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Ancillary Techniques (ancillary + techniques)
Utility of the thromboplastin-plasma cell-block technique for fine-needle aspiration and serous effusionsDIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
D.M.L.T., Manisha B. Kulkarni M.Sc.
Abstract (I) To assess the feasibility of thromboplastin-plasma (TP) method for cell block, (II) to concentrate the minimal cellular material from effusions and needle-rinses by block preparation and improve visual details, (III) to compare conventional cytological smears with cell blocks for final assessment, and (IV) to assess utility of immunocytochemistry (ICC) for diagnostic accuracy. Seventy cell blocks were prepared by TP technique using surplus fluid from 38 serous effusions, and for 32 ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material, rinses of syringes and needles were collected in normal saline after conventional cytological smears. Then, cell blocks were compared with conventional smears for adequacy, morphologic preservation, and ICC. Absolute concordance seen in 66 cases (94%) between the smears and cell blocks. Advantages with the blocks were cellular concentration in a limited field and better cellular preservation with architectural pattern. Quality of ICC was comparable to that of standard controls. Diagnostic discrepancy was seen in two cases where cell blocks were positive but smears were negative. Two cell blocks were nonrepresentative. Cell block serves as a useful adjunct to traditional cytological smears. TP method is simple, cost effective, and reproducible. It is easy when compared with agar-embedding technique. Ancillary techniques like ICC can be performed successfully. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Role of ancillary techniques in diagnosing and subclassifying non-Hodgkin's lymphomas on fine needle aspiration cytologyCYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
P. DeyArticle first published online: 8 SEP 200
Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are tumours of the lymphoid cells. During the process of development of lymphoid cells, neoplasia may evolve at any point. Neoplastic cells usually carry the imprint of cell of origin at the stage of origin. Various types of NHL may have similar morphology with wide variation in origin, immunophenotype and other biological features. Different ancillary laboratory techniques may help to overcome the limitations of morphology in this aspect. The commonly used ancillary techniques in lymphomas are immunocytochemistry (IC), flow cytometry, Southern blot (SB) technique, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In addition, laser scanning cytometry (LSC) and DNA microarray technologies are in the research phase. Various laboratory techniques are used for immunophenotyping, demonstration of monoclonality, identification of chromosomal translocation, assessment of cell kinetics and expression of mRNA in the tumour cells. Flow cytometry helps in rapid immunophenotying of NHL and it has an added advantage over IC in recognizing the co-expression of CD markers. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) combined with flow immunophenotyping may help us to diagnose and subclassify certain NHLs, such as follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma, which were previously recognized as pure morphological entities. Loss of morphology is one of the important limitations of flow cytometry. LSC can overcome this limitation by studying morphology along with the immunophenotyping pattern of individual cells. Chromosomal changes in NHL can be identified by SB, PCR and FISH. Molecular diagnosis of NHL helps in diagnosis, subclassification, prognostic assessment and even in planning of therapy. DNA microarray is a relatively newer and promising technology. It gives information about the expression of several thousands of genes in a tumour in a single experiment. In the near future, FNAC combined with ancillary techniques may play a major role in diagnosis, subclassification and management of lymphomas. [source]
Cytomorphological study of soft tissue neoplasms: role of fluorescent immunocytochemistry in diagnosisCYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
Objectives:, Exact categorization of soft tissue tumours (STTs) on smears requires application of various ancillary techniques. This study was aimed at evaluating the role of fluorescent immunocytochemistry (FICC) in cyto-diagnosis of 30 STT cases. Methods:, Thirty cases of soft tissue tumours were included in the present study. All cases were subjected to routine Giemsa and Papanicolaou stain. Extra smears were made and kept for fluorescent immunostaining. A panel of cytoskeletal antibodies, tagged with FITC (Fluorescein isothyocynate), was employed in all these cases. Fluorescent immunostained smears were examined under Zeiss Confocal Laser scanning microscope, using double immunofluorescence (red-green). Finally, all cases were subjected to biopsy and again immunoperoxidase staining. Results:, Among the 30 cases in the present study, unaided cytological diagnoses ranged from ,spindle cell' tumour in four (13.3%) cases, benign and malignant spindle cell tumour in 17 (56.6%) cases, to malignant mesenchymal tumour in nine (30%) cases. FICC helped in further correct categorization of 25/30 (83.3%) cases viz. leiomyoma (three), benign neurogenic tumour (six), schwannoma (one), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (three), synovial sarcoma (two), rhabdomyosarcoma (two), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (five) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (three). Aggressive fibromatosis was found to be a missed diagnosis in two cases. Overall concordance between cyto-diagnosis with FICC, and histopathology results was 83.3% (P < 0.05). Conclusion:, Fluorescent immunocytochemistry is a significant ancillary technique for making a rapid and specific diagnosis of STT, as required for their timely management. Incorporation of a wide panel of antibody markers with clinico-cytological correlation is recommended in forming an exact diagnosis in these cases. [source]
Fine-needle aspiration of soft tissue leiomyosarcoma: An analysis of the most common cytologic findings and the value of ancillary techniquesDIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 9 2006
Henryk A. Domanski M.D., Ph.D.
Abstract This study aims to determine the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of primary leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of soft tissue and to review diagnostic criteria and adjunctive methods, which can contribute to a confident diagnosis. We evaluated the preoperative FNAC in 89 patients with primary LMS for the following: cytomorphology and correspondence of FNA to histological features of excised tumors and clinical data. In addition, the utility of adjunctive techniques was analyzed and other spindle-cell lesions in the differential diagnoses were discussed. An unequivocal, malignant diagnosis was rendered by FNAC in 78 cases; 74 tumors were diagnosed as sarcoma, of which 31 as LMS or suspicion of LMS. In addition, three smears were labeled as malignant tumor, one as carcinoma metastasis, and three as neurilemmoma. Seven aspirates were inconclusive and one insufficient. On reevaluation, the diagnostic smears in most cases contained tumor cell fascicles with an admixture of dispersed cells or stripped nuclei. The most common cells were spindle cells with elongated, blunt-ended, segmented or fusiform nuclei, and round/polygonal cells, often with rounded or indented nuclei. In addition, 51 cases showed pleomorphic, often multinucleated cells. Osteoclasts, intranuclear vacuoles, and mitoses occurred in 14, 47, and 27 cases, respectively. Thus, most high-grade LMSs have cytologic features that allow diagnosis of sarcoma. Ancillary studies can confirm the diagnosis of LMS and help in the correct interpretation of predominant spindle-cell or epitheloid-cell smears resembling neurilemoma or carcinoma, respectively. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2006;34:597,604. © 2006 Wiley,Liss, Inc. [source]
Biclonal low grade B-cell lymphoma confirmed by both flow cytometry and karyotypic analysis, in spite of a normal kappa/lambda Ig light chain ratioAMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
Abstract Composite low grade lymphoma with two subpopulations in a same site is uncommon. We herewith report the case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with isolated bilateral dacryoadenomegaly. Pathological examination of an incisional biopsy of her right lacrimal gland was consistent with a marginal zone lymphoma. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping showed two distinct clonal B-cell populations expressing sIg D lambda or sIg M kappa restriction in the lacrimal gland, blood, and bone marrow. Both B-cells populations were sorted from peripheral blood for molecular biology investigations and comparison with molecular data performed on tumor and bone marrow cells. IgH PCR performed on purified blood populations disclosed two monoclonal peaks: 98 bp-sized peak in the sIg M kappa and a 107 bp in the sIg D lambda clones, respectively. The lacrimal gland tumor expressed mainly sIg M kappa population, and showed a major 98 bp-sized peak coexisting with a very minor 107 bp peak. Cytogenetic studies showed a 46, XX,del (7) (q22q32) karyotype. Bone marrow examination at diagnosis revealed the same B-cell clones distribution than the one observed in blood with a dominant sIg D lambda population, a Genescan profile showing a major peak of 107 bp and a minor peak of 98 bp. Chromosomal analysis disclosed a 46,XX,del (10) (?p14) karyotype without detectable 7q deletion. To our knowledge, this observation represents the first reported case of biclonal low grade lymphoma hidden behind a normal classical kappa/lambda Ig light chain ratio in blood, but clearly demonstrated by the combination of three ancillary techniques (flow cytometry both analytical and cell sorting, molecular biology, and cytogenetics) and analysis of different tissues (i.e., in this case, lacrimal gland biopsy, blood, and bone marrow. Am. J. Hematol., 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]