Ancestral Areas (ancestral + area)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Use of dispersal,vicariance analysis in biogeography , a critique

Ullasa Kodandaramaiah
Abstract Aim, Analytical methods are commonly used to identify historical processes of vicariance and dispersal in the evolution of taxa. Currently, dispersal,vicariance analysis implemented in the software diva is the most widely used method. Despite some recognized shortcomings of the method, it has been treated as error-free in many cases and used extensively as the sole method to reconstruct histories of taxa. In light of this, an evaluation of the limitations of the method is needed, especially in relation to several newer alternatives. Methods, In an approach similar to simulation studies in phylogenetics, I use hypothetical taxa evolving in specific geological scenarios and test how well diva reconstructs their histories. Results,diva reconstructs histories accurately when evolution has been simple; that is, where speciation is driven mainly by vicariance. Ancestral areas are wrongly identified under several conditions, including complex patterns of dispersals and within-area speciation events. Several potentially serious drawbacks in using diva for inferences in biogeography are discussed. These include the inability to distinguish between contiguous range expansions and across-barrier dispersals, a low probability of invoking extinctions, incorrect constraints set on the maximum number of areas by the user, and analysing the ingroup taxa without sister groups. Main conclusions, Most problems with inferences based on diva are linked to the inflexibility and simplicity of the assumptions used in the method. These are frequently invalid, resulting in spurious reconstructions. I argue that it might be dangerous to rely solely on diva optimization to infer the history of a group. I also argue that diva is not ideally suited to distinguishing between dispersal and vicariance because it cannot a priori take into account the age of divergences relative to the timing of barrier formation. I suggest that other alternative methods can be used to corroborate the findings in diva, increasing the robustness of biogeographic hypotheses. I compare some important alternatives and conclude that model-based approaches are promising. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2010
Luis M. Valente
The Cape region of South Africa is a hotspot of flowering plant biodiversity. However, the reasons why levels of diversity and endemism are so high remain obscure. Here, we reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among species in the genus Protea, which has its center of species richness and endemism in the Cape, but also extends through tropical Africa as far as Eritrea and Angola. Contrary to previous views, the Cape is identified as the ancestral area for the radiation of the extant lineages: most species in subtropical and tropical Africa are derived from a single invasion of that region. Moreover, diversification rates have been similar within and outside the Cape region. Migration out of the Cape has opened up vast areas, but those lineages have not diversified as extensively at fine spatial scales as lineages in the Cape. Therefore, higher net rates of diversification do not explain the high diversity and endemism of Protea in the Cape. Instead, understanding why the Cape is so diverse requires an explanation for how Cape species are able to diverge and persist at such small spatial scales. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 11 2005
Richard H. Ree
Abstract At a time when historical biogeography appears to be again expanding its scope after a period of focusing primarily on discerning area relationships using cladograms, new inference methods are needed to bring more kinds of data to bear on questions about the geographic history of lineages. Here we describe a likelihood framework for inferring the evolution of geographic range on phylogenies that models lineage dispersal and local extinction in a set of discrete areas as stochastic events in continuous time. Unlike existing methods for estimating ancestral areas, such as dispersal-vicariance analysis, this approach incorporates information on the timing of both lineage divergences and the availability of connections between areas (dispersal routes). Monte Carlo methods are used to estimate branch-specific transition probabilities for geographic ranges, enabling the likelihood of the data (observed species distributions) to be evaluated for a given phylogeny and parameterized paleogeographic model. We demonstrate how the method can be used to address two biogeographic questions: What were the ancestral geographic ranges on a phylogenetic tree? How were those ancestral ranges affected by speciation and inherited by the daughter lineages at cladogenesis events? For illustration we use hypothetical examples and an analysis of a Northern Hemisphere plant clade (Cercis), comparing and contrasting inferences to those obtained from dispersal-vicariance analysis. Although the particular model we implement is somewhat simplistic, the framework itself is flexible and could readily be modified to incorporate additional sources of information and also be extended to address other aspects of historical biogeography. [source]

Out of the Palaeotropics?

Historical biogeography, diversification of the cosmopolitan ectomycorrhizal mushroom family Inocybaceae
Abstract Aim, The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mushroom family Inocybaceae is widespread in north temperate regions, but more than 150 species are encountered in the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. The relative roles of recent and ancient biogeographical processes, relationships with plant hosts, and the timing of divergences that have shaped the current geographic distribution of the family are investigated. Location, Africa, Australia, Neotropics, New Zealand, north temperate zone, Palaeotropics, Southeast Asia, South America, south temperate zone. Methods, We reconstruct a phylogeny of the Inocybaceae with a geological timeline using a relaxed molecular clock. Divergence dates of lineages are estimated statistically to test vicariance-based hypotheses concerning relatedness of disjunct ECM taxa. A series of internal maximum time constraints is used to evaluate two different calibrations. Ancestral state reconstruction is used to infer ancestral areas and ancestral plant partners of the family. Results, The Palaeotropics are unique in containing representatives of all major clades of Inocybaceae. Six of the seven major clades diversified initially during the Cretaceous, with subsequent radiations probably during the early Palaeogene. Vicariance patterns cannot be rejected that involve area relationships for Africa,Australia, Africa,India and southern South America,Australia. Northern and southern South America, Australia and New Zealand are primarily the recipients of immigrant taxa during the Palaeogene or later. Angiosperms were the earliest hosts of Inocybaceae. Transitions to conifers probably occurred no earlier than 65 Ma. Main conclusions, The Inocybaceae initially diversified no later than the Cretaceous in Palaeotropical settings, in association with angiosperms. Diversification within major clades of the family accelerated during the Palaeogene in north and south temperate regions, whereas several relictual lineages persisted in the tropics. Both vicariance and dispersal patterns are detected. Species from Neotropical and south temperate regions are largely derived from immigrant ancestors from north temperate or Palaeotropical regions. Transitions to conifer hosts occurred later, probably during the Palaeogene. [source]

The voice of historical biogeography

Jorge V. Crisci
Historical biogeography is going through an extraordinary revolution concerning its foundations, basic concepts, methods, and relationships to other disciplines of comparative biology. There are external and internal forces that are shaping the present of historical biogeography. The external forces are: global tectonics as the dominant paradigm in geosciences, cladistics as the basic language of comparative biology and the biologist's perception of biogeography. The internal forces are: the proliferation of competing articulations, recourse to philosophy and the debate over fundamentals. The importance of the geographical dimension of life's diversity to any understanding of the history of life on earth is emphasized. Three different kinds of processes that modify the geographical spatial arrangement of the organisms are identified: extinction, dispersal and vicariance. Reconstructing past biogeographic events can be done from three different perspectives: (1) the distribution of individual groups (taxon biogeography) (2) areas of endemism (area biogeography), and (3) biotas (spatial homology). There are at least nine basic historical biogeographic approaches: centre of origin and dispersal, panbiogeography, phylogenetic biogeography, cladistic biogeography, phylogeography, parsimony analysis of endemicity, event-based methods, ancestral areas, and experimental biogeography. These nine approaches contain at least 30 techniques (23 of them have been proposed in the last 14 years). The whole practice and philosophy of biogeography depend upon the development of a coherent and comprehensive conceptual framework for handling the distribution of organisms and events in space. [source]


Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
Hommersand, M. H. Department of Biology, Coker Hall, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280 USA Theories about the geographical distribution of marine algae fall roughly into two categories: (1) a concept of biogeographical regions in which algal distribution is determined primarily by growth, reproductive and lethal temperature boundaries (Setchell, van den Hoek, Breeman, Lüning) and (2) an historical perspective in which distribution is determined primarily by patterns of dispersal and the establishment of barriers to dispersal (vicariance biogeography) (Svedelius, Garbary, Lindstrom, Hommersand). Setchell proposed the 5° isotherm rule in 1920, and in 1924 Svedelius advocated a worldwide distribution for tropical and subtropical groups followed by discontinuous distribution upon closure of the connection between the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and, later, between North and South America (Wegener's theory). Transarctic dispersal routes have received special attention in recent years (Lindstrom, Lüning, van Oppen, Olsen, Stam), as have special relationships between Australasia, South Africa and South America (Hommersand). Less well understood are the climatic changes that have taken place in the Cenozoic which are strategic to an understanding vicariant biogeography. The advent of molecular methods combined with the tools of phylogenetic systematics now make it possible to identify ancestral taxa, test the consistency of tree topologies, and calculate mean branch lengths between sister lineages diverging from an interior node of a tree. With such methods it may be possible to infer ancestral areas, identify dispersal pathways, determine the chronology of isolating events, assess the impact of multiple invasions, and generally relate dispersal and vicariance models to phylogenetic hypotheses for red, brown and green algal taxa. [source]