Induced Death (induced + death)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Fibroblast growth factor 9 prevents MPP+ -induced death of dopaminergic neurons and is involved in melatonin neuroprotection in vivo and in vitro

Jui-Yen Huang
Abstract Oxidative stress and down-regulated trophic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of nigrostriatal dopamine(DA)rgic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) is a survival factor for various cell types; however, the effect of FGF9 on DA neurons has not been studied. The antioxidant melatonin protects DA neurons against neurotoxicity. We used MPP+ to induce neuron death in vivo and in vitro and investigated the involvement of FGF9 in MPP+ intoxication and melatonin protection. We found that MPP+ in a dose- and time-dependent manner inhibited FGF9 mRNA and protein expression, and caused death in primary cortical neurons. Treating neurons in the substantia nigra and mesencephalic cell cultures with FGF9 protein inhibited the MPP+ -induced cell death of DA neurons. Melatonin co-treatment attenuated MPP+ -induced FGF9 down-regulation and DA neuronal apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Co-treating DA neurons with melatonin and FGF9-neutralizing antibody prevented the protective effect of melatonin. In the absence of MPP+, the treatment of FGF9-neutralizing antibody-induced DA neuronal apoptosis whereas FGF9 protein reduced it indicating that endogenous FGF9 is a survival factor for DA neurons. We conclude that MPP+ down-regulates FGF9 expression to cause DA neuron death and that the prevention of FGF9 down-regulation is involved in melatonin-provided neuroprotection. [source]

Astroglia overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 predispose co-cultured PC12 cells to oxidative injury,

Linyang Song
Abstract The mechanisms responsible for the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and pathologic iron deposition in the substantia nigra pars compacta of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unclear. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin, is upregulated in affected PD astroglia and may contribute to abnormal mitochondrial iron sequestration in these cells. To determine whether glial HO-1 hyper-expression is toxic to neuronal compartments, we co-cultured dopaminergic PC12 cells atop monolayers of human (h) HO-1 transfected, sham-transfected, or non-transfected primary rat astroglia. We observed that PC12 cells grown atop hHO-1 transfected astrocytes, but not the astroglia themselves, were significantly more susceptible to dopamine (1 ,M) + H2O2 (1 ,M)-induced death (assessed by nuclear ethidium monoazide bromide staining and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence microscopy) relative to control preparations. In the experimental group, PC12 cell death was attenuated significantly by the administration of the HO inhibitor, SnMP (1.5 ,M), the antioxidant, ascorbate (200 ,M), or the iron chelators, deferoxamine (400 ,M), and phenanthroline (100 ,M). Exposure to conditioned media derived from HO-1 transfected astrocytes also augmented PC12 cell killing in response to dopamine (1 ,M) + H2O2 (1 ,M) relative to control media. In PD brain, overexpression of HO-1 in nigral astroglia and accompanying iron liberation may facilitate the bioactivation of dopamine to neurotoxic free radical intermediates and predispose nearby neuronal constituents to oxidative damage. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Streptococcus pyogenes induces oncosis in macrophages through the activation of an inflammatory programmed cell death pathway

Oliver Goldmann
Summary Macrophages are crucial components of the host defence against Streptococcus pyogenes. Here, we demonstrate the ability of S. pyogenes to kill macrophages through the activation of an inflammatory programmed cell death pathway. Macrophages exposed to S. pyogenes exhibited extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization, cellular and organelle swelling and rupture of the plasma membrane typical of oncosis. The cytotoxic effect of S. pyogenes on macrophages is mediated by the streptococcal cytolysins streptolysin S and streptolysin O and does not require bacterial internalization. S. pyogenes -induced death of macrophages was not affected by the addition of osmoprotectant, implicating the activation of an orchestrated cell death pathway rather than a simple osmotic lysis. This programme cell death pathway involves the loss of mitochondria transmembrane potential (,,m) and was inhibited by the addition of exogenous glycine, which has been shown to prevent necrotic cell death by blocking the opening of death channels in the plasma membrane. The production of reactive oxygen species and activation of calpains were identified as mediators of the cell death process. We conclude that activation of the inflammatory programmed cell death pathway in macrophages could constitute an important pathogenic mechanism by which S. pyogenes evades host immune defences and causes disease. [source]

Selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and the prevention of cerebral palsy,

Haitao Ji PhD
Objective To design a new class of selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors, and demonstrate that administration in a rabbit model for cerebral palsy (CP) prevents hypoxia-ischemia,induced deaths and reduces the number of newborn kits exhibiting signs of CP. Methods We used a novel computer-based drug design method called fragment hopping to identify new chemical entities, synthesized them, and conducted in vitro enzyme inhibition studies with the three isozymes of NOS and in vivo experiments to monitor cardiovascular effects on pregnant rabbit dams, NOS activity, and NOx (NO and NO2) concentration in fetal brain, and assess neurobehavioral effects on kits born to saline- and compound treated dams. Results The computer-based design led to the development of powerful and highly selective compounds for inhibition of neuronal NOS over the other isozymes. After maternal administration in a rabbit model of CP, these compounds were found to distribute to fetal brain, to be nontoxic, without cardiovascular effects, inhibit fetal brain NOS activity in vivo, reduce NO concentration in fetal brain, and dramatically ameliorate deaths and number of newborn kits exhibiting signs of CP. Interpretation This approach may lead to new preventive strategies for CP. Ann Neurol 2008 [source]