Ancillary Data (ancillary + data)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


WATERSHED SCALING EFFECT ON BASE FLOW NITRATE, VALLEY AND RIDGE PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROVINCE,

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 5 2001
Bruce D. Lindsey
ABSTRACT: A study of stream base flow and NO3 -N concentration was conducted simultaneously in 51 subwatersheds within the 116-square-kilometer watershed of East Mahantango Creek near Klingerstown, Pennsylvania. The study was designed to test whether measurable results of processes and observations within the smaller watersheds were similar to or transferable to a larger scale. Ancillary data on land use were available for the small and large watersheds. Although the source of land-use data was different for the small and large watersheds, comparisons showed that the differences in the two land-use data sources were minimal. A land use-based water-quality model developed for the small-scale 7.3-square-kilometer watershed for a previous study accurately predicted NO3 -N concentrations from sampling in the same watershed. The water-quality model was modified and, using the imagery-based land use, was found to accurately predict NO3 -N concentrations in the subwatersheds of the large-scale 116-square-kilometer watershed as well. Because the model accurately predicts NO3 -N concentrations at small and large scales, it is likely that in second-order streams and higher, discharge of water and NO3 -N is dominated by flow from smaller first-order streams, and the contribution of ground-water discharge to higher order streams is minimal at the large scale. [source]


Linking flux network measurements to continental scale simulations: ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange capacity under non-water-stressed conditions

GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
KATHERINE E. OWEN
Abstract This paper examines long-term eddy covariance data from 18 European and 17 North American and Asian forest, wetland, tundra, grassland, and cropland sites under non-water-stressed conditions with an empirical rectangular hyperbolic light response model and a single layer two light-class carboxylase-based model. Relationships according to ecosystem functional type are demonstrated between empirical and physiological parameters, suggesting linkages between easily estimated parameters and those with greater potential for process interpretation. Relatively sparse documentation of leaf area index dynamics at flux tower sites is found to be a major difficulty in model inversion and flux interpretation. Therefore, a simplification of the physiological model is carried out for a subset of European network sites with extensive ancillary data. The results from these selected sites are used to derive a new parameter and means for comparing empirical and physiologically based methods across all sites, regardless of ancillary data. The results from the European analysis are then compared with results from the other Northern Hemisphere sites and similar relationships for the simplified process-based parameter were found to hold for European, North American, and Asian temperate and boreal climate zones. This parameter is useful for bridging between flux network observations and continental scale spatial simulations of vegetation/atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange. [source]


Root dynamics and global change: seeking an ecosystem perspective

NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 1 2000
RICHARD J. NORBY
Changes in the production and turnover of roots in forests and grasslands in response to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, elevated temperatures, altered precipitation, or nitrogen deposition could be a key link between plant responses and longer-term changes in soil organic matter and ecosystem carbon balance. Here we summarize the experimental observations, ideas, and new hypotheses developed in this area in the rest of this volume. Three central questions are posed. Do elevated atmospheric CO2, nitrogen deposition, and climatic change alter the dynamics of root production and mortality? What are the consequences of root responses to plant physiological processes? What are the implications of root dynamics to soil microbial communities and the fate of carbon in soil? Ecosystem-level observations of root production and mortality in response to global change parameters are just starting to emerge. The challenge to root biologists is to overcome the profound methodological and analytical problems and assemble a more comprehensive data set with sufficient ancillary data that differences between ecosystems can be explained. The assemblage of information reported herein on global patterns of root turnover, basic root biology that controls responses to environmental variables, and new observations of root and associated microbial responses to atmospheric and climatic change helps to sharpen our questions and stimulate new research approaches. New hypotheses have been developed to explain why responses of root turnover might differ in contrasting systems, how carbon allocation to roots is controlled, and how species differences in root chemistry might explain the ultimate fate of carbon in soil. These hypotheses and the enthusiasm for pursuing them are based on the firm belief that a deeper understanding of root dynamics is critical to describing the integrated response of ecosystems to global change. [source]