Individual Stars (individual + star)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Seismological studies of ZZ Ceti stars , I. The model grid and the application to individual stars

B. G. Castanheira
ABSTRACT We calculate and explore an extensive adiabatic model grid for pulsating white dwarfs with hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, the ZZ Ceti stars. We also compared the computed modes with the observed ones for five ZZ Ceti stars that are a representative sample of the whole class of pulsators. We describe our new approach for seismological studies, using the relative observed amplitudes to give weights for the periods in the fit and the external mass and temperature determinations as a guide. Our seismological study is clear evidence that seismology is indeed a powerful tool in the study of stellar structure and evolution. [source]

Cold dark matter microhalo survival in the Milky Way

G. W. Angus
ABSTRACT A special purpose N -body simulation has been built to understand the tidal heating of the smallest dark matter substructures (10,6 M, and 0.01 pc) from the grainy potential of the Milky Way due to individual stars in the disc and the bulge. To test the method, we first run simulations of single encounters of microhaloes with an isolated star, and compare with analytical predictions of the dark particle bound fraction as a function of impact parameter. We then follow the orbits of a set of microhaloes in a realistic flattened Milky Way potential. We concentrate on (detectable) microhaloes passing near the Sun with a range of pericentre and apocentre. Stellar perturbers near the orbital path of a microhalo would exert stochastic impulses, which we apply in a Monte Carlo fashion according to the Besançon model for the distribution of stars of different masses and ages in our Galaxy. Also incorporated are the usual pericentre tidal heating and disc shocking. We give a detailed diagnosis of typical microhaloes and find microhaloes with internal tangential anisotropy are slightly more robust than the ones with radial anisotropy. In addition, the dark particles generally go through of a random walk in velocity space and diffuse out of the microhaloes. We show that the typical destruction time-scales are strongly correlated with the stellar density averaged along a microhalo's orbit over the age of the stellar disc. We also present the morphology of a microhalo at several epochs which may hold the key to dark matter detections. We checked our results against different choices of microhalo mass, virial radius and anisotropy. [source]

Isochrone ages for field dwarfs: method and application to the age,metallicity relation

Frédéric Pont
ABSTRACT A new method is presented to compute age estimates from theoretical isochrones using temperature, luminosity and metallicity data for individual stars. Based on Bayesian probability theory, this method avoids the systematic biases affecting simpler strategies and provides reliable estimates of the age probability distribution function for late-type dwarfs. Basic assumptions concerning the a priori parameter distribution suitable for the solar neighbourhood are combined with the likelihood assigned to the observed data to yield the complete posterior age probability. This method is especially relevant for G dwarfs in the 3,15 Gyr range of ages, crucial to the study of the chemical and dynamical history of the Galaxy. In many cases, it yields markedly different results from the traditional approach of reading the derived age from the isochrone nearest to the data point. We show that the strongest process affecting the traditional approach is that of strongly favouring computed ages near the end-of-main-sequence lifetime. The Bayesian method compensates for this potential bias and generally assigns much higher probabilities to lower main-sequence ages, compared with short-lived evolved stages. This has a strong influence on any application to galactic studies, especially given the present uncertainties on the absolute temperature scale of the stellar evolution models. In particular, the known mismatch between the model predictions and the observations for moderately metal-poor dwarfs (,1 < [Fe/H] < ,0.3) has a dramatic effect on the traditional age determination. We apply our method to the classic sample of Edvardsson et al., who derived the age,metallicity relation (AMR) of 189 field dwarfs with precisely determined abundances. We show how much of the observed scatter in the AMR is caused by the interplay between the systematic biases affecting the traditional age determination, the colour mismatch with the evolution models and the presence of undetected binaries. Using new parallax, temperature and metallicity data, our age determination for the same sample indicates that the intrinsic dispersion in the AMR is at most 0.15 dex and probably lower. In particular, we show that old, metal-rich objects ([Fe/H], 0.0 dex, age > 5 Gyr) and young, metal-poor objects ([Fe/H] < ,0.5 dex, age < 6 Gyr) in many observed AMR plots are artefacts caused by too simple a treatment of the age determination. The incompatibility of those AMR plots with a well-mixed interstellar medium may therefore only be apparent. Incidentally, our results tend to restore confidence in the method of age determination from the chromospheric activity for field dwarfs. [source]

Metallicity and kinematical clues to the formation of the Local Group

R.F.G. Wyse
Abstract The kinematics and elemental abundances of resolved stars in the nearby Universe can be used to infer conditions at high redshift, trace how galaxies evolve and constrain the nature of dark matter. This approach is complementary to direct study of systems at high redshift, but I will show that analysis of individual stars allows one to break degeneracies, such as between star formation rate and stellar Initial Mass Function, that complicate the analysis of unresolved, distant galaxies (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Pairing mechanisms for binary stars

M.B.N. Kouwenhoven
Abstract Knowledge of the binary population in stellar groupings provides important information about the outcome of the star forming process in different environments. Binarity is also a key ingredient in stellar population studies and is a prerequisite to calibrate the binary evolution channels. In these proceedings we present an overview of several commonly used methods to pair individual stars into binary systems, which we refer to as the pairing function.Many pairing functions are frequently used by observers and computational astronomers, either for the mathematical convenience, or because they roughly describe the expected outcome of the star forming process. We discuss the consequences of each pairing function for the interpretation of observations and numerical simulations. The binary fraction and mass ratio distribution generally depend strongly on the selection of the range in primary spectral type in a sample. These quantities, when derived from a binary survey with a mass-limited sample of target stars, are thus not representative for the population as a whole. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]