Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Indicators

  • accurate indicator
  • additional indicator
  • adverse prognostic indicator
  • appropriate indicator
  • behavioral indicator
  • best indicator
  • bibliometric indicator
  • biodiversity indicator
  • biological indicator
  • ca2+ indicator
  • chemical indicator
  • clinical indicator
  • coincident indicator
  • composite indicator
  • confidence indicator
  • development indicator
  • different indicator
  • early indicator
  • ecological indicator
  • economic indicator
  • effective indicator
  • environmental indicator
  • error indicator
  • excellent indicator
  • faecal indicator
  • financial indicator
  • first indicator
  • fluorescent indicator
  • frailty indicator
  • general indicator
  • genetic indicator
  • good indicator
  • growth indicator
  • health indicator
  • human development indicator
  • hydrocarbon indicator
  • important indicator
  • important prognostic indicator
  • independent indicator
  • independent prognostic indicator
  • independent risk indicator
  • key indicator
  • key performance indicator
  • leading indicator
  • macroeconomic indicator
  • main indicator
  • major indicator
  • measurable indicator
  • microbial indicator
  • multiple indicator
  • negative prognostic indicator
  • new indicator
  • nutritional indicator
  • objective indicator
  • one indicator
  • operational indicator
  • oral health indicator
  • other indicator
  • outcome indicator
  • performance indicator
  • ph indicator
  • physiological indicator
  • poor indicator
  • poor prognostic indicator
  • possible indicator
  • potential indicator
  • potential prognostic indicator
  • prescribing indicator
  • process indicator
  • prognostic indicator
  • proxy indicator
  • quality indicator
  • quantitative indicator
  • rapid indicator
  • relevant indicator
  • reliable indicator
  • risk indicator
  • robust indicator
  • safety indicator
  • sensitive indicator
  • sentiment indicator
  • several indicator
  • significant indicator
  • significant prognostic indicator
  • social indicator
  • socioeconomic indicator
  • specific indicator
  • status indicator
  • stress indicator
  • strong indicator
  • suitable indicator
  • surrogate indicator
  • sustainable development indicator
  • thermal indicator
  • unreliable indicator
  • useful indicator
  • useful prognostic indicator
  • valid indicator
  • various indicator

  • Terms modified by Indicators

  • indicator bacteria
  • indicator function
  • indicator groups
  • indicator organism
  • indicator set
  • indicator species
  • indicator species analysis
  • indicator strain
  • indicator taxa
  • indicator used
  • indicator value
  • indicator variable

  • Selected Abstracts


    Ramin Mostofi Zadeh Farahani
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Emanuele Cereda MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 4 2001
    ABSTRACT The presence of some indicator microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria in guacamole sampled from restaurants and street vendors, and the behavior of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were studied in avocado pulp. Coliform, yeast and mold populations showed a wide dispersion, in agreement with the diversity of sanitary conditions observed among places sampled. The frequency of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and E. coli were 1.3, 16.0, and 60.0 %, respectively; with higher numbers among street vendors. Populations of E. coli ranged from 29 to 3800 NMP/g and S. aureus from 2.95 to 5.35 log CFU/g. Thirteen out of 16 hemolytic L. monocytogenes strains were pathogenic for mice. In avocado pulp Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 showed a lag phase close to 3 h, and a generation time of 54 min and 1.23 h, respectively. No growth of pathogens was observed in avocado pulp stored at 4-7C. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 1 2010
    Numerous small, low volume rockfalls around the crest of the Italian and French Alps, principally formed from calcareous mica schist and metabasalt, have impeded travel across the major cols for millennia. As documented by Polybius and Livy in the ancient literature, Hannibal's Army was blocked by a two-tier rockfall on the lee side of the Alps, a rubble sheet of considerable volume that delayed his exit into the upper Po River Country. An in-depth study of the possible cols reveals that the only such two-tier landform lies below the Col de la Traversette, at ,2600 m above sea level. In addition, it represents a problem in applied geomorphology, namely, to accurately determine the nature of the surface rubble sheet in Hannibal's time (218 bc). A reconstruction of the initial deposit, likely Late Glacial, following the retreat of the Po Glacier, is based upon an analysis of the source rock and geological setting. Further specifications on the geometry of the Neoglacial cover sediment are based on weathering characteristics, lichen cover and soil development. The ,myth' that Hannibal fired the rockfall to comminute boulders is plausible given the vegetation records which support tree growth nearby, but is unsubstantiated by the lack of any carbonized rock. [source]


    We study the concept of risk appetite, that is investors' willingness to buy risky assets. Market players and researchers have tried to find a proxy for it, notably by means of spreads in high yielding markets like credit or emerging markets. However, these measures might be biased because they hinge on series of prices that include market movements due to the re-pricing of both systemic and specific risks. Being macro factors that affect all the assets in the universe, risk appetite and risk aversion can only produce systemic risk re-pricing. We apply a methodology to correct this bias. We analysed emerging market debt capital markets and compute a systemic risk only indicator that enables one to ascertain more precisely periods in which risk appetite might have driven market returns. We find that from the end of 1997 to 2004 only about 30 per cent of the return of the EMBI+ might have been due to changes in risk appetite. [source]


    David G. Sutin MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Jeremy B. Yorgason
    In this study, we explore how specific individual, family, and family-within-community characteristics, as well as aspects of in-home family therapy, relate to responses to treatment. The Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale scores and Global Assessment of Functioning scores were used as outcome measures. Results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-scores for clients receiving in-home family therapy services, providing an initial indicator of treatment success. In addition, primary family caregiver social support, role performance in school/work, and self-harmful behavior were indicative of successful outcomes. Clients with higher problem levels had the greatest rates of change, and clients receiving more hours of services fared better in therapy. [source]


    Hanisak M. D.
    This study used the tremendous biochemical and ecological diversity of macroalgae to assess nitrogen and phosphorus availability at a broad, ecosystem-level scale in the Florida Keys and nearby waters. Spatial variation in tissue nutrients (carbon, C; nitrogen, N; phosphorus, P) of dominant macroalgae were assessed, both as ratios and absolute values, along 12 inshore-offshore transects in the Florida Keys and at 10 stations in nearby Florida Bay. The resulting detailed analysis demonstrated spatial and temporal patterns in macroalgal tissue nutrients. The transect data revealed no universal inshore-offshore patterns in tissue nutrients and no obvious "hotspots" of nutrient enrichment. Similarly, when data were compared among segments, there was no universal geographical pattern in tissue nutrients for all species. The most striking result was that the N and P status of macroalgae in Florida Bay was significantly different than other locations. Macroalgae collected from Florida Bay generally had higher N and lower P levels than algae collected elsewhere. The most common inshore-offshore pattern was higher %N and lower %P availability inshore; however, limited inshore-offshore differences in N:P ratio suggests that both nutrients were generally readily available in proportional amounts required by the various species. Most species in this study had higher %N, and to a lesser extent, higher %P and %C in March than in July. Based on the published literature on other species of macroalgae, it appears that N and P are generally available in sufficient quantities that most macroalgal growth is not limited by either nutrient. [source]


    Steven W. Effler
    ABSTRACT: The conspicuous shifts in summertime values of common measures of water qualify that have persisted for 10 years (1993 to 2002) in the Seneca River, New York, as a result of the zebra mussel invasion are documented. Resolution of patterns in time and space is supported by water quality monitoring that extends back to the late 1970s. Patterns are evaluated to describe the stability of impacts and quantify metabolic activity of the invader. The water quality impacts that have persisted unabated for 10 years since the invasion are the most severe documented for a river in North America. Changes in summer median conditions since the invasion include: (1) a 16-fold decrease in chlorophyll concentration (Chi), (2) a 2.5-fold increase in Secchi disc transparency, (3) a 17-fold increase in soluble reactive phosphorus concentration, (4) a 3.7-fold increase in total ammonia concentration, (5) a greater than 25 percent decrease in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, and (6) a decrease in pH of 0.55 units. The strength of these signatures has been driven by anthropogenic influences that include upstream nutrient loading and morphometric modifications of the river, and the functioning of Cross Lake, through which the river flows. This hypereutrophic lake sustains dense zebra mussel populations and related water quality impacts in the river downstream of the lake outflow by acting as a source of veligers and suitable food for this bivalve. Evidence is presented that levels of metabolic activity of the zebra mussel in this river have been resource limited, manifested through increased consumption of Chl and DO with increased delivery of these constituents in the lake's outflow. [source]


    David A. Becher
    Abstract We explore the linkage between stock return predictability and the monetary sector by examining alternative proxies for monetary policy. Using two complementary methods, we document that failure to condition on the Fed's broad policy stance causes a substantial understatement in the ability of monetary policy measures to predict returns. Industry analyses suggest that cross-industry return differences are also linked to changes in monetary conditions, as monetary policy has the strongest (weakest) relation with returns for cyclical (defensive) industries. Overall, we find that monetary conditions have a prominent and systematic relation with future stock returns, even in the presence of business conditions. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 6 2000
    B. T. Collopy
    Background: In 1997 a set of 53 clinical indicators developed by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) and the Australian Council on Healthcare Standards (ACHS) Care Evaluation Programme (CEP), was introduced into the ACHS Evaluation and Quality Improvement Programme (EQuIP). The clinical indicators covered 20 different conditions or procedures for eight specialty groups and were designed to act as flags to possible problems in surgical care. Methods: The development process took several years and included a literature review, field testing, and revision of the indicators prior to approval by the College council. In their first year 155 health-care organizations (HCO) addressed the indicators and this rose to 210 in 1998. Data were received from all states and both public and private facilities. Results: The collected data for 1997 and 1998 for some of the indicators revealed rates which were comparable with those reported in the international literature. For example, the rates of bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy were 0.7 and 0.53%, respectively; the mortality rates for coronary artery graft surgery were 2.5 and 2.1%, respectively; the mortality rates after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair were 2.5 and 3.7%, respectively; and the post-tonsillectomy reactionary haemorrhage rates were 0.9 and 1.3%, respectively. Results for some indicators differed appreciably from other reports, flagging the need for further investigation; for example, the negative histology rates for appendectomy in children were 18.6 and 21.2%, respectively, and the rates for completeness of excision of malignant skin tumours were 90.7 and 90%, respectively. The significance of these figures, however, depends upon validation of the data and their reliability and reproducibility. Because reliability can be finally determined only at the hospital level they are of limited value for broader comparison. Conclusion: The process of review established for the indicator set has led to refinement of some indicators through improvement of definitions, and to a considerable reduction in the number of indicators to 29 (covering 18 procedures), for the second version of the indicators (which was introduced for use from January 1999). The clinical indicator programme, as it has with other disciplines, hopefully will provide a stimulus to the modification and improvement of surgical practice. Clinician ownership should enhance the collection of reliable data and hence their usefulness. [source]

    Conservation Status as a Biodiversity Trend Indicator: Recommendations from a Decade of Listing Species at Risk in British Columbia

    especies amenazadas; especies en peligro; estado del ambiente Abstract:,Species conservation status is commonly used as a broad-scale indicator of the state of biological diversity. To learn about its value for tracking trends, we examined provincial lists of terrestrial vertebrate species and subspecies at risk in British Columbia, Canada, for 1992 and 2002 to see whether changes in these lists reflected changes in the status of the taxa they represent. Examination of the case histories of individual species and subspecies showed that 65% of additions and deletions to the British Columbia Red List were the result of improvement in knowledge of species status, changes in assessment procedures, and refinements in taxonomy rather than actual changes in a species' status. Comparison to an alternate set of rank scores provided by NatureServe for taxa that appeared on both 1992 and 2002 British Columbia Red Lists revealed changes in status that were not reflected by movement from the list. Estimates of historical conservation status for species on the 1992 British Columbia Red List demonstrated ambiguity around the natural baseline with regard to tracking changes in list composition over time. We discourage the continued use of indicators based solely on conservation status as a means of tracking biodiversity. Instead we recommend advancing strategic indicators around species at risk based on long-term monitoring data, deliberate and explicitly stated baselines, and consistent methods of conservation ranking. Resumen:,El estatus de conservación de las especies comúnmente es utilizado como un indicador de escala amplia del estado de la diversidad biológica. En un esfuerzo por aprender sobre su valor para el seguimiento de tendencias, examinamos listas provinciales, para 1992 y 2002, de especies y subespecies de vertebrados terrestres en riesgo en Columbia Británica, Canadá, para ver si los cambios en estas listas reflejaban cambios en el estatus de los taxa que representan. El examen de la historia del caso de especies y subespecies individuales mostró que 65% de las adiciones y supresiones en la Lista Roja de Columbia Británica fueron el resultado de avances en el conocimiento del estatus de la especie, de cambios en los procedimientos de evaluación y de refinamientos en la taxonomía y no de cambios en el estatus de una especie. La comparación con un conjunto alternativo de valores de clasificación proporcionado por NatureServe para taxa que aparecieron tanto en la Lista Roja de Columbia Británica de 1992 como de 2002 reveló cambios en el estatus que no se reflejaron en movimientos en la lista. Estimaciones del estatus de conservación histórico de especies en la Lista Roja de Columbia Británica de 1992 demostraron ambigüedad alrededor de la línea de base natural en relación con el seguimiento de cambios en el tiempo en la composición de la lista. Desalentamos el uso continuo de indicadores basados solamente en el estatus de conservación como un medio para el seguimiento de biodiversidad. En cambio, recomendamos avanzar con indicadores estratégicos en torno a especies en riesgo con base en datos de monitoreo de largo plazo, en líneas básicas puestas de manifiesto deliberada y explícitamente y en métodos consistentes para la clasificación de la conservación. [source]

    Can Knowledge of Erasure Behavior be Used as an Indicator of Possible Cheating?

    Audrey L. Qualls
    What is the typical amount of student answer-changing that takes place in a low-stakes test environment? Can we use this information to look for evidence of improper answer-changing (cheating) on high-stakes test? [source]

    An Electrochemical DNA Biosensor for the Detection of the Apa I Polymorphism in the Vitamin D Receptor Gene Using Meldola's Blue as a Hybridization Indicator

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 5 2010
    Nilay Aladag
    Abstract Electrochemical detection of nucleic acid base mismatches related to Apa I single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the vitamin D receptor gene was performed successfully using 7-dimethyl-amino-1,2-benzophenoxazinium salt (Meldola's blue, MDB) with 10.9,pmol/100,,L of detection limit. MDB reduction signals obtained from probe, mismatch(probe-SNP containing target) and hybrid(probe-target) modified pencil graphite electrode(PGE) increased respectively. The sensor was able to clearly distinguish perfect match from mismatch DNA in a 30,min. detection time. Several factors affecting on the hybridization and indicator response are studied to maximize sensitivity and selectivity. The advantages of the biosensor are discussed in comparison with previous electrochemical assays for DNA hybridization. [source]

    Economic Sentiment and Yield Spreads in Europe

    Eva Ferreira
    G12; E43 Abstract According toHarvey (1988), the forecasting ability of the term spread on economic growth is due to the fact that interest rates reflect investors' expectations about the future economic situation when deciding their plans for consumption and investment. Past literature has used ex post data on output or consumption growth as proxies for their expected value. In this paper, we employ a direct measure of economic agents' expectations, the Economic Sentiment Indicator elaborated by the European Commission, to test this hypothesis. Our results indicate that a linear combination of European yield spreads explains a surprising 93.7\% of the variability of the Economic Sentiment Indicator. This ability of yield spreads to capture economic agent expectations may be the actual reason for the predictive power of yield spreads about future business cycle. [source]

    The construct validity of three entry level personality inventories used in the UK: cautionary findings from a multiple-inventory investigation,

    Neil Anderson
    This paper reports psychometric analyses into the convergent and divergent validity of three popular entry-level measures of occupational personality in the UK and Continental Europe. A sample of 504 individuals completed all three measures: the British version of the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI), the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ Version FS5.2), and the Business Personality Indicator (BPI). In addition, independent ratings of the conceptual loading of primary source scales onto the Five Factor Model (FFM) were obtained (n,=,66). Data were used in a three-stage analytical procedure directed at examining psychometric and construct validity. Results are reported for descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, Cohen's d), internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alphas), and exploratory factor analyses. Findings into the construct validity of first-order scales (i.e. primary source scales) and second-order scales (i.e. FFM loadings) are presented in detail, including multitrait,multimethod (MTMM) analyses of convergent and divergent validity. For some scales, the observed variability in our sample suggested significant range restriction/enhancement. It was found that scale reliabilities were generally lower than those typically reported by the test publishers, and that published factor structures for these measures could not be replicated by the authors for this sample of individuals. Further independent construct validity research into occupational personality inventories is encouraged based upon our proposed model of single-, dual-, and multiple-inventory construct validation studies. Practically, our findings suggest that when IWO psychologists or personnel professionals aim to select/screen job applicants for a particular personality trait those who are selected may vary depending on (i) which personality inventory is used, (ii) the actual variability in the applicant sample tested, and (iii) reliability of the scales under consideration. As such, this study sounds a note of caution. Future research is called for to replicate these findings. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Assessing macroinvertebrate metrics for classifying acidified rivers across northern Europe

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 7 2010
    Summary 1. The effects of acidification on ecological status of rivers in Northern Europe must be assessed according to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Several acidification metrics based on macroinvertebrates already exist in different countries, and the WFD requires that they be comparable across northern Europe. Thus, we compiled macroinvertebrate monitoring data from the U.K. (n = 191 samples), Norway (n = 740) and Sweden (n = 531) for analysis against pH. 2. We tested new and existing acidification metrics developed nationally and used within the Northern Geographical Intercalibration Group. The new metrics were based on the acidification sensitivity of selected species and are proposed as a first step towards a new common indicator for acidification for Northern Europe. 3. Metrics were assessed according to responsiveness to mean pH, degree of nonlinearity in response and consistency in responses across countries. We used flexible, nonparametric regression models to explore various properties of the pressure,response relationships. Metrics were also analysed with humic content (total organic carbon above/below 5 mg L,1) as a covariate. 4. Most metrics responded clearly to pH, with the following metrics explaining most of the variance: Acid Water Indicator Community, Number of ephemeropteran families, Medin's index, Multimetric Indicator of Stream Acidification and the new metric ,Proportion of sensitive Ephemeroptera'. 5. Most metrics were significantly higher in humic than in clear-water rivers, suggesting smaller acidification effects in humic rivers. This result supports the proposed use of humic level as a typological factor in the assessment of acidification. 6. Some potentially important effects could not be considered in this study, such as the additional effects of metals, episodic acidification and the contrasting effects of natural versus anthropogenic acidity. We advocate further data collection and testing of metrics to incorporate these factors. [source]

    Infant Symbolic Play as an Early Indicator of Fetal Alcohol-Related Deficit

    INFANCY, Issue 6 2010
    Christopher D. Molteno
    Infant symbolic play was examined in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure and socioenvironmental background and to predict which infants met criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) at 5 years. A total of 107 Cape-Colored, South African infants born to heavy drinking mothers and abstainers/light drinkers were recruited prenatally. Complexity of play, sociodemographic and psychological correlates of maternal alcohol use, and quality of parenting were assessed at 13 months, and intelligence quotient and FAS diagnosis at 5 years. The effect of drinking on spontaneous play was not significant after control for social environment. In contrast, prenatal alcohol and quality of parenting related independently to elicited play. Elicited play predicted 5-year Digit Span and was poorer in infants subsequently diagnosed with FAS/partial FAS and in nonsyndromal heavily exposed infants, compared with abstainers/light drinkers. Thus, symbolic play may provide an early indicator of risk for alcohol-related deficits. The independent effects of prenatal alcohol and quality of parenting suggest that infants whose symbolic play is adversely affected by alcohol exposure may benefit from stimulation from a responsive caregiver. [source]

    An Electro- and Thermochromic Hydrogel as a Full-Color Indicator,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 19 2007
    K. Ueno
    Electric-field-triggered "two-state switching" between two arbitrary structural colors (see figure) in the entire visible region at certain temperatures is shown by a stimuli-responsive chromic hydrogel. The external rapid tuning in the structural color of this hydrogel is successfully achieved by introducing a periodically ordered interconnecting porous structure. [source]

    Spatial and temporal analysis of vegetation mosaics for conservation: poor fen communities in a Cornish valley mire

    E. J. Southall
    Abstract Aim Biogeographers increasingly realize the importance of seeing plant communities as spatial mosaics and understanding the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of a site is often a key to successful conservation. The aim of this paper is to examine the approaches to the description and analysis of spatial and temporal variation in sub-communities within patch mosaics of vegetation in order to inform conservation management. The activities of the tin streaming industry in Cornwall over the last century have created a highly varied mosaic of poor fen vegetation on Goss Moor National Nature Reserve (NNR). The wetland mosaics comprise dry hummocks and different sized wet pools. The size and depth of the pools determines the rate and type of vegetation that develops, as does the nature of boundary or edge. The ergodic hypothesis is used to describe the various plant sub-communities and their boundaries to identify pathways of hydroseral succession. A further aim was to test the use of Ellenberg Indicator (EI) values as a tool for the rapid description of spatial and temporal environmental change on wetland sites with a view to their management. Location Goss Moor National Nature Reserve, Cornwall, UK. Methods An extensive survey of the whole wetland complex was undertaken to identify patches of poor fen vegetation containing Potentilla palustris (L.) Scop. and Menyanthes trifoliata L. At each patch, species abundance data were collected as well as associated environmental information such as depth of the organic layer and standing water depth, patch location, patch size and boundary type. The plant sub-communities present were defined using techniques of numerical classification [two-way indicator species analysis (twinspan)] and ordination [detrended correspondence analysis (DCA)] and these were ordered using the ergodic hypothesis in order to characterize the stages of the hydrosere. Floristic and environmental relationships were examined using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Further environmental differences between the poor fen sub-community types were characterized by weighted EI values for acidity (R), moisture (F), nitrogen (N) and light (L). Results and conclusions Twelve poor fen sub-community types were described and found to be distributed along a primary environmental gradient of organic matter depth, surface water height and bare substrate. Separation of the poor fen communities by a moisture gradient was considered as spatial evidence for hydroseral succession, which begins with the colonization of open-water pools created by tin excavations. High water levels were associated with the swamp communities, increased organic depth was associated with poor fen, and the type of boundary was shown to affect the resulting community composition. Weighted Community Ellenberg Indicator values for nitrogen, light, reaction and moisture are recommended as an effective tool for indicating differences between plant (sub-)communities. The importance of examining sub-community mosaics in the study of hydroseral development is stressed and the manner in which both sets of information may be used to underpin the conservation management of the site is demonstrated. [source]

    Mandibular Morphology as an Indicator of Human Subadult Age: Interlandmark Approaches,

    Daniel Franklin Ph.D.
    Abstract:, The dentition is widely recognized as the set of developmental markers that appear to show the least variability against chronological age; these markers are thus widely used in forensic anthropological investigations. As a possible alternative, we investigate here the potential of mandibular morphology as a developmental marker for estimating age at death in subadults. The sample analyzed comprises 79 known age and sex subadult individuals of South African Bantu and African American origin. Linear measurements of ramus height were obtained from the mathematical conversion of three-dimensional landmark data. A series of regression analyses were then performed to predict age by using the measurement of ramus height; results were cross-validated using a jackknife procedure. Our results show that ramus height can be used to predict age in the subadult skeleton with accuracy, closely approaching that of standards based on the dentition (standard error rates are between ±1.1 years and ±2.4 years). [source]

    Plasma Antithrombin Activity as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Indicator in Dogs: A Retrospective Study of 149 Dogs

    S. Kuzi
    Background: Antithrombin (AT) is the major inhibitor of coagulation. In people, hypoantithrombinemia is associated with hypercoagulability, thrombosis, and poor prognosis. Veterinary studies, however, have not demonstrated similar prognostic significance. Thus, AT activity (ATA) in dogs currently is interpreted based on human medicine guidelines. Hypothesis: ATA can serve as a prognostic marker in dogs, as has been shown in people. Objectives: (1) To describe the clinical and clinicopathologic findings, diagnoses, and outcome of dogs with decreased versus normal ATA, (2) to identify diseases and mechanisms associated with hypoantithrombinemia, and (3) to assess ATA as a prognostic indicator. Animals and Methods: Retrospective study of 149 dogs with ATA measurement during their disease course. Results: Hypoantithrombinemic dogs had a higher proportion of leukocytosis, hemostatic abnormalities, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperbilirubinemia versus dogs with normal ATA. Hypoantithrombinemia commonly was present in immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), pancreatitis, hepatopathy, and neoplasia. It was associated with higher risk of mortality in the entire study population and for specific diseases (eg, IMHA, neoplasia). The odds ratio for mortality significantly and progressively increased when ATA was <60 and <30% (9.9, 14.7, respectively). A receiver operating characteristics analysis of ATA as a predictor of mortality showed an area under the curve of 0.7, and an optimal cutoff point of 60% yielded sensitivity and specificity of 58 and 85%, respectively. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: In dogs, ATA <60% indicates increased mortality risk, similarly to human patients, but ATA has limited value as a single discriminating factor in the outcome. [source]

    Serum C-Reactive Protein Concentration as an Indicator of Remission Status in Dogs with Multicentric Lymphoma

    Lise Nielsen
    Background: The acute-phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) is used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in humans with various neoplasias, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Objective: To evaluate if CRP could be used to detect different remission states in dogs with lymphoma. Animals: Twenty-two dogs with untreated multicentric lymphoma. Methods: Prospective observational study. Blood samples were collected at the time of diagnosis, before each chemotherapy session, and at follow-up visits, resulting in 287 serum samples. Results: Before therapy, a statistically significant majority of the dogs (P= .0019) had CRP concentrations above the reference range (68%, 15/22). After achieving complete remission 90% (18/20) of the dogs had CRP concentrations within the reference range, and the difference in values before and after treatment was statistically significant (P < .001). CRP concentrations of dogs in complete remission (median, 1.91; range, 0.2,103) were significantly different (P= .031) from those of dogs with partial remission (median, 2.48; range, 0,89), stable disease (median, 1.77; range, 1.03,42.65), or progressive disease (median, 8.7; range, 0,82.5). There was profound variation of CRP measurements within each dog. Conclusions: CRP is useful in determining complete remission status after treatment with cytotoxic drugs. However, the individual variation between dogs means CRP concentration is not sufficiently different in other remission states to permit its use in monitoring progression of the disease. Greater reliability in determining remission status might be achieved by combining CRP concentration with other serum markers. [source]

    Ego Identity Status as an Indicator of Peer Court Efficacy

    ABSTRACT Peer courts are an alternative to juvenile court, intended to provide less stigmatizing and more individually responsive dispositions for first-time and early youthful offenders. This study examined the potential usefulness of assessing ego identity status for peer courts. Mailed surveys were sent to attendees of seven Utah peer courts who had their cases reviewed between August 1998 and January 1999. Thirty-seven percent (N = 120) responded. Chi Square analysis showed that ego identity statuses were related to drug use and previous delinquent behavior, but not recidivism. Foreclosed status youths were statistically unlikely to recidivate, use drugs, and reported fewer previous offenses. [source]

    The Price-Volatility Feedback Rate: An Implementable Mathematical Indicator of Market Stability

    Emilio Barucci
    Geometric analysis of iterated cross-volatilities of asset prices is adopted to assess the stability of the (risk-free) measure under infinitesimal perturbations. Perturbations of asset prices evolve through time according to an ordinary linear differential equation (hedged transfer). The decay (feedback) rate is explicitly computed through a Fourier series method implemented on high frequency time series. [source]

    On the Construction of the European Economic Sentiment Indicator,

    Sarah Gelper
    Abstract Economic sentiment surveys are carried out by all European Union member states and are often seen as early indicators for future economic developments. Based on these surveys, the European Commission constructs an aggregate European Economic Sentiment Indicator (ESI). This paper compares the ESI with more sophisticated aggregation schemes based on statistical methods: dynamic factor analysis and partial least squares. The indicator based on partial least squares clearly outperforms the other two indicators in terms of comovement with economic activity. In terms of forecast ability, the ESI, constructed in a rather ad hoc way, can compete with the other indicators. [source]

    Person,project fit and R&D performance: a case study of Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan

    R & D MANAGEMENT, Issue 3 2007
    Sen-Hao Cheng
    This study examined the relation between the research and development (R&D) performance and the fit between a researcher's cognitive type and the task demand of the project that was implied in Wang, Wu & Horng's (1999) study. Three hundred and eighteen research projects completed by 205 project leaders in the 3 years were classified into Unsworth's four creativity types along two dimensions: (1) whether the research addressed an open- or closed-ended problem and (2) whether the project was assigned or actively sought by the researcher. Each researcher's personal traits were assessed using Myers,Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Kirton's Adaptor,Innovator Scale (KAI). Results show that researchers with a conforming, feeling, or judging-type cognition performed better with assigned projects for solving closed problems. Those with an originality and intuitive-type cognition performed better on self-initiated projects for solving open-ended problems. Researchers with sensing-type cognition performed better with assigned projects for solving open-ended questions. Thus, a careful match between a researcher's cognitive type and the task demand of project is important for R&D management. [source]

    Compositional Variation of Hydrothermally Altered Volcanic Rocks in Hishikari Gold Epithermal System: A Useful Geochemical Indicator of Gold,Silver Epithermal Mineralization

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Naotatsu Shikazono
    Abstract The hydrothermally altered andesite hosting the Hishikari gold-silver vein deposits in southern Kyushu, Japan, is analyzed with respect to the spatial variation in chemical composition. The (CaO + Na2O) content is found to be inversely correlated with the K2O content as it progresses away from the site of mineralization. It was found that analytical data plotted on a (CaO + Na2O) , K2O diagram cannot be explained only by addition of K+ from the hydrothermal solution to the original rock and release of Ca2+ and Na+ from the original rock (K- alteration). Addition of Ca2+ and Na+ from the hydrothermal solution to the rock and release of K+ from the rock but release of K+, Ca2+, and Na+ to the hydrothermal solution (advanced argillic alteration) is important for causing the wide variations in K2O, CaO, and Na2O contents on the (CaO + Na2O) , K2O diagram. These variations can be explained by superimposed potassic, advanced argillic and calcium alterations. The altered rocks in the Honko-Sanjin area, Yamada area, and Masaki area analyzed by this study are characterized by their intermediate K2O content and variable CaO content, high K2O content and low CaO content, and low K2O content and low CaO content, respectively. The K2O, Na2O and CaO contents and oxygen isotopic composition of altered andesite, in conjunction with the solubility of gold as a thio complex, suggest that both gold deposition and the observed compositional variation of altered andesite are the result of mixing between acidic groundwater and neutral gold-bearing hydrothermal solution. The present results indicate that the compositional variation of hydrothermally altered rocks may represent a useful geochemical indicator of epithermal gold,silver mineralization. [source]

    How Useful Is the Genuine Savings Rate as a Sustainability Indicator for Regions within Countries?

    Australia, Queensland Compared
    This article shows how macroeconomic indicators of sustainable development can be applied to the Queensland economy. While recognising the complex and contentious theoretical and practical issues in deriving the Genuine Savings Rate (GSR) to serve as such an indicator, we use the World Bank's methodology, which includes only mineral depletion, deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions as environmental terms, to estimate GSRs for Queensland for the period 1989 to 1999, and compare these to World Bank estimates of Australia's GSR for the same period. We find that Queensland has a higher rate of natural resource depletion and a lower GSR than the whole of Australia. We also examine how well the World Bank GSR performs as a ,headline' measure of overall sustainability, review criticisms of the GSR, and compare its implicit policy implications with those of net state savings, and of the GSR plus a suite of other indicators. [source]

    Kidney Injury Molecule-1 is an Early Noninvasive Indicator for Donor Brain Death-Induced Injury Prior to Kidney Transplantation

    W. N. Nijboer
    With more marginal deceased donors affecting graft viability, there is a need for specific parameters to assess kidney graft quality at the time of organ procurement in the deceased donor. Recently, kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) was described as an early biomarker of renal proximal tubular damage. We assessed Kim-1 in a small animal brain death model as an early and noninvasive marker for donor-derived injury related to brain death and its sequelae, with subsequent confirmation in human donors. In rat kidney, real-time PCR revealed a 46-fold Kim-1 gene upregulation after 4 h of brain death. In situ hybridization showed proximal tubular Kim-1 localization, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Also, Luminex assay showed a 6.6-fold Kim-1 rise in urine after 4 h of brain death. In human donors, 2.5-fold kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) gene upregulation and 2-fold higher urine levels were found in donation after brain death (DBD) donors compared to living kidney donors. Multiple regression analysis showed that urinary KIM-1 at brain death diagnosis was a positive predictor of recipient serum creatinine, 14 days (p < 0.001) and 1 year (p < 0.05) after kidney transplantation. In conclusion, we think that Kim-1 is a promising novel marker for the early, organ specific and noninvasive detection of brain death-induced donor kidney damage. [source]