibition of NF-,B activation. [source]

Oval cell hyperplasia in asparaginase , induced liver damage

E. Zuckerman
No abstract is available for this article. [source]