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Prediction of the Three-Dimensional Structure for the Rat Urotensin,II Receptor, and Comparison of the Antagonist Binding Sites and Binding Selectivity between Human and Rat Receptors from Atomistic SimulationsCHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 9 2010
Soo-Kyung Kim Dr.
Abstract Urotensin-II (U-II) has been shown to be the most potent mammalian vasoconstrictor known. Thus, a U-II antagonist might be of therapeutic value in a number of cardiovascular disorders. However, interspecies variability of several nonpeptidic ligands complicates the interpretation of in vivo studies of such antagonists in preclinical animal disease models. ACT058362 is a selective antagonist for the human U-II receptor (hUT2R) with a reported Kd value of ,4,nM in a molecular binding assay, but it is reported to bind weakly to rat UT2R (rUT2R), with a Kd value of ,1,500,nM. In contrast, the arylsulphonamide SB706375 is a selective antagonist against both hUT2R (Kd=,9,nM) and rUT2R (Kd=,21,nM). To understand the species selectivity of the UT2R, we investigated the binding site of ACT058362 and SB706375 in both hUT2R and rUT2R to explain the dramatically lower (,400-fold) affinity of ACT058362 for rUT2R and the similar affinity (,10,nM) of SB706375 for both UT2Rs. These studies used MembStruk and MSCDock to predict the UT2R structure and the binding site of ACT058362 and SB706375. Based on binding energies, we found two binding modes each with D1303.32 as the crucial anchoring point (Ballesteros,Weinstein numbering given in superscript). We predict that ACT058362 (an aryl,amine,aryl or ANA ligand) binds in the transmembrane (TM) 3456 region, while SB706375 (an aryl,aryl,amine or AAN ligand) binds in the TM 1237 region. These predicted sites explain the known differences in binding of the ANA ligand to rat and human receptors, while explaining the similar binding of the AAN compound to rat and human receptors. Moreover the predictions explain currently available structure,activity relationship (SAR) data. To further validate the predicted binding sites of these ligands in hUT2R and rUT2R, we propose several mutations that would help define the structural origins of differential responses between UT2R of different species, potentially indicating novel UT2R antagonists with cross-species high affinity. [source]
The effect of combined hypergravity and microgrooved surface topography on the behaviour of fibroblastsCYTOSKELETON, Issue 7 2006
W. A. Loesberg
Abstract This study evaluated in vitro the differences in morphological behaviour between fibroblast cultured on smooth and microgrooved substrata (groove depth: 1 ,m, width: 1, 2, 5, 10 ,m), which undergo artificial hypergravity by centrifugation (10, 24 and 50 g; or 1 g control). The aim of the study was to clarify which of these parameters was more important to determine cell behaviour. Morphological characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy in order to obtain qualitative information on cell spreading and alignment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy visualised distribution of actin filaments and vinculin anchoring points through immunostaining. Finally, expression of collagen type I, fibronectin, and ,1 - and ,1 -integrin were investigated by PCR. Microscopy and image analysis showed that the fibroblasts aligned along the groove direction on all textured surfaces. On the smooth substrata (control), cells spread out in a random fashion. The alignment of cells cultured on grooved surfaces increased with higher g-forces until a peak value at 25 g. An ANOVA was performed on the data, for all main parameters: topography, gravity force, and time. In this analysis, all parameters proved significant. In addition, most gene levels were reduced by hypergravity. Still, collagen type 1 and fibronectin are seemingly unaffected by time or force. From our data it is concluded that the fibroblasts primarily adjust their shape according to morphological environmental cues like substratum surface whilst a secondary, but significant, role is played by hypergravity forces. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]
Plasmabromination , the Selective Way to Monotype Functionalized Polymer SurfacesPLASMA PROCESSES AND POLYMERS, Issue 9 2007
Abstract In contrast to other plasma modification processes of polymer surfaces, the bromination is very selective and shows a high yield in CBr groups. The most convenient bromination process was found using bromoform, which was thus preferred to elemental bromine, allyl bromide, vinyl bromide or tert -butylbromide. The bromoform process give yields in CBr up to 40 CBr or more, with only 2,3% co-introduction of O-functionalities whereas allyl bromide results in yields of about 20 CBr and more, but in more than 10% oxygen-containing by-products. CBr groups serve as anchoring points for grafting of molecules, oligomers and pre-polymers of diole or diamine character. [source]
Structure-Aided Optimization of Kinase Inhibitors Derived from AlsterpaulloneCHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 3 2005
Conrad Kunick Prof.
Abstract In order to perform computer-aided design of novel alsterpaullone derivatives, the vicinity of the entrance to the ATP-binding site was scanned for areas that could be useful as anchoring points for additional protein,ligand interactions. Based on the alignment of alsterpaullone in a CDK1/cyclin B homology model, substituents were attached to the 2-position of the parent scaffold to enable contacts within the identified areas. Synthesis of the designed structures revealed three derivatives (3,5) with kinase-inhibitory activity similar to alsterpaullone. The novel 2-cyanoethylalsterpaullone (7) proved to be the most potent paullone described so far, exhibiting inhibitory concentrations for CDK1/ cyclin B and GSK-3, in the picomolar range. [source]
Oligomer-to-Polymer Transition in Short Ethylene Glycol Chains Connected to Mobile Hydrophobic AnchorsCHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 1 2005
Motomu Tanaka Dr.
Abstract We studied the structure of short ethylene glycol (EG) chains with N repeating units (EGN, N=3, 6, 9, 12, and 15) connected to hydrophobic dihexadecyl chains by means of a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). These synthetic amphiphiles dispersed in water form planar lamellar stacks and hexagonal cylinders confining the EG chains to restricted geometries. Owing to the self-assembly of the anchoring points, the lateral density of EG chains in planar lamella can be quantitatively controlled. Furthermore, the chain-melting phase transition of the anchors enables us to "switch" the intermolecular distance reversibly. SAXS/WAXS results suggest that the shorter EG chains (N=3, 6, and 9) assume a helical conformation in stacks of planar lamella. When the EG chains are further elongated (N=12 and 15), the lamellar periodicities cannot be explained by a linear extrapolation of shorter oligomers, but can be interpreted well as polymer brushes following the scaling theorem. Such rich phase behaviors of EGN molecules can be used as a simple model of oligo/poly-saccharide chains on cell surfaces, which act not only as flexible repellers between neighboring cells but also as stable spacers for functional ligands. [source]