Ancient Times (ancient + time)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Seismic response analysis of multidrum classical columns

Dimitrios Konstantinidis
Abstract This paper presents a numerical investigation on the seismic response of multidrum classical columns. The motivation for this study originates from the need to understand: (a) the level of ground shaking that classical multidrum columns can survive, and (b) the possible advantages or disadvantages of retrofitting multidrum columns with metallic shear links that replace the wooden poles that were installed in ancient times. The numerical study presented in this paper is conducted with the commercially available software Working Model 2DÔ, which can capture with fidelity the sliding, rocking, and slide-rocking response of rigid-body assemblies. This paper validates the software Working Model by comparing selected computed responses with scarce analytical solutions and the results from in-house numerical codes initially developed at the University of California, Berkeley, to study the seismic response of electrical transformers and heavy laboratory equipment. The study reveals that relative sliding between drums happens even when the g -value of the ground acceleration is less than the coefficient of friction, µ, of the sliding interfaces and concludes that: (a) typical multidrum classical columns can survive the ground shaking from strong ground motions recorded near the causative faults of earthquakes with magnitudes Mw=6.0,7.4; (b) in most cases multidrum classical columns free to dislocate at the drum interfaces exhibit more controlled seismic response than the monolithic columns with same size and slenderness; (c) the shear strength of the wooden poles has a marginal effect on the sliding response of the drums; and (d) stiff metallic shear links in-between column drums may have an undesirable role on the seismic stability of classical columns and should be avoided. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The volatile constituents of frankincense , a review

Michaela Mertens
Abstract The smell of frankincense resin and powder, as well as burned frankincense, has been linked to a series of health effects since ancient times. Additionally, frankincense and its fumes are used as a means to induce positive psychophysical effects and well-being, not only in an ecclesiastical setting but also in traditional medical applications. This review aims to provide an overview of current knowledge of the volatile constituents of frankincense, with explicit consideration concerning the diverse Boswellia varieties. Altogether, more than 300 volatiles in frankincense have been reported in the literature. In particular, a broad diversity has been found in the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatiles with respect to different varieties of Boswellia. A detailed discussion of the various analytical approaches applied to isolating and analysing the volatile fractions of frankincense is also presented. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Stress and the skin

J. Hosoi
Synopsis ,The skin is the mirror which reflects the state of the mind.',The skin is the window of the mind.' These have been proverbs since ancient times. It is the topic of this article. Our life became convenient with the information technology these days but too much information often drives us on. We suffer from mental stress rather than physical stress. Since Selye advocated stress reaction, various reactions in the body have been described. Skin is also a target organ of the stress reaction. What the effects of stress are and how stress affects the skin are summarized in this review. Possible use of fragrance for the regulation of the stress reaction is also introduced. Résumé «La peau est le miroir qui reflète l'état de l'esprit»«La peau est une fenêtre sur l'esprit». Ces proverbes sont anciens. Ils sont le thème de cet article. Aujourd'hui, la technologie de l'information rend notre vie commode, mais trop d'informations souvent nous surmènent. Nous souffrons de stress mental plutôt que de stress physique. Depuis la réaction au stress découverte par Selye, de nombreuses réactions du corps ont été décrites. La peau est également un organe cible de la réaction au stress. Cette revue récapitule les effets du stress et comment ce dernier agit sur la peau. L'utilisation potentielle de parfums pour réguler la réaction au stress est également abordée. [source]

Probiotic fermented milks: Present and future

Milk and dairy products have been part of human nutrition since ancient times, constituting an important part of a balanced diet. Fermented dairy products containing living micro-organisms have traditionally been used to restore gut health, being among the pioneers in functional foods. Such utilisation of live micro-organisms forms the basis of the probiotic concept, which constitutes a fast growing market for the development of new products. In this article, we review the current status of fermented milk as a vehicle for delivery of beneficial bacteria and look into future new directions and challenges. [source]

Chemical components of Aspergillus -type Douchi, a Chinese traditional fermented soybean product, change during the fermentation process

Jian-Hua Zhang
Summary Douchi, a traditional fermented soybean product that originated in China, has been consumed since ancient times as a food seasoning. The influence of fermentation on the chemical components of naturally fermented douchi and Aspergillus egypticus pure-cultured douchi was investigated. Changes in per cent and/or concentration of amino-type nitrogen, total acid, reducing sugar, organic acid, amino acids (AA) and isoflavone, along with the neutral protease and , -glucosidase activities during the fermentation, were analysed. The results indicated that fermentation had a significant effect on the concentration of chemical components. The concentration of all free amino acids (FAA) increased gradually during fermentation, to a maximum of 109.54 mg g,1 in 15-day fermented products. The main organic acids in douchi are 7.788 and 17.778 mg g,1, respectively. During fermentation, the contents of daidzin and genistin decreased from 160.7 and 207.9 to 7.54 and 24.12 ,g g,1 respectively. Daidzein and genistein increased from 18.2 and 16.9 to 63.4 and 84.6 ,g g,1, respectively. [source]

The biopharmaceutical aspects of nasal mucoadhesive drug delivery

Michael Ikechukwu Ugwoke
Nasal drug administration has frequently been proposed as the most feasible alternative to parenteral injections. This is due to the high permeability of the nasal epithelium, allowing a higher molecular mass cut-off at approximately 1000 Da, and the rapid drug absorption rate with plasma drug profiles sometimes almost identical to those from intravenous injections. Despite the potential of nasal drug delivery, it has a number of limitations. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of the nasal cavity, as well as ciliary beating and mucociliary clearance as they relate to nasal drug absorption, are introduced. The rationale for nasal drug delivery and its limitations, some factors that influence nasal drug absorption, and the experimental models used in nasal drug delivery research are also reviewed. Nasal mucoadhesion as a promising method of nasal absorption enhancement is discussed, and factors that influence mucoadhesion, as well as safety of nasal mucoadhesive drug delivery systems are reviewed in detail. Nasal drug administration is presently mostly used for local therapies within the nasal cavity. Anti-allergic drugs and nasal decongestants are the most common examples. However, nasal drug administration for systemic effects has been practised since ancient times. Nasally-administered psychotropic drugs by native Americans, the use of tobacco snuffs, and nasal administration of illicit drugs such as cocaine are all well known (Illum & Davis 1992). Nowadays, the nasal cavity is being actively explored for systemic administration of other therapeutic agents, particularly peptides and proteins (Illum 1992; Edman & Bjork 1992), as well as for immunization purposes (Lemoine et al 1998). To better understand the basis for nasal drug absorption and factors that can influence it, a brief review of the anatomy and physiology of the nose is appropriate. [source]

HPLC-MS of anthraquinoids, flavonoids, and their degradation products in analysis of natural dyes in archeological objects

Izabella Surowiec
Abstract LC with MS detection was optimized for sensitive and selective analysis of main classes of natural dyes used in ancient times for dyeing textiles , red anthraquinoids, yellow flavonoids, and known degradation products of flavonols , hydroxybenzoic acids. Fragmentation patterns of both negative and positive molecular ions for the above mentioned compounds were investigated. Three acquisition modes of MS analysis: scanning, SIM, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in both positive and negative ion modes were optimized and compared with each other and with the UV-Vis diode-array detection. Even though in the applied chromatographic system formic acid was used in the mobile phase, SIM in the negative ion mode was the most selective and sensitive detection for all the investigated compounds when both mixtures of standards and analysis of extracts from archeological samples were concerned, with one exception , alizarin, for which MS detection in positive ion mode was more sensitive. Detection limits obtained with MS detection for all investigated compounds except quinizarin were lower than the ones obtained with the diode-array UV-Vis detection, making MS detection the most suitable tool for the analysis of natural dyes and their degradation products in extracts from archeological samples. [source]

Medicinal plant species with potential antidiabetic properties

Srinivasa Rao Mentreddy
Abstract Diabetes mellitus is one of the world's major diseases. It currently affects an estimated 143 million people worldwide and the number is growing rapidly. In the USA alone, about 20.8 million or 7% of the population suffer from diabetes or related complications. The estimated direct and indirect costs of diabetes exceed US$ 132 billion annually. Plant-based medicinal products have been known since ancient times, and several medicinal plants and their products (active natural principles and crude extracts) have been used to control diabetes in the traditional medicinal systems of many cultures worldwide, including those of the Asian Indians, Chinese and South Americans. A limited number of these plant species have been studied and validated for their hypoglycaemic properties using diabetic animal models and in clinical studies using human subjects. Several oral hypoglycaemic agents are the primary forms of treatment for diabetes. However, prominent side-effects of such drugs are the main reason for an increasing number of people seeking alternative therapies that may have less severe or no side-effects. Thus plant-based herbal drugs or botanicals are emerging as the primary components of holistic approaches to diabetes management. In this review, selected species that have been validated for their hypoglycaemic or antihyperglycaemic properties using laboratory diabetic animal models and in clinical trials using human subjects, and reported in refereed journals are presented. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Anti-cancer properties of anthraquinones from rhubarb

Qing Huang
Abstract Rhubarb has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times and today it is still present in various herbal preparations. In this review the toxicological and anti-neoplastic potentials of the main anthraquinones from Rhubarb, Rheum palmatum, will be highlighted. It is interesting to note that although the chemical structures of various anthraquinones in this plant are similar, their bioactivities are rather different. The most abundant anthraquinone of rhubarb, emodin, was capable of inhibiting cellular proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and prevention of metastasis. These capabilities are reported to act through tyrosine kinases, phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C (PKC), NF-kappa B (NF-,B), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades. Aloe-emodin is another major component in rhubarb found to have anti-tumor properties. Its anti-proliferative property has been demonstrated to be through the p53 and its downstream p21 pathway. Our recent proteomic study also suggests that the molecular targets of these two anthraquinones are different. However, both components were found to be able to potentiate the anti-proliferation of various chemotherapeutic agents. Rhein is the other major rhubarb anthraquinone, although less well studied. This compound could effectively inhibit the uptake of glucose in tumor cells, caused changes in membrane-associated functions and led to cell death. Interestingly, all three major rhubarb anthraquinones were reported to have in vitro phototoxic. This re-evaluation of an old remedy suggests that several bioactive anthraquinones of rhubarb possess promising anti-cancer properties and could have a broad therapeutic potential. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Med Res Rev, 27, No. 5, 609,630, 2007 [source]

Development of microsatellite markers in polyploid persimmon (Diospyros kaki Lf) from an enriched genomic library

Abstract The oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki Lf) is believed to have originated in China with subsequent introduction into Japan and Korea in ancient times. The species was then brought to Europe, Brazil and the USA from Japan in the 19th century. Recent studies highlighted the poor state of identification of cultivars in these countries due to incorrect labelling and presence of synonyms among local varieties. Thus, molecular marker characterization of germplasm resources is of great value for genetic resource preservation and plant breeding of persimmon. Therefore, to identify accessions for further plant breeding and germplasm management, 37 microsatellite loci were developed from a CT/AG-enriched persimmon genomic library. [source]

Nationalism and the Hebrew Bible,

David Aberbach
The Hebrew Bible, though generally seen mainly as a religious document, has also provided models of secular national identity. A number of biblical motifs have been revived in modern cultural nationalism: for example, the importance of moral regeneration, attacks on internal and external enemies of the nation, and the unification of disparate groups despite geographic dislocation. The Hebrew Bible also anticipates various forms of conflict in modern national identity: between the individual and the group, chosenness and egalitarianism, the narrowly national and the universal. In the two centuries after the invention of printing, the Hebrew Bible in vernacular translation had a decisive influence on the evolution of nationalism, particularly in Britain. The Bible was essential in the culture of empires but also, paradoxically, inspired defeated, suppressed and colonised people to seek freedom. A number of modern national poets, notably Whitman and the Hebrew poets Bialik and Greenberg, adopt a free verse neo-prophetic mode of expression. The Hebrew Bible can, therefore, be read as the archetypal, and most influential, national document from ancient times to the rise of modern nationalism. [source]

Vitamin A and HIV Infection: Disease Progression, Mortality, and Transmission

Chinaro M. Kennedy Dr.P.H.
Among HIV-infected individuals, many nutritional factors that influence disease progress, mortality, and transmission are not well understood. Of particular interest is the role of vitamin A. The benefits of vitamin A have been recognized since ancient times by Egyptian physicians who successfully treated night blindness with vitamin A. Contemporary scientists have since recognized the importance of vitamin A and have provided evidence that it may help in repairing damaged mucosal surfaces; what remains unclear, however, is its role during HIV infection. In this review, we examine the evidence provided in both observational studies and randomized controlled trials that assessed the effect of vitamin A during HIV infection. [source]

A 90 day repeated oral toxicity study on plantamajoside concentrate from Plantago asiatica

Byung-Gyu Park
Abstract Plantago asiatica is distributed widely in East Asia. Since ancient times it has been used as a diuretic to treat acute urinary infections, and as an antiinflammatory, antiasthmatic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatitis drug. The major compound, plantamajoside from P. asiatica, which is used as a marker compound in chemotaxonomic studies, was reported to have antibacterial activity, inhibition activity against cAMP phosphodiesterase and 5-lipoxygenase and antioxidant activity. However, there are no reports on the safety of plantamajoside. This study assessed the toxic effects of plantamajoside concentrate (PC), the purity of which was above 80%, in rats following administration at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day for 13 weeks, as recommended by the OECD guidelines. The results showed that there were no differences in body weight, food intake, water consumption, relative organ weight or the hematological and serum biochemical values among the different dosage groups. No death or abnormal clinical signs were observed during the experimental period. Therefore, the results suggested that no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the PC in rats after oral administration is considered to be greater than 2000 mg/kg in rats under the conditions employed in this study. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

SEXUAL MEDICINE HISTORY: Satyriasis: The Antiquity Term for Vulvodynia?

Janice McElhiney EdM
ABSTRACT From ancient times, through the Middle Ages, and well into the 19th century, physicians concentrated on catastrophic medical conditions and illnesses rather than on quality of life issues. Wars, plagues, and pestilence left little time, energy, or concern for "discomfort" problems. Therefore, it is not surprising that women's conditions that caused distressing symptoms but fell short of major morbidity and mortality were not given a prominent position in medicine until relatively recently. This is especially the case with vulvodynia, a condition that has been reported to affect approximately 15% (and in some studies up to 27%) of the female population at some point in their lives. Despite its high prevalence, this condition was not discussed or reported in traditional medical textbooks until the end of the 1800s. Now, we propose another viewpoint on when the first description of vulvodynia appeared; that is, that vulvodynia was described as far back as the 1st century CE. From our review of the ancient medical literature, we believe that the condition described by Soranus as "satyriasis in females" was actually vulvodynia. McElhiney J, Kelly S, Rosen R, and Bachmann G. Satyriasis: the antiquity term for vulvodynia? J Sex Med 2006;3:161,163. [source]

Genetic characterisation of traditional chestnut varieties in Italy using microsatellites (simple sequence repeats) markers

M.A. Martín
European chestnut (Castanea sativa) is an important multipurpose tree that has been cultivated for wood and fruit in the Mediterranean basin since ancient times. Cultivation of traditional chestnut varieties has a long tradition in Italy, where cultivars have been selected over centuries as a function of the best nut traits. In this study, 94 grafted chestnuts corresponding to 26 representative cultivars from Italy were evaluated by seven simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to establish whether they corresponded to varieties in the narrow sense. The results allowed 20 genotypes to be identified that corresponded to the same number of clones. In total, 52 alleles were identified, eight of which were exclusive. Cases of homonymies and synonymies were detected. Moreover, our results highlighted a considerable genetic uniformity among ,Marrone-type' cultivars and, on the contrary, a high genetic diversity among the evaluated cultivars demonstrating that this is a valuable germplasm and an important genetic resource to be preserved. [source]

Phenological growth stages of Cynara cardunculus: codification and description according to the BBCH scale

S.V. Archontoulis
Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial crop known from ancient times. During the last three decades this thistle has intensively been researched and recently became a commercial crop for biofuel production. As there is an increasing need for more information on this crop, we present here the phenological growth stages based on the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt, CHemische Industrie (BBCH) scale and its associated decimal code. Nine principal growth stages have been defined and each principal stage has been subdivided into secondary growth stages. Descriptive keys with illustrations are also provided. A practical use of the scale is proposed, with particular reference to harvest time and management treatments. This scale aims to support farmers and researchers to efficiently plan management practices and experimental treatments. [source]

The effects of the cyclosporin A, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of baicalein in the rat: a microdialysis study

T H Tsai
Baicalein is a bioactive flavonoid isolated from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, a medicinal herb that has been used since ancient times to treat bacterial infections. As little is known concerning its pharmacokinetics, this study focussed on its pharmacokinetics as well as the possible roles of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein on its distribution and disposition. Three microdialysis probes were simultaneously inserted into the jugular vein, the hippocampus and the bile duct of male Sprague,Dawley rats for sampling in biological fluids following the administration of baicalein (10, 30 and 60 mg kg,1) through the femoral vein. The P-glycoprotein inhibitor cyclosporin A was used to help delineate its roles. The study design consisted of two groups of six rats in parallel: control rats which received baicalein alone and the cyclosporin A treated-group in which the rats were injected cyclosporin A, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, 10 min prior to baicalein administration. Cyclosporin A treatment resulted in a significant increase in elimination half-life, mean residence time and area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) of unbound baicalein in the brain. However, AUC in the bile was decreased. The decline of baicalein in the hippocampus, blood and bile suggested that there was rapid exchange and equilibration between the peripheral compartment and the central nervous system. In addition, the results indicated that baicalein was able to penetrate the blood,brain barrier as well as undergoing hepatobiliary excretion. Although no direct transport studies were undertaken and multiple factors may affect BBB penetration and hepatobiliary excretion, strong association of the involvement of P-glycoprotein in these processes is indicated. British Journal of Pharmacology (2002) 137, 1314,1320. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704959 [source]

Modern-Day Child Slavery1

CHILDREN & SOCIETY, Issue 3 2008
Hans Van De Glind
Child slavery is a contemporary global problem existing since ancient times. The concept of slavery and practices similar to it are defined in a range of international instruments. Children are particularly vulnerable to slavery-like practices, and their special plight is addressed by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC,in particular Art 32 on the right to be protected from economic exploitation) and the ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182). Furthermore, the Palermo Protocol on human trafficking (of 2000) provides important tools to help shape legislative policy against another form of slavery, namely the trafficking of adults and children. [source]

Research on color in architecture and environmental design: Brief history, current developments, and possible future,

José Luis Caivano
Abstract This article examines some of the outstanding contributions or points of interest in the research and application of color in architecture, from ancient times to the present. The discourses about color are classified by periods and according to the utterers: theoreticians or writers of architectural treatises, archeologists and historians of architecture, architects who have been relevant in professional practice, color theorists coming from the fields of architecture and design, and color researchers related to the International Color Association. As a conclusion, the main characteristics of these discourses about color are summarized, and a point is made about the use of instruments derived from color science in color design, implying that the evolution in the use of color in environmental design and the research in this field will increasingly rely on the interaction between scientists and designers. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 31, 350,363, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/col.20224 [source]