Ancestral Polymorphism (ancestral + polymorphism)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts


EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2000
Abstract Molecular methods as applied to the biogeography of single species (phylogeography) or multiple codistributed species (comparative phylogeography) have been productively and extensively used to elucidate common historical features in the diversification of the Earth's biota. However, only recently have methods for estimating population divergence times or their confidence limits while taking into account the critical effects of genetic polymorphism in ancestral species become available, and earlier methods for doing so are underutilized. We review models that address the crucial distinction between the gene divergence, the parameter that is typically recovered in molecular phylogeographic studies, and the population divergence, which is in most cases the parameter of interest and will almost always postdate the gene divergence. Assuming that population sizes of ancestral species are distributed similarly to those of extant species, we show that phylogeographic studies in vertebrates suggest that divergence of alleles in ancestral species can comprise from less than 10% to over 50% of the total divergence between sister species, suggesting that the problem of ancestral polymorphism in dating population divergence can be substantial. The variance in the number of substitutions (among loci for a given species or among species for a given gene) resulting from the stochastic nature of DNA change is generally smaller than the variance due to substitutions along allelic lines whose coalescence times vary due to genetic drift in the ancestral population. Whereas the former variance can be reduced by further DNA sequencing at a single locus, the latter cannot. Contrary to phylogeographic intuition, dating population divergence times when allelic lines have achieved reciprocal monophyly is in some ways more challenging than when allelic lines have not achieved monophyly, because in the former case critical data on ancestral population size provided by residual ancestral polymorphism is lost. In the former case differences in coalescence time between species pairs can in principle be explained entirely by differences in ancestral population size without resorting to explanations involving differences in divergence time. Furthermore, the confidence limits on population divergence times are severely underestimated when those for number of substitutions per site in the DNA sequences examined are used as a proxy. This uncertainty highlights the importance of multilocus data in estimating population divergence times; multilocus data can in principle distinguish differences in coalescence time (T) resulting from differences in population divergence time and differences in T due to differences in ancestral population sizes and will reduce the confidence limits on the estimates. We analyze the contribution of ancestral population size (,) to T and the effect of uncertainty in , on estimates of population divergence (,) for single loci under reciprocal monophyly using a simple Bayesian extension of Takahata and Satta's and Yang's recent coalescent methods. The confidence limits on , decrease when the range over which ancestral population size , is assumed to be distributed decreases and when increases; they generally exclude zero when /(4Ne) > 1. We also apply a maximum-likelihood method to several single and multilocus data sets. With multilocus data, the criterion for excluding = 0 is roughly that l/(4Ne)> 1, where l is the number of loci. Our analyses corroborate recent suggestions that increasing the number of loci is critical to decreasing the uncertainty in estimates of population divergence time. [source]

Multiple invasions of Errantivirus in the genus Drosophila

A. Ludwig
Abstract Aiming to contribute to the knowledge of the evolutionary history of Errantivirus, a phylogenetic analysis of the env gene sequences of Errantivirus gypsy, gtwin, gypsy2, gypsy3, gypsy4 and gypsy6 was carried out in 33 Drosophilidae species. Most sequences were obtained from in silico searches in the Drosophila genomes. The complex evolutionary pattern reported by other authors for the gypsy retroelement was also observed in the present study, including vertical transmission, ancestral polymorphism, stochastic loss and horizontal transfer. Moreover, the elements gypsy2, gypsy3, gypsy4 and gypsy6 were shown to have followed an evolutionary model that is similar to gypsy. Fifteen new possible cases of horizontal transfer were suggested. The infectious potential of these elements may help elucidate the evolutionary scenario described in the present study. [source]

Genetic continuity of brood-parasitic indigobird species

Abstract Speciation in brood-parasitic indigobirds (genus Vidua) is a consequence of behavioural imprinting in both males and females. Mimicry of host song by males and host fidelity in female egg laying result in reproductive isolation of indigobirds associated with a given host species. Colonization of new hosts and subsequent speciation require that females occasionally lay eggs in the nests of novel hosts but the same behaviour may lead to hybridization when females parasitize hosts already associated with other indigobird species. Thus, retained ancestral polymorphism and ongoing hybridization are two alternative explanations for the limited genetic differentiation among indigobird species. We tested for genetic continuity of indigobird species using mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellite data. Within West Africa and southern Africa, allopatric populations of the same species are generally more similar to each other than to sympatric populations of different species. Likewise, a larger proportion of genetic variation is explained by differences between species than by differences between locations in alternative hierarchical amovas, suggesting that the rate of hybridization is not high enough to homogenize sympatric populations of different species or prevent genetic differentiation between species. Broad sharing of genetic polymorphisms among species, however, suggests that some indigobird species trace to multiple host colonization events in space and time, each contributing to the formation of a single interbreeding population bound together by songs acquired from the host species. [source]

Population structure in two sympatric species of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Eretmodini: evidence for introgression

Lukas Rber
Abstract Patterns of genetic differentiation were analysed and compared in two sympatric species of the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Eretmodini by means of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the control region and six microsatellite DNA loci. The sample area covers a total of 138 km of mostly uninterrupted rocky shoreline in the Democratic Republic of Congo and includes the entire distribution range of Tanganicodus cf. irsacae that stretches over a distance of 35 km. Both markers detected significant genetic differentiation within and between the two species. T. cf. irsacae contained lower overall genetic variation than Eretmoduscyanostictus, possibly due to its more restricted range of distribution and its smaller effective population sizes. Complete fixation of Tanganicodus mtDNA haplotypes was observed in Eretmodus at two localities, while at two other localities some Tanganicodus individuals possessed Eretmodus mtDNA haplotypes. Taking into account the relatively large average sequence divergence of 6.2% between the two species, as well as the geographical distribution of mtDNA haplotypes in the lake, the observed pattern is more likely to be a consequence of asymmetric introgression than of shared ancestral polymorphism. As there is significant population differentiation between sympatric Tanganicodus and Eretmodus populations, the events of introgressions may have happened after secondary contact, but our data provide no evidence for ongoing gene flow and suggest that both species are reproductively isolated at present time. [source]

A three-way contact zone between forms of Patella rustica (Mollusca: Patellidae) in the central Mediterranean Sea

Previous studies have reported the occurrence of three differentiated mtDNA lineages within Patella rustica in the Mediterranean Sea. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain these observations: (1) the maintenance of ancestral polymorphism within a single species; (2) the occurrence of cryptic species not identified previously. To distinguish between these hypotheses, we screened the genetic variability at nine allozyme loci, an intron from the ,-amylase gene and a mitochondrial gene for 187 individuals of P. rustica sampled from seven Mediterranean localities. Eight additional localities were screened for the last two markers to place the differentiated lineages in a clear geographic context. Our results demonstrate that the three mtDNA lineages correspond to three distinct nuclear genotype clusters and provide further details on their distribution: the cluster corresponding to the mtDNA lineage from the Atlantic and western Mediterranean extends as far as the south coast of Italy, whereas the remaining two clusters occur in sympatry in the eastern Mediterranean. One of the eastern Mediterranean clusters is highly differentiated and seems to be reproductively isolated from the codistributed form; we therefore suggest that it corresponds to a new species. The remaining two clusters are less differentiated and form a contact zone across south Italian shores. This three-way contact zone constitutes an interesting model for the study of speciation in the marine realm. 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 100, 154,169. [source]

Phylogeny of Mysis (Crustacea, Mysida): history of continental invasions inferred from molecular and morphological data

CLADISTICS, Issue 6 2005
Asta Audzijonyt
We studied the phylogenetic history of opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis Latreille, 1802 (Crustacea: Mysida) using parsimony analyses of morphological characters, DNA sequence data from mitochondrial (16S, COI and CytB) and nuclear genes (ITS2, 18S), and eight allozyme loci. With these data we aimed to resolve a long-debated question of the origin of the non-marine (continental) taxa in the genus, i.e., "glacial relicts" in circumpolar postglacial lakes and "arctic immigrants" in the Caspian Sea. A simultaneous analysis of the data sets gave a single tree supporting monophyly of all continental species, as well as monophyly of the taxa from circumpolar lakes and from the Caspian Sea. A clade of three circumarctic marine species was sister group to the continental taxa, whereas Atlantic species had more distant relationships to the others. Small molecular differentiation among the morphologically diverse endemic species from the Caspian Sea suggested their recent speciation, while the phenotypically more uniform "glacial relict" species from circumpolar lakes (Mysis relicta group) showed deep molecular divergences. For the length-variable ITS2 region both direct optimization and a priori alignment procedures gave similar topologies, although the former approach provided a better overall resolution. In terms of partitioned Bremer support (PBS), mitochondrial protein coding genes provided the largest contribution (83%) to the total tree resolution. This estimate however, appears to be partly spurious, due to the concerted inheritance of mitochondrial characters and probable cases of introgression or ancestral polymorphism. The Willi Hennig Society 2005. [source]

Phylogeographical structure and temporal complexity in American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua; Altingiaceae)

Abstract Eastern North American plant biogeography has traditionally focused on two primary issues: (i) the location of temperate Pleistocene refugia and their proximity to the southern margin of the ice sheet during the last glacial maximum, and (ii) the origin of the temperate element of northern Latin America. While numerous population genetic and phylogeographical studies have focused on the first issue, few (if any) have considered the second. We addressed these issues by surveying 117 individuals from 24 populations of Liquidambar styraciflua (American sweetgum; Altingiaceae) across the southeastern USA, eastern Mexico, and Guatemala, using more than 2200 bp of chloroplast DNA sequence data. To specifically address the issue of timing, we estimated intraspecific divergence times on the basis of multiple fossil-based calibration points, using taxa from Altingiaceae (Liquidambar and Altingia) and Hammamelidaceae (Hamamelis) as outgroups. More than half of the sampled localities exhibited multiple haplotypes. Remarkably, the greatest variation was observed within the USA, with Mexico and Guatemala sharing widespread haplotypes with Texas, Mississippi, Kentucky, Ohio, and northern Virginia. This lack of differentiation suggests shared ancestral polymorphisms, and that the genetic signal we observed is older than the disjunction itself. Our data provide support for previously proposed hypotheses of Pleistocene refugia in peninsular Florida and along the eastern Atlantic, but also for deeper divergences (~8 million years ago) within the USA. These patterns reflect a dynamic biogeographical history for eastern North American trees, and emphasize the importance of the inclusion of a temporal component in any phylogeographical study. [source]

Genetic distinctness and phylogenetic relationships among Undaria species (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) based on mitochondrial cox3 gene sequences

Shinya Uwai
SUMMARY Genetic relationships among Undaria species and among populations of each species were studied based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cox3 gene. Although three Undaria species, U. peterseniana (Kjellman) Okamura, U. pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar and U. undarioides (Yendo) Okamura, have been described based mostly on blade morphology, plants with intermediate morphologies have also been found. Multiple plants from several populations in Japan were collected. Morphological characters could identify most of the samples unambiguously. A few samples with intermediate morphologies were also collected. Mitochondrial haplotypes found in each population were different for each identified species, and each species had multiple haplotypes. In the cox3 haplotype network analysis, the numbers of steps between haplotypes within and between species were similar, and haplotypes of each species did not group together. The close genetic relationships among species strongly suggest that these species are conspecific. Alternatively, recent speciation could be possible with maintenance of ancestral polymorphisms within the species (i.e. incomplete lineage sorting). Haplotypes of samples with intermediate morphologies were different for each sample and the same as ones found in the local population, suggesting interspecific hybridizations among species. [source]

How did an annual plant react to Pleistocene glaciations?

Postglacial history of Rhinanthus angustifolius in Europe
The impact of climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene on the geographic structure of genetic variation in plant populations is well documented, but there is a lack of studies of annual species at the European scale. The present study aimed to infer the history of the widespread European annual Rhinanthus angustifolius C. C. Gmelin (Orobanchaceae). We explored variation in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) in twenty-nine populations covering the entire distribution area of the species. Five AFLP groups were identified, suggesting at least two glacial refugial areas: one area in southwestern Europe and one large eastern area in the Balkan/Caucasus. Recolonization of previously glaciated areas mainly took place from the east of Europe. Despite the difference in life-history traits, the patterns found for the annual R. angustifolius show similarities with those of perennial species in terms of genetic diversity and geographic organization of genetic variation. Although organelle markers have typically been preferred in phylogeographic studies, the cpDNA variation in R. angustifolius did not show any clear geographic structure. The absence of geographic structure in the cpDNA variation may reflect persistence of ancestral polymorphisms or hybridization and introgression with closely-related species. 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 98, 1,13. [source]

Genetic relationships of the western Mediterranean painted frogs based on allozymes and mitochondrial markers: evolutionary and taxonomic inferences (Amphibia, Anura, Discoglossidae)

Allozymes and sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) and 12S genes were used to reconstruct the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of all Discoglossus taxa described so far (except the probably extinct D. nigriventer). This is the first time that a comprehensive study on the Discoglossus painted frogs has used nuclear and mitochondrial markers, evidencing a discordant pattern between the two datasets. Comparison of these discrepancies suggests a role of stochastic sorting of ancestral polymorphisms, possibly associated with male-biased dispersal and present or past secondary contact. The genetic relationships between taxa with intermediate levels of divergence were well defined by allozyme data, but showed short internodes and low bootstrap values for mitochondrial data, suggesting a rapid radiation of their lineages during the Messinian Lago Mare phase. The results provide information about the taxonomic status of D. galganoi and D. jeanneae, considered as subspecies, and indicate D. pictus as nonmonophyletic, confirming D. scovazzi as a distinct species. 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 87, 515,536. [source]