Anchorage-independent Growth (anchorage-independent + growth)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Expression of ,CP-4 inhibits cell cycle progression and suppresses tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 7 2008
Zafira Castaño
Abstract The protein ,CP-4 (also known as hnRNP E4) is an RNA binding protein encoded by a gene at 3p21, one of the most common altered regions in lung cancer. It has been proposed that ,CP-4 may function as a lung tumor suppressor. Lack of ,CP-4 expression is frequent in highly proliferative lung tumors and correlates with ,CP-4 allele losses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ,CP-4 on the tumorigenic capacity of lung cancer cells. ,CP-4 expression was induced by transient transfection or stable infection with recombinant retroviruses. Induction of ,CP-4 expression caused cell cycle arrest in G2/M in 3 out of the 7 lung cancer cell lines studied, while no effect on apoptosis was observed. Anchorage-independent growth and invasion capacity of H1299 cells were significantly reduced by ,CP-4 induction. Tumorigenicity of H1299 cells in nude mice was greatly inhibited by the expression of ,CP-4. Moreover, induction of ,CP-4 expression in already established tumors resulted in a sudden growth arrest. Immunocytochemistry analysis of the xenograft tumors revealed an in vivo effect of ,CP-4 on cell proliferation and no effect on apoptosis. Finally, ,CP-4 showed a subcellular localization different from ,CP-4a, a splice variant that does not affect cell proliferation. In conclusion, expression of ,CP-4 can inhibit proliferation and tumorigenesis of lung cancer cells, both in vivo and in vitro, by delaying the progression of the cell cycle. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Hyaluronan synthase-3 is upregulated in metastatic colon carcinoma cells and manipulation of expression alters matrix retention and cellular growth

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 5 2003
Kelli M. Bullard
Abstract HA is a glycosaminoglycan that is synthesized on the inner surface of the plasma membrane and secreted into the pericellular matrix. HA and its biosynthetic enzymes (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3) are thought to participate in tumor growth and cancer progression. In our study, colon carcinoma cells isolated from a lymph node metastasis (SW620) produced more pericellular HA and expressed higher levels of HAS3 mRNA compared to cells isolated from a primary colon carcinoma (SW480). To assess functionality, HAS3 expression in SW620 cells was inhibited by transfection with an asHAS3 construct. Decreased HA secretion and cell-surface retention by asHAS3 transfectants were confirmed using competitive binding and particle exclusion assays. Anchorage-independent growth, a correlate of tumor growth in vivo, was assessed by colony formation in soft agar. SW620 cells stably transfected with asHAS3 demonstrated significant growth inhibition, as evidenced by fewer colonies and smaller colony area than either SW620 cells or cells transfected with vector alone. Addition of exogenous HA restored growth in asHAS3 transfectants. Thus, we demonstrate that pericellular HA secretion and retention and HAS3 expression are increased in metastatic colon carcinoma cells relative to cells derived from a primary tumor. Inhibition of HAS3 expression in these cells decreased the pericellular HA matrix and inhibited anchorage-independent growth. These data suggest that HA and HAS3 function in the growth and progression of colon carcinoma. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Establishment and characterization of three new rat renal cell carcinoma cell lines from N -ethyl- N -hydroxyethylnitrosamine-induced basophilic cell tumors

PATHOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2001
Reiko Tokuzen
Three new rat cell lines (designated as BP13, BP30 and BP36B), derived from rat basophilic-type renal cell carcinomas induced with N -ethyl- N -hydroxyethylnitrosamine, were established and characterized. Passaged up to 100 times in vitro for 3 years, each cell line forms epithelial monolayers with cell cycles for BP13, BP30 and BP36B of 29, 21 and 17 h, respectively. Positive glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and ,-glutamyltransferase (,-GT) activity in their cytoplasm, but negative succinate dehydrogenase (SD) and slightly positive carbonic anhydrase type II (CA) localization indicates an origin from proximal tubules. Ultrastructural examination showed the presence of variable numbers of mitochondria and many microvilli and intracellular junctions on the plasma membrane. BP13 and BP30 were found to be tetraploid and BP36B diploid. BP13 has one marker chromosome 15p+, and BP36B an isochromosome of 1q. Anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in immunosuppressed nude mice of BP13 and BP36B, but not BP30, proved their neoplastic nature. These three cell lines should provide useful tools for studying the biological characteristics of renal cell tumors. [source]


Functional dissection of transformation by c-Src and v-Src

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 1 2008
Chitose Oneyama
The c-src proto-oncogene product, c-Src, is frequently over-expressed and activated in various human malignant cancers, implicating a role for c-Src in cancer progression. To verify the role of c-Src, we analyzed the transforming ability of c-Src in mouse embryonic fibroblasts that lack Csk, a negative regulator of Src family kinases. Although Csk deficiency is not sufficient for cell transformation, c-Src over-expression induced characteristic transformed phenotypes including anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenecity. These phenotypes were dose-dependently inhibited by the re-expression of Csk, indicating that there is a certain threshold for c-Src transformation, which is determined by the c-Src : Csk ratio. In contrast to v-Src, c-Src induced the phosphorylation of a limited number of cellular proteins and elicited a restricted change in gene expression profiles. The activation of some critical targets for v-Src transformation, such as STAT3, was not significantly induced by c-Src transformation. Several genes that are involved in cancer progression, that is, cyclin D1 and HIF-1,, were induced by v-Src, but not by c-Src. Furthermore, v-Src tumors exhibited aggressive growth and extensive angiogenesis, while c-Src tumors grew more slowly accompanied by the induction of hematomas. These findings demonstrate that c-Src has the potential to induce cell transformation, but it requires coordination with an additional pathway(s) to promote tumor progression in vivo. [source]


Deletion of the PDZ motif of HPV16 E6 preventing immortalization and anchorage-independent growth in human tonsil epithelial cells

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 2 2008
William C. Spanos MD
Abstract Background Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) has been associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in up to 60% of sampled specimens. Methods To understand better the viral genes required to transform human tonsil epithelial cells (HTEC), we isolated HTEC's and transduced them with retroviral vectors containing HPV16 E6 and E7. Results Immortalization and anchorage-independent growth of HTEC's only occurred with expression of E6 and E7 with resultant degradation of p53. However, cells expressing E6 lacking the PSD-95/disc-large/Zo-1 (PDZ) motif did not immortalize or grow anchorage independent. Telomerase activity and degradation of p53 were similar for wild-type and mutant E6. Conclusion The mechanism of oncogenic transformation by E6 in HTEC's is dependent on the PDZ binding motif. Identification of pathways affected by the interaction of E6 and PDZ domain containing proteins will further our understanding of how HPV causes HNSCC and will provide potential therapeutic targets. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2008 [source]


Epstein-Barr virus infection in immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells: Regulation of infection and phenotypic characterization

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 7 2010
Chi Man Tsang
Abstract Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been postulated to be an early event involved in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). The lack of representative premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cell system for EBV infection has hampered research investigation into the regulation and involvement of EBV infection in NPC pathogenesis. We have compared the efficiency of EBV infection in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells with different biological properties including immortalized, primary and cancerous nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. EBV infection could be achieved in all the nasopharyngeal epithelial cells examined with variable infection rate. TGF-, effectively enhanced EBV infection into nasopharyngeal epithelial cells both in the immortalized and primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Stable infection of EBV was achieved in a telomerase-immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line, NP460hTert. The expression pattern of EBV-encoded genes and biological properties of this EBV infected cell line on long-term propagation were monitored. The EBV-infected nasopharyngeal epithelial cells acquired anchorage-independent growth and exhibited invasive growth properties on prolonged propagation. A distinguished feature of this EBV-infected nasopharyngeal epithelial cell model was its enhanced ability to survive under growth factor and nutrient starvation. This was evidenced by the suppressed activation of apoptotic markers and sustained activation of pAkt of EBV-infected cells compared to control cells under nutrient starvation. Examination of cytokine profiles of EBV-infected NP460hTert cells to nutrient and growth factor deprivation revealed upregulation of expression of MCP-1 and GRO-,. The establishment of a stable EBV infection model of premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells will facilitate research investigation into the pathogenic role of EBV in NPC development. [source]


BRCA1 modulates malignant cell behavior, the expression of survivin and chemosensitivity in human breast cancer cells,

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 12 2009
Moltira Promkan
Abstract BRCA1 is a multifunctional tumor-suppressive protein. Many functional aspects of BRCA1 are not fully understood. We used a shRNA approach to probe the function of BRCA1 in human breast cancer cells. Knocking down BRCA1 expression by shRNA in the wild-type BRCA1 human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in an increase in cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, cell migration, invasion and a loss of p21/Waf1 and p27Kip1 expression. In BRCA1 knocked-down cells, the expression of survivin was significantly up regulated with a concurrent decrease in cellular sensitivity to paclitaxel. We also found that cells harboring endogenous mutant or defective BRCA1 (MDA-MB-436 and HCC1937) were highly proliferative and expressed a relatively low level of p21/Waf1 and p27Kip1 by comparison to wild-type BRCA1 cells. Cells harboring mutated BRCA1 also expressed a high level of survivin and were relatively resistant to paclitaxel by comparison to wild-type cells. Increase resistance to paclitaxel was due to an increase in the expression of survivin in both the BRCA1 knocked-down and mutant BRCA1 cells because knocking down survivin expression by siRNA restored sensitivity to paclitaxel. We conclude that BRCA1 down-modulates the malignant behavior of breast cancer cells, promotes the expression of p21/Waf1, p27Kip1 and inhibits the expression of survivin. Moreover, loss of BRCA1 expression or function leads to an increase in survivin expression and a reduction in chemosensitivity to paclitaxel. © 2009 UICC [source]


Nicotine induces cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in a variety of human cancer cell lines

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 1 2009
Piyali Dasgupta
Abstract Cigarette smoking is strongly correlated with the onset of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nicotine, an active component of cigarettes, has been found to induce proliferation of lung cancer cell lines. In addition, nicotine can induce angiogenesis and confer resistance to apoptosis. All these events are mediated through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on lung cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that nicotine can promote anchorage-independent growth in NSCLCs. In addition, nicotine also induces morphological changes characteristic of a migratory, invasive phenotype in NSCLCs on collagen gel. These morphological changes were similar to those induced by the promigratory growth factor VEGF. The proinvasive effects of nicotine were mediated by ,7-nAChRs on NSCLCs. RT-PCR analysis showed that the ,7-nAChRs were also expressed on human breast cancer and pancreatic cancer cell lines. Nicotine was found to promote proliferation and invasion in human breast cancer. The proinvasive effects of nicotine were mediated via a nAChR, Src and calcium-dependent signaling pathway in breast cancer cells. In a similar fashion, nicotine could also induce proliferation and invasion of Aspc1 pancreatic cancer cells. Most importantly, nicotine could induce changes in gene expression consistent with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by reduction of epithelial markers like E-cadherin expression, ZO-1 staining and concomitant increase in levels of mesenchymal proteins like vimentin and fibronectin in human breast and lung cancer cells. Therefore, it is probable that the ability of nicotine to induce invasion and EMT may contribute to the progression of breast and lung cancers. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase transcript abundance correlates with malignancy grade in human astrocytomas

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 4 2008
Suely K.N. Marie
Abstract We have performed cDNA microarray analyses to identify gene expression differences between highly invasive glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and typically benign pilocytic astrocytomas (PA). Despite the significant clinical and pathological differences between the 2 tumor types, only 63 genes were found to exhibit 2-fold or greater overexpression in GBM as compared to PA. Forty percent of these genes are related to the regulation of the cell cycle and mitosis. QT-PCR validation of 6 overexpressed genes: MELK, AUKB, ASPM, PRC1, IL13RA2 and KIAA0101 confirmed at least a 5-fold increase in the average expression levels in GBM. Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) exhibited the most statistically significant difference. A more detailed investigation of MELK expression was undertaken to study its oncogenic relevance. In the examination of more than 100 tumors of the central nervous system, we found progressively higher expression of MELK with astrocytoma grade and a noteworthy uniformity of high level expression in GBM. Similar level of overexpression was also observed in medulloblastoma. We found neither gene promoter hypomethylation nor amplification to be a factor in MELK expression, but were able to demonstrate that MELK knockdown in malignant astrocytoma cell lines caused a reduction in proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in in vitro assays. Our results indicate that GBM and PA differ by the expression of surprisingly few genes. Among them, MELK correlated with malignancy grade in astrocytomas and represents a therapeutic target for the management of the most frequent brain tumors in adult and children. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Loss of RAB25 expression in breast cancer

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 12 2006
Ji-Ming Cheng
Abstract A novel breast cancer cell line (RAO-3) was established by transduction of the Q61L mutant RAS into human mammary epithelial cells that were immortalized with catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT). The cells displayed anchorage-independent growth and proliferation, and formed human mammary spindle cell carcinoma when injected into nude mice. Chromosome locus 1q22-23 was partially duplicated and inverted on one of the 3 chromosomes present in the cell line. We report here that mutations of chromosome 1q22-23 locus have resulted in the loss of RAB25 expression in the breast cancer cell line. Transduction of RAB25 into the breast cancer cell line arrests anchorage-independent growth. We have also demonstrated loss of RAB25 in human breast tumor tissue. These data suggest that loss of RAB25 might contribute to tumorigenesis of breast cancer, and RAB25 is likely to be an important factor in the development of breast cancer. RAB25 could be used as biological marker of breast cancer and provides a target for gene replacement therapy. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Role for dipeptidyl peptidase IV in tumor suppression of human non small cell lung carcinoma cells

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 6 2004
Umadevi V. Wesley
Abstract Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Lung cancers produce a variety of mitogenic growth factors that stimulate tumor cell proliferation and migration. The cell surface protease, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), is involved in diverse biologic functions, including peptide-mediated cellular growth and differentiation. DPPIV is expressed in various normal tissues, including lung tissue, and its expression is lost in many types of human cancers. DPPIV expression and its enzymatic activity are detected in normal bronchial and alveolar epithelium but different histologic subtypes of lung carcinomas lose DPPIV expression. To investigate the role of DPPIV in lung carcinoma, we examined the expression of DPPIV at both mRNA and protein levels in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and normal human bronchial epithelial cells. DPPIV expression was detectable in normal lung epithelial cells, but was absent or markedly reduced in all NSCLC cell lines at both mRNA and protein levels. Restoration of DPPIV expression in NSCLC cells resulted in profound morphologic changes, inhibition of cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, in vitro cell migration and tumorigenicity in nude mice. DPPIV reexpression also correlated with increased p21 expression, leading to induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G1 stage. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of cell surface proteins, fibroblast-activating protein (Fap,) and CD44 that are associated with suppression of tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, DPPIV functions as a tumor suppressor, and its downregulation may contribute to the loss of growth control in NSCLC cells. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Phenotypic alterations induced by the Hong Kong-prevalent Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP1 variant (2117-LMP1) in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 6 2004
Angela Kwok Fung Lo
Abstract Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a common cancer in Hong Kong. The EBV-encoded LMP1 protein is believed to play an important role in cell transformation. We have previously identified a prevalent LMP1 variant (2117-LMP1) that is expressed in 86% of primary NPC in Hong Kong. In this study, the biologic phenotypes induced by 2117-LMP1 were compared with those of the prototypic B95.8-LMP1 in an immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line, NP69. The 2117-LMP1 could induce cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis induced by growth factor deprivation. Expression of 2117-LMP1 also suppressed expression of p16, p21 and Bax but induced expression of CDK2 and A20. Compared with B95.8-LMP1, 2117-LMP1 could induce a higher migration ability in NP69 cells but was less efficient in inducing morphologic changes, anchorage-independent growth and cell invasion. Relatively weaker ability of 2117-LMP1 than B95.8-LMP1 in upregulation of vimentin, VEGF and MMP9 as well as in downregulation of E-cadherin was observed. 2117-LMP1 could activate higher level of NF-,B activity in HEK 293 cells than B95.8-LMP1. The present study supports a role of 2117-LMP1 in NPC development by enhancing cell proliferation, cell death inhibition and migration in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Furthermore, our study reveals significant functional differences between 2117-LMP1 and the prototypic B95.8-LMP1. Our results provide insights into the pathologic significance of this prevalent LMP1 variant, 2117-LMP1, in the development of NPC in the Hong Kong population. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Hyaluronan synthase-3 is upregulated in metastatic colon carcinoma cells and manipulation of expression alters matrix retention and cellular growth

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 5 2003
Kelli M. Bullard
Abstract HA is a glycosaminoglycan that is synthesized on the inner surface of the plasma membrane and secreted into the pericellular matrix. HA and its biosynthetic enzymes (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3) are thought to participate in tumor growth and cancer progression. In our study, colon carcinoma cells isolated from a lymph node metastasis (SW620) produced more pericellular HA and expressed higher levels of HAS3 mRNA compared to cells isolated from a primary colon carcinoma (SW480). To assess functionality, HAS3 expression in SW620 cells was inhibited by transfection with an asHAS3 construct. Decreased HA secretion and cell-surface retention by asHAS3 transfectants were confirmed using competitive binding and particle exclusion assays. Anchorage-independent growth, a correlate of tumor growth in vivo, was assessed by colony formation in soft agar. SW620 cells stably transfected with asHAS3 demonstrated significant growth inhibition, as evidenced by fewer colonies and smaller colony area than either SW620 cells or cells transfected with vector alone. Addition of exogenous HA restored growth in asHAS3 transfectants. Thus, we demonstrate that pericellular HA secretion and retention and HAS3 expression are increased in metastatic colon carcinoma cells relative to cells derived from a primary tumor. Inhibition of HAS3 expression in these cells decreased the pericellular HA matrix and inhibited anchorage-independent growth. These data suggest that HA and HAS3 function in the growth and progression of colon carcinoma. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Grape seed proanthocyanidin suppression of breast cell carcinogenesis induced by chronic exposure to combined 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and benzo[a]pyrene

MOLECULAR CARCINOGENESIS, Issue 5 2010
Xiaoyu Song
Abstract Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in northern America and northern Europe; dietary prevention is a cost-efficient strategy to reduce the risk of this disease. To identify dietary components for the prevention of human breast cancer associated with long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens, we studied the activity of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in suppression of cellular carcinogenesis induced by repeated exposures to low doses of environmental carcinogens. We used combined carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), at picomolar concentrations, to repeatedly treat noncancerous, human breast epithelial MCF10A cells to induce cellular acquisition of cancer-related properties of reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth, and acinar-conformational disruption. Using these properties as biological target endpoints, we verified the ability of GSPE to suppress combined NNK- and B[a]P-induced precancerous cellular carcinogenesis and identified the minimal, noncytotoxic concentration of GSPE required for suppressing precancerous cellular carcinogenesis. We also identified that hydroxysteroid-11-beta-dehydrogenase 2 (HSD11B2) may play a role in NNK- and B[a]P-induced precancerous cellular carcinogenesis, and its expression may act as a molecular target endpoint in GSPE's suppression of precancerous cellular carcinogenesis. And, the ability of GSPE to reduce gene expression of cytochrome-P450 enzymes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which can bioactivate NNK and B[a]P, possibly contributes to the preventive mechanism for GSPE in suppression of precancerous cellular carcinogenesis. Our model system with biological and molecular target endpoints verified the value of GSPE for the prevention of human breast cell carcinogenesis induced by repeated exposures to low doses of multiple environmental carcinogens. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Stat3 is required for anchorage-independent growth and metastasis but not for mammary tumor development downstream of the ErbB-2 oncogene,

MOLECULAR CARCINOGENESIS, Issue 2 2010
Isaia Barbieri
Abstract The oncogenic transcription factor Stat3 is constitutively active in a high percentage of human tumors including mammary adenocarcinomas and is reported to participate in the ErbB-2 oncogene signaling. In order to assess the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) in mammary tumorigenesis downstream of ErbB-2, we generated mice expressing the activated rat ErbB-2 (neu) but lacking Stat3 in the mammary epithelium. Stat3 is apparently not required for neu-driven mammary tumorigenesis as tumors developed similarly in both Stat3-sufficient and Stat3-deficient glands. However, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated Stat3 silencing in a neu-overexpressing tumor-derived cell line completely abolished both neu-driven anchorage-independent growth and lung metastasis. Our data suggest that Stat3 might be a useful therapeutic target in breast tumors showing amplification and/or overexpression of the ErbB-2 oncogene, which normally display aggressive, metastatic behavior. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Precancerous carcinogenesis of human breast epithelial cells by chronic exposure to benzo[a]pyrene

MOLECULAR CARCINOGENESIS, Issue 5 2008
Nalin Siriwardhana
Abstract To understand carcinogenesis of human breast epithelial cells induced by chronic exposure to environmental pollutants, we studied biological and molecular changes in progression of cellular carcinogenesis induced by accumulated exposures to the potent environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Increasing exposures of human breast epithelial MCF10A cells to B[a]P at picomolar concentrations resulted in cellular transformation from a noncancerous stage to precancerous substages, in which cells acquired the cancerous abilities of a reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth, and disruption in acini formation on reconstituted basement membranes. Using cDNA microarrays, we detected seven upregulated genes related to human cancers in B[a]P-transformed MCF10A cells. Using this model, we verified that green tea catechin significantly (P,<,0.05) suppressed B[a]P-induced carcinogenesis. Our studies indicate that this cellular model may serve as a cost-efficient, in vitro system, mimicking the chronic carcinogenesis of breast cells that likely occurs in early stages of carcinogenesis in vivo, to identify agents that inhibit cellular carcinogenesis. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Enhancement of anchorage-independent growth of human pancreatic carcinoma MIA PaCa-2 cells by signaling from protein kinase C to mitogen-activated protein kinase

MOLECULAR CARCINOGENESIS, Issue 4 2002
Keiko Ishino
Abstract We found that 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promoted anchorage-independent growth but did not affect anchorage-dependent growth of MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic carcinoma cells. TPA markedly activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal,regulated kinase in an anchorage-independent manner. Two protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, conventional PKC (cPKC) and novel PKC (nPKC), but not apical PKC, translocated from the cytosolic to the particulate fraction upon TPA treatment. To identify the PKC isoforms involved in the regulation of anchorage-independent growth, four PKC isoforms (,, ,, ,, and ,) were forced to be expressed in MIA PaCa-2 cells with an adenovirus vector. Overexpression of nPKC, or nPKC, activated MAPK and promoted anchorage-independent growth. Overexpression of cPKC, alone did not influence anchorage-independent growth but lowered the concentration of TPA that was required to enhance such growth. Expression of constitutively active MAPK kinase-1 (MEK1) also promoted anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, PKC inhibitors or an MEK inhibitor completely suppressed both TPA-induced activation of MAPK and promotion of anchorage-independent growth, but a cPKC-selective inhibitor partially suppressed TPA-induced promotion of the growth. Based on these results, we suggest that MAPK activation, mediated by certain isoforms of PKC, plays a part in oncogenic growth of MIA PaCa-2 cells. In summary, our data indicated that specific inhibitors of the cPKC and nPKC signaling pathway might be selective anti-oncogenic growth agents for some types of human pancreatic cancer. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Cadherin switching dictates the biology of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: ex vivo and in vitro studies,

THE JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
RT Bryan
Abstract Bladder cancer is the fifth most common malignancy in the UK. Clinically, the most important process in determining prognosis is the development of invasion, initially of the lamina propria and then beyond as these transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) progress from stage pT1 to stages T2+. Cadherins and catenins are the main mediators of cell,cell interactions in epithelial tissues, and loss of membranous E-cadherin immunoreactivity is strongly correlated with high grade, advanced stage and poor prognosis in bladder cancer and other malignancies. However, the role of P-cadherin is yet to be fully elucidated in bladder TCC. The objectives of this study were to establish how the expression of cadherins and catenins determines clinical and in vitro behaviour in bladder TCC. Utilizing immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blotting, we demonstrated a significant reduction in the expression of E-cadherin and ,-catenin as grade and stage of bladder TCC progress, accompanied by a significant increase in P-cadherin expression (all p < 0.05, Pearson's ,2 test). Increased P-cadherin expression was also associated with a significantly worse bladder cancer-specific survival (log rank p = 0.008), with Cox regression showing P-cadherin to be an independent prognostic factor. Utilizing a variety of tissue culture models in a range of functional studies, we demonstrated that P-cadherin mediates defective cell,cell adhesion and enhances anchorage-independent growth. The results provide evidence that increased P-cadherin expression promotes a more malignant and invasive phenotype of bladder cancer, and appears to have a novel role late in the disease. Copyright © 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Isolation of a novel mouse gene, mSVS-1/SUSD2, reversing tumorigenic phenotypes of cancer cells in vitro

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2007
Tetsuo Sugahara
We report isolation of a novel tumor-reversing gene, tentatively named SVS-1, encoding a protein of 820 amino acids with localization on the plasma membrane as a type I transmembrane protein. The gene was found among those downregulated in the activated oncogene-v-K-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells, Ki3T3, with tumorigenic phenotype. SVS-1 protein harbors several functional domains inherent to adhesion molecules. Histochemical staining of mouse tissues using antibody raised against the protein showed the expression of the protein in restricted regions and cells, for example, strongly positive in apical membranes of epithelial cells in renal tubules and bronchial tubes. The protein inducibly expressed in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells and cervical carcinoma HeLa cells was found to be localized primarily on the plasma membrane, as stained with antibodies against FLAG tag in the N -terminus and against the C -terminal peptide of the protein. Expression of the protein in cells induced a variety of biological effects on cancer cells: detachment from the substratum and aggregation of cells and growth inhibition in HeLa cells, but no inhibition in non-tumorigenic mouse NIH3T3 cells. Inhibition of clonogenicity, anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion through Matrigel was also observed. Taken together these results suggest that the SVS-1 gene is a possible tumor-reversing gene. (Cancer Sci 2007; 98: 900,908) [source]