India Ink (india + ink)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Sealing evaluation of the cervical base in intracoronal bleaching

Luciane Dias De Oliveira
Abstract,,, Discoloration of non-vital teeth is an esthetic deficiency frequently requiring bleaching treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the cervical base efficacy in order to prevent or to minimize the leakage along the root canal filling and into the dentinal tubules. Thirty-eight extracted single-root human teeth were used, which were biomechanically prepared, filled, and divided into three experimental groups: G1, a cervical base was applied (3 mm of thickness) below the cemento-enamel junction, with resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (Vitremer); G2, the base was done with glass-ionomer cement (Vidrion R); and G3 (Control), did not receive any material as base. A mixture of sodium perborate and hydrogen peroxide 30% was placed inside the pulp chamber for 3 days, and the access opening was sealed with Cimpat. This procedure was repeated thrice. Soon after this, a paste of calcium hydroxide was inserted into the pulp chamber for 14 days. All teeth were covered with two layers of sticky wax, except the access opening, and immersed in blue India Ink for 5 days. The results did not show statistically significant differences between the three groups concerning the leakage inside the dentinal tubules. Regarding the apical direction, a statistical difference (anovaP < 0.05) was observed among the experimental group G1 and control group G3. No statistically significant difference was observed between G2 and G3 groups. Therefore, the placement of a cervical base before internal bleaching procedures is still recommended. [source]

Assessment of a contrast medium as an adjunct to endodontic radiography

J. M. Bedford
Abstract Aim, To assess if a contrast medium improved diagnostic yield of endodontic radiographs. Methodology, Forty-five extracted mandibular premolar teeth were radiographed in bucco-lingual and mesio-distal planes. Access cavities were prepared, pulpal tissue extirpated and Ultravist® contrast medium introduced under pressure. Radiographs were retaken and the teeth cleared following perfusion with India ink. Three examiners assessed all the films for: number of roots, number of root canals, curvature of root and/or root canal, presence of lateral canals, presence of a single foramen or apical delta and the presence or absence of canal obstructions. The examiners' interpretations were compared with the anatomy revealed by clearing. Results, Kappa scores were calculated for each of the examiners, for each set of radiographs, to assess the level of intra- and inter-examiner agreement. Only moderate agreement was found throughout (, = 0.40,0.61). For multiple root canals a false-positive result was significantly more likely with contrast (P < 0.05). The use of contrast did not significantly improve the sensitivity of diagnosis of lateral canals or a single apical foramen. Contrast significantly increased the risk of falsely perceiving lateral canals (P < 0.002). Overall there was no statistically significant difference in the overall assessment of the anatomy of the root canals using contrast or plain radiographs (P > 0.2). Conclusions, Plain film radiographs confidently predict the presence of root or canal curvature but apical anatomy was assessed accurately in only 46% of cases. Plain radiographs were insensitive in assessing the number of root canals present, the presence of lateral canals and the occurrence of canal obstructions. The use of Ultravist® contrast medium to improve diagnosis of root canal morphology of premolars is not supported. [source]

Evaluation of root-end cavity preparation using ultrasonic retrotips

H. Ishikawa
Abstract Aim, To evaluate and compare the efficiency of root-end preparations using ultrasonic retrotips coated with diamond and zirconium nitride. Methodology, Eighty-five extracted single-rooted teeth were root filled, and then resected 3 mm from their apices. Root-end cavities were prepared with KiS (zirconium nitride-coated retrotip), CT-5 (stainless steel tip) or diamond-coated (DC) ultrasonic retrotips, and 10 teeth served as controls. Thirty teeth were used for evaluation of the time required to prepare the root-end cavity, the number of microcracks produced on the resected surface and the number of dentinal tubule openings on the root-canal wall using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. A further 55 teeth were used for evaluation of dye penetration following filling of the root-end cavities with Super EBA. The degree of dye penetration in millimetres was measured under the microscope after 7 days of immersion in India ink. Statistical analyses were performed using the one-way anova and Scheffe's F -test as the post hoc test. Results, There was no significant difference in the number of microcracks and dentinal tubule openings present in the root apices prepared by the three retrotips. The time required for root-end cavity preparation using the DC retrotip was significantly less than that using the other groups (P < 0.01). Positive controls showed dye penetration throughout the length of the root-end cavity, and negative controls showed no dye penetration. There was no significant difference between the three experimental groups in dye penetration. Conclusions, In this laboratory study, the time required to prepare root-end cavities using KiS retrotips was the same as that using CT-5 retrotips, and longer than that using DC retrotips. There was no significant difference in the number of microcracks or dye penetration between the three kinds of retrotips. [source]

Lymph drainage of the mammary glands in female cats

F. Raharison
Abstract The mammary gland is a common site of neoplasms in the female cat. All the malignant tumors metastasize to a lesser or a greater extent through the lymphatic system. However, the anatomical knowledge of this system is not sufficiently well known in cats to develop a reasoned model for the extirpation of these glands in case of malignant tumors. A study of the lymph drainage in 50 female cats was done by indirect injection in vivo of India ink inside the mammary parenchyma. After a waiting interval, mammary glands were extracted and the thoracic cavity opened. All the lymph nodes were examined after clearing. The success rate of the colorations of lymph nodes and lymph vessels was 91.8%. Out of the 100 observed mammary chains, the two intermediate mammary glands (T2, A1) may drain caudally to the superficial inguinal lymph center and/or cranially to the axillary lymph center. The T1 gland always drains exclusively cranially and A2 exclusively caudally. The two mammary glands (T1 and A1) often drain towards the sternal cranial lymph nodes, but 100% of the T2 drain towards it. This research assumes that the limit between the two directions of drainage can exist only between glands T2 and A1. The results obtained with the study of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th mammary glands permit production of new and more complete data of functional significance that will eventually aid block dissection surgical technique in the removal of malignant tumors in cats. J. Morphol. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Bowel obstruction associated with endoscopic tattooing of the colon with India ink

Y Seki
Abstract During a laparoscopic resection of small colorectal lesions, preoperative endoscopic marking with India ink is useful for identifying the location of the lesion. India ink has been thought to be a safe agent with few adverse effects. We herein report a case who suffered from postoperative abdominal pain resulting in bowel obstruction, due to massive adhesion around the area with India ink. A 61-year-old man with early transverse colon cancer underwent a laparoscopy-assisted transverse colon resection. Prior to the operation, endoscopic tattooing with India ink was performed. At the operation, spillage of India ink into the peritoneal cavity was observed. Many small black spots were thereafter seen on the peritoneum, mesentery and omentum, but neither severe inflammation nor any adhesion was noticed. The operation was performed without any difficulty. Though his immediate postoperative course was uneventful, a bowel obstruction gradually developed from a week postoperatively. Finally, he had to undergo a re-operation, and was found to have diffuse and massive adhesion around areas with India ink. Especially, severe omental adhesion involved and squeezed the transverse colon. A resection of the omentum with stenotic colon and re-anastomosis was performed. India ink can cause severe inflammation and adhesion when it accidentally leaks into the peritoneal cavity. [source]

Bone morphology and vascularization of untreated and guided bone augmentation-treated rabbit calvaria: evaluation of an augmentation model

Christer Slotte
Abstract Objectives: Cranial vault is widely used in experimental models on membranous bone healing in general, guided bone augmentation (GBA) studies being one example. To our knowledge, however, few studies on the characteristics of the untreated calvaria regarding bone density, vessel topography, and their intra/interindividual variations and associations are available. The aims of this investigation were to (1) map the large vessel topography of the skull vault, (2) describe the parietal bones of the adult rabbit histologically and morphometrically, and (3) histologically compare untreated parietal bone with parietal bone that had been treated with a GBA device. Material and methods: Ten adult untreated rabbits were microangiographed. General anesthesia was induced and the mediastinum was opened. Heparin and lidocaine were injected in the aorta followed by perfusion with India ink. After death, en bloc biopsies of the skull vault including the overlying soft tissues and dura mater were taken. The specimens were cleared with the Spalteholtz technique, microscopically examined, and digitally imaged. Thereafter, circular biopsies were harvested to obtain decalcified sections. In addition, sections from 14 GBA-treated rabbit skulls (of the same race, sex and age as the untreated animals) served as reference specimens for comparison. Histomorphometric examinations were carried out. Results: In the cleared specimens, all parietal bones were found to be supplied by one major branch of the meningeal artery. From each of these, separate branches supplied the dura wherein a fine vessel network covered the bone. No major vessels were found in the supracalvarial soft tissue. Numerous fine vessels were found within the periosteum and dura entering the cortical plates. The decalcified sections of the parietal bones revealed an outer and inner cortical plate enveloping a diploic space containing bone trabeculae, marrow tissue and larger sinusoids. Hollow connections were frequently found in both the outer and inner cortical plates in both the untreated and the GBA-treated specimens. These connections contained marrow tissue that extended to the periosteum and the dura. The morphometric measurements revealed similar proportions of cortical, trabecular, and marrow areas in the right and left untreated bones. The area of the outer cortical plate was significantly larger than the area of the inner cortical plate. Bone density was similar in the right and left untreated and GBA-treated specimens, as was the frequency and width of hollow connections through the cortical bone plates. Conclusions: The symmetry between the left and right parietal bones concerning the large vessel topography and the histomorphometric parameters assessed was high. Hollow connections in the cortical plates were frequently found. The bilateral use of the parietal bones is suggested to be reliable in experimental GBA models regarding the blood supply and bone quality. Résumé La voûte crânienne est souvent utilisée dans les modèles expérimentaux de guérison osseuse membranaire en général, l'augmentation osseuse guidée (GBA) étant un exemple. Peu d'études sur les crânes non-traités sont disponibles en ce qui concerne la densité osseuse, la topographie des vaisseaux et leurs variations intra/interindividuelles et leurs associations. Les buts de cette étude ont été 1) de cartographier la topographie des vaisseaux larges sur la voute crânienne, 2) de décrire les os pariétaux du lapin adulte histologiquement et morphométriquement et 3) de comparer histologiquement l'os pariétal non-traité avec celui traité par GBA. Dix lapins adultes non-traités ont subi une micro-angiographie. L'anesthésie générale a été effectuée et la partie médiane a été ouverte. De l'héparine et de la lidocaïne ont été injectées dans l'aorte suivies d'une perfusion avec de l'encre noire. Après la mort, des biopsies en blocs de la voûte crânienne comportant la dura mater et les tissus mous la recouvrant ont été prélevées. Les spécimens ont été estimés par la technique de Spalteholtz, examinés microscopiquement et des images digitales ont été réalisées. Des biopsies circulaires ont été prélevées pour obtenir des sections décalcifiées. Des sections de 14 crânes de lapins traités GBA (de même race, sexe et âge que les non-traités) ont servi de spécimens de référence pour comparaison. Des examens histomorphométriques ont été effectués. Dans les spécimens non-traités, tous les os pariétaux étaient irrigués par une branche majeure de l'artère méningée. De chacune de ces dernières, différentes branches abreuvaient la dura dans laquelle un réseau de vaisseau fins recouvrait l'os. Aucun vaisseau majeur n'a été trouvé dans le tissu mou ou sus-voûte. De nombreux vaisseaux fins ont été trouvés à l'intérieur du périoste et de la dura pénétrant qu'entre les bords corticaux. Les sections décalcifiées des os pariétaux ont révélé des bords corticaux interne et externe enveloppant un espace diploïque contenant de l'os trabéculaire, de la moelle osseuse et de larges sinusoïdes. Des connexions creuses étaient fréquemment trouvées tant dans les plaques corticales interne qu'externe et tant dans les spécimens non-traités que traités GBA. Ces connexions contenaient de la moelle qui allait jusqu'au périoste et la dura. Les mesures morphométriques ont révélé des proportions semblables de cortical, trabécules et moelle dans les les os non-traités. L'aire du bord cortical externe était significativement plus importante que l'aire du bord cortical interne. La densité osseuse était semblable dans les spécimens non-traités et traités GBA gauches et droits ainsi que la fréquence et la largeur des connexions creuses à travers les bords osseux corticaux. La symétrie entre les os pariétaux gauches et droits concernant la topographie des vaisseux larges et des paramètres histomorphométriques étaient importante. Les connexions creuses dans les bords corticaux était souvent trouvées. L'utilisation bilatérale des os pariétaux est proposée pour sa fiabilité dans les modèles GBA expérimentaux concernant l'apport sanguin et la qualité osseuse. Zusammenfassung Ziele:,Die Schädeldecke wird oft bei experimentellen Modellen zur bindegewebigen Knochenheilung verwendet. Ein Beispiel dafür sind Studien zur gesteuerten Knochenaugmentation (GBA). Soviel wir wissen, existieren jedoch nur wenige Studien über die Charakteristiken der unbehandelten Kalvaria bezüglich Knochendichte, Gefässtopographie und deren intra-/interindividuelle Variationen und Assoziationen. Die Ziele dieser Untersuchung waren (1) die Topographie der grossen Gefässe der Schädeldecke aufzuzeichnen, (2) die parietalen Knochen des ausgewachsenen Kaninchens histologisch und histomorphometrisch zu beschreiben, und (3) histologisch den unbehandelten parietalen Knochen mit parietalem Knochen, der mit einer GBA Einrichtung behandelt worden war, zu vergleichen. Material und Methoden:,Zehn ausgewachsene Kaninchen wurden mikroangiographisch untersucht. In Narkose wurde das Mediastinum eröffnet. Es wurde Heparin und Lidocain in die Aorta injiziert, darauf folgte die Perfusion mit India Tinte. Nach dem Tod wurden Blockbiopsien der Schädeldecke inklusive bedeckende Weichgewebe und Dura mater entnommen. Die Präparate wurden mittels der Spaltenholztechink gereinigt, mikroskopisch untersucht und digital aufgezeichnet. Danach wurden zirkuläre Biopsien gewonnen, um entkalkte Schnitte herzustellen. Zusätzlich dienten Schnitte von 14 GBA-behandelten Kaninchenschädeln (gleiche Rasse, Geschlecht und Alter wie die unbehandelten Tiere) als Referenzpräparate zum Vergleich. Es wurden histomorphometrische Untersuchungen durchgeführt. Resultate:,In den gereinigten Präparaten konnte gesehen werden, dass alle parietalen Knochen durch einen grossen Ast der Meningalarterie versorgt wurden. Separate Aeste dieser Arterie versorgten die Dura, wobei ein feines Gefässnetz den Knochen bedeckte. In den Weichgeweben auf der Kalvaria konnten keine grossen Gefässe gefunden werden. Im Periost und in der Dura waren zahlreiche feine Gefässe zu sehen, welche in die kortikalen Platten eintraten. Die entkalkten Schnitte der parietalen Knochen zeigten eine äussere und innere kortikale Platte, welche einen abgeschlossenen Raum mit Knochentrabekeln, Markgewebe und grossen Hohlräumen umschlossen. In der inneren und in der äusseren kortikalen Platte konnten oft sowohl bei den unbehandelten als auch bei den GBA-behandelten Präparaten hohle Verbindungen gefunden werden. Diese Verbindungen enthielten Markgewebe, dass sich bis zum Periost und der Dura erstreckte. Die morphometrischen Messungen zeigten sowohl in den rechten als auch in den linken unbehandelten Knochen ähnliche Proportionen zwischen kortikalem Knochen, trabekulärem Knochen und den Markarealen. Die Fläche der äusseren kortikalen Platte war signifikant grösser als die Fläche der inneren kortikalen Platte. Die Knochendichte war in den rechten und linken unbehandelten und in den GBA-behandelten Präparaten ähnlich, ebenso die Häufigkeit und die Breite der hohlen Verbindungen durch die kortikalen Platten. Schlussfolgerungen:,Die Symmetrie zwischen den rechten und linken parietalen Knochen bezüglich Topographie der grossen Gefässe und der untersuchten histomorphometrischen Parameter war gross. In den kortikalen Platten konnten häufig hohle Verbindungen gefunden werden. Es wird vorgeschlagen, dass die bilaterale Verwendung von parietalen Knochen bei experimentellen GBA-Modellen zuverlässig ist bezüglich Blutversorgung und Knochenqualität. Resumen Objetivos:,La bóveda craneal es ampliamente usada en modelos experimentales en cicatrización de hueso membranoso en general, siendo un ejemplo los estudios de regeneración ósea guiada (GBA). Que sepamos, sin embargo, se dispone de pocos estudios sobre las características del calvario no tratado con respecto a la densidad ósea, la topografía vascular, y sus variaciones intra/interindividuo y sus asociaciones. Las intenciones de esta investigación fueron (1) cartografiar la topografía de grandes vasos de la bóveda craneal, (2) describir histológica y morfométricamente los huesos parietales del conejo adulto, y (3) comparar histológicamente el hueso parietal no tratado con el hueso parietal tratado con un dispositivo de GBA. Material y Métodos:,Se llevaron a cabo microangiografías a diez conejos adultos sin tratar. Se indujo anestesia general y se abrió el mediastino Se inyectaron heparina y lidocaina en la aorta seguida por infusión de tinta de India. Tras la muerte, se tomaron biopsias en bloque de la bóveda craneal incluyendo los tejidos blandos superpuestos y de la duramadre. Los especimenes se aclararon con la técnica de Spalteholtz, se examinaron microscópicamente, y se tomaron imágenes digitales. Más adelante, se recogieron biopsias circulares para obtener secciones descalcificadas. Además, secciones de los cráneos de los conejos tratados con 14secciones descalcificadas. Además, secciones de los cráneos de los conejos tratados con 14 GBA (de la misma raza, sexo y edad que los animales no tratados) sirvieron como especimenes de referencia para la comparación. Se llevaron a cabo exámenes histomorfométricos. Resultados:,En los especimenes aclarados, todos los huesos parietales se encontró que estaban irrigados por una rama principal de la arteria meníngea. De cada una de estas, ramas separadas irrigaron la dura en donde una fina red de vasos cubrió el hueso. No se encontraron vasos mayores en el tejido blando supracalvario. Se encontraron numerosos vasos dentro del periostio y la dura entrando en las placas corticales. Las secciones descalcificadas de los huesos parietales revelaron una placa cortical interna y externa envolviendo un espacio diploico conteniendo trabéculas óseas, tejido medular y grandes sinusoides. Frecuentemente se encontraron conexiones huecas en las placas corticales internas y externas tanto en los especimenes sin tratar como en los tratados con GBA. Estas conexiones contenían tejido medular que se extendió hasta el periostio y la dura. Las medidas morfogenéticas revelaron proporciones similares de áreas corticales trabeculares y medulares en los huesos derecho e izquierdo no tratados. El área de la placa cortical externa fue significativamente mayor que el área de placa cortical interna. La densidad ósea fue similar en el lado derecho e izquierdo no tratados y en los especimenes tratados con GBA, así como la frecuencia y la anchura de las conexiones huecas a lo largo de las placas óseas corticales. Conclusiones:,La simetría entre los huesos parietales izquierdos y derechos concernientes a la topografía vascular y los parámetros histomorfométricos valorados fue alta. Las conexiones huecas en las placas corticales se encontraron con frecuencia. Se sugiere que el uso bilateral de huesos parietales es fiable como modelo experimental GBA respecto al suministro de sangre y calidad ósea. [source]