Ancient China (ancient + china)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Reflections on Lack of a Patent System throughout China's Long History

THE JOURNAL OF WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, Issue 2 2009
Deming Liu
The accepted wisdom is that the patent system originated in Europe and that China did not have such an indigenous system throughout its history. The reasons for the lack of such a system are not often explored among legal scholars although, for decades, historians have debated on a related matter of why the Industrial Revolution did not start in China after its centuries' lead in science and technology. It appears that legal scholars generally accept that Confucian philosophy precluded an intellectual property system in China including a patent system. The article aims to dispute this belief by showing that socioeconomic and geographical factors underscored the main reasons for the lack of a patent system in ancient China. [source]


Surgical history of ancient China: part 2

ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 3 2010
Louis Fu
Abstract In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China. [source]


Surgical history of ancient China: part 1

ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 12 2009
Louis Fu
Abstract Although surgery was an accepted and quite proficient craft very early on in Chinese history, it has deteriorated through the ages. Despite the fact that anaesthetic agents in major surgery were employed during the third century, Chinese surgery is conspicuous by its stagnation. Reverence for the dead, filial piety, abhorrence of shedding blood and other conservative attitudes make it impossible for any accurate knowledge of the human anatomy and physiology, without which surgery cannot progress. This article surveys some highlights in the history of surgery in ancient China and examines the factors responsible for its decline. The second concluding part deals with orthopaedics. [source]


NEW EVIDENCE FOR EARLY SILK IN THE INDUS CIVILIZATION*

ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 3 2009
I. L. GOOD
Silk is an important economic fibre, and is generally considered to have been the exclusive cultural heritage of China. Silk weaving is evident from the Shang period c. 1600,1045 bc, though the earliest evidence for silk textiles in ancient China may date to as much as a millennium earlier. Recent microscopic analysis of archaeological thread fragments found inside copper-alloy ornaments from Harappa and steatite beads from Chanhu-daro, two important Indus sites, have yielded silk fibres, dating to c. 2450,2000 bc. This study offers the earliest evidence in the world for any silk outside China, and is roughly contemporaneous with the earliest Chinese evidence for silk. This important new finding brings into question the traditional historical notion of sericulture as being an exclusively Chinese invention. [source]


LOCATING ,CHINA' IN THE ARTS OF SIXTEENTH-CENTURY JAPAN

ART HISTORY, Issue 4 2006
ANDREW M. WATSKY
Even as Japanese armies marched on Ming China in the late sixteenth century, the artefacts of ancient China continued to elicit the esteem of Japanese elites, including the warrior-ruler, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537,98). In many of these artefacts a given location constituted the theme. This essay comprises three interconnected case studies of China-related paintings and ceramics that demonstrate a concerted effort by Japanese of the Momoyama period (1568,1615) to claim Chinese antiquity as part of their cultural heritage. Japanese patrons and artists achieved this by adapting Chinese models of stylized or semi-abstract landscape representation and, more dramatically, by physically and conceptually transforming original Chinese objects. Antique Chinese paintings of Chinese place were dismembered and remounted in Japan so as to function better in Japanese contexts. In a practice that highlighted location while eschewing the pictorial, aesthetic arbiters awarded old Chinese ceramic vessels poetic names related to Japanese places (a custom common in chanoyu, the tea ceremony), thus conceptually relocating the objects from China to Japan. In present-day art-historical practice these objects are not normally studied together. That practice, however, distorts pre-modern realities, as, during the period in question, the Japanese used the objects en ensemble as they searched for, and at times reworked, the relevances of ancient China for Momoyama Japan. [source]


The Eight Trigrams of the Chinese I Ching and the Eight Primary Emotions

ASIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
Warren D. TenHouten
Durkheim and Mauss, in Primitive Classification, concluded that the emotions play a causal role in the history of dual symbolic classification systems, but could not test this intuitive speculation because they saw a classification of the emotions as impossible. In this paper a portion of Plutchik's psychoevolutionary model of the primary emotions are assumed to be valid and are then investigated through analysis of one of their three case studies of primitive classification, that of classification in ancient China, where their emphasis was on the eight "trigrams" or "powers" that they saw arranged in a "divinatory compass." The trigrams are three-line components of the "hexagrams," the six-line figures that are interpreted as master signs in I Ching divination rituals. Using Plutchik's psychoevolutionary classification of the emotions as a basis of comparison, especially his model of the primary emotions as adaptive reactions to the positive and negative experiences of four existential problems , identity, temporality/reproduction, hierarchy, and territoriality , it is found that both trigrams and primary emotions exist as four pairs of opposites. The eight trigrams and eight primary emotions similarly can be seen as adaptive reactions to the four basic problems of life. Through structural analysis, correspondences between the trigrams and the primary emotions are developed, the result being that the primary emotions are structurally isomorphic and very close in first meanings to the primary attributes of the trigrams. Implications of this isomorphism of structure for the development of a social psychology of the emotions are discussed. [source]


The development of roof color in ancient China,

COLOR RESEARCH & APPLICATION, Issue 4 2010
Aiping Gou
Abstract The roof in ancient Chinese building is sloped roof which plays an important role in chromatic townscape. In earlier time, the colors in roofs were gray. With the development of technique in tiles making, tiles color was becoming colorful. However, the color usage in ancient architecture is regulated by hierarchy and the theory of five colors and five essences. Even there were a lot of colored glaze pieces in construction, only very few colors were used in royal and temple buildings' roof. Those regulations and laws made the characters of roof colors in different zones outstanding and legible. With specific color samples of different dynasties tested on site, and related laws and documentations analysis, as well as the theory of five colors and five essences, this article reports research on the characters of the roof colors in different periods, to draw out the turning points and reasons of roof color changes in crucial periods. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2010 [source]