Anchored Proteins (anchored + protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Immunophenotypic discrepancies between granulocytic and erythroid lineages in peripheral blood of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria

Kriangsak Pakdeesuwan
Abstract: In paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), somatic mutation of the PIG-A gene is thought to result in altered expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. This study was performed to determine if there were any heterogeneities of cellular phenotypes between two major peripheral blood cells, erythrocytes and granulocytes. Using CD59-based immunocytometry, the patterns of CD59 expression were shown to be conserved in the circulating erythroid cells (reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes) in all 29 patients with PNH. Twenty-one patients had distinct combinations of PNH type I, II, and III cells in different lineages. Only eight patients exhibited similar patterns of CD59 expression between the two lineages. Approximately one third of the patients had PNH type II cells in either or both of the two lineages indicating variable lineage involvement. The proportion of abnormal granulocutes was higher than those of abnormal reticulocytes and erythrocytes. In patients with appropriate erythropoietic responses to haemolysis (RPI>2.0), shift reticulocytes display predominantly PNH phenotypes. These immature erythroid cells with altered expression of GPI-anchored proteins may dominate the peripheral blood during periods of increased marrow activity resulting in greater phenotypic mosaicism in such patients. Discrepancies in expression of GPI-anchored proteins in PNH which are highly variable between the two lineages may be the result of their different life spans and the influence of complement-mediated cytolysis. The phenomena also indicated the possible occurrence of more than one PNH clones with variable clonal dominance. [source]

Cell-surface phytase on Pichia pastoris cell wall offers great potential as a feed supplement

Piyanun Harnpicharnchai
Abstract Cell-surface expression of phytase allows the enzyme to be expressed and anchored on the cell surface of Pichia pastoris. This avoids tedious downstream processes such as purification and separation involved with extracellular expression. In addition, yeast cells with anchored proteins can be used as a whole-cell biocatalyst with high value added. In this work, the phytase was expressed on the cell surface of P. pastoris with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchoring system. The recombinant phytase was shown to be located at the cell surface. The cell-surface phytase exhibited high activity with an optimal temperature at 50,55 °C and two optimal pH peaks of 3 and 5.5. The surface-displayed phytase also exhibited similar pH stability and pepsin resistance to the native and secreted phytase. In vitro digestibility test showed that P. pastoris containing cell-surface phytase released phosphorus from feedstuff at a level similar to secreted phytase. Yeast cells expressing phytase also provide additional nutrients, especially biotin and niacin. Thus, P. pastoris with phytase displayed on its surface has a great potential as a whole-cell supplement to animal feed. [source]

Temperature-dependent localization of GPI-anchored intestinal alkaline phosphatase in model rafts,

Marie-Cécile Giocondi
Abstract In plasma membranes, most of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins would be associated with rafts, a category of ordered microdomains enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol (Ch). They would be also concentrated in the detergent resistant membranes (DRMs), a plasma membrane fraction extracted at low temperature. Preferential localization of GPI-anchored proteins in these membrane domains is essentially governed by their high lipid order, as compared to their environment. Changes in the temperature are expected to modify the membrane lipid order, suggesting that they could affect the distribution of GPI-anchored proteins between membrane domains. Validity of this hypothesis was examined by investigating the temperature-dependent localization of the GPI-anchored bovine intestinal alkaline phophatase (BIAP) into model raft made of palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin/cholesterol (POPC/SM/Chl) supported membranes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that the inserted BIAP is localized in the SM/Chl enriched ordered domains at low temperature. Above 30°C, BIAP redistributes and is present in both the ,fluid' POPC enriched and the ordered SM/Chl domains. These data strongly suggest that in cells the composition of plasma membrane domains at low temperature differs from that at physiological temperature. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Enhanced resolution of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the lipid-rich myelin membrane by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

Christopher M. Taylor
Abstract Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) has become a powerful and widely used technique for proteomic analyses. However, the limited ability of 2-DE to resolve transmembrane and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins has slowed the identification of proteins from membrane-rich biological samples. Myelin is an unusually lipid-rich membrane with relatively few major proteins but many quantitatively minor proteins, most of which have an unknown identity and/or function. The goal of this study was to identify the optimal conditions of 2-DE for the separation of myelin proteins. We have identified two detergents, the nonionic n -dodecyl ,- D -maltoside and the zwitterionic amidosulfobetaine ASB-14, that are more effective in solubilizing myelin proteins than the commonly used zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)- dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). These detergents significantly enhance the solubility of both transmembrane (e.g., the highly hydrophobic and multiply acylated myelin proteolipid protein) and GPI-anchored (e.g., contactin and neuronal cell adhesion molecule) myelin proteins and enable their resolution by 2-DE. We conclude that these detergents are effective tools for the 2-DE analysis of myelin, and that they may be more generally useful for the analysis of membrane-rich biological samples. [source]