Income

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Income

  • aggregate income
  • and income
  • annual household income
  • annual income
  • average income
  • basic income
  • capita income
  • capital income
  • cash income
  • current income
  • disposable income
  • domestic income
  • economic income
  • employment and income
  • family income
  • farm income
  • farmer income
  • foreign income
  • future income
  • high income
  • household income
  • increased income
  • individual income
  • investment income
  • labor income
  • low income
  • lower income
  • median household income
  • median income
  • national income
  • net income
  • nonfarm income
  • operating income
  • parental income
  • permanent income
  • personal income
  • physician income
  • real income
  • redistribute income
  • residual income
  • retirement income
  • rural income
  • taxable income
  • total income
  • wage income

  • Terms modified by Income

  • income breeder
  • income change
  • income class
  • income country
  • income difference
  • income disparity
  • income dispersion
  • income distribution
  • income dynamics
  • income effect
  • income effects
  • income elasticity
  • income family
  • income generation
  • income group
  • income groups
  • income growth
  • income household
  • income hypothesis
  • income increase
  • income inequality
  • income level
  • income mobility
  • income policy
  • income poverty
  • income ratio
  • income redistribution
  • income risk
  • income shock
  • income source
  • income statement
  • income support
  • income tax
  • income tax credit
  • income tax rate
  • income tax system
  • income taxation
  • income transfer
  • income uncertainty

  • Selected Abstracts


    GAUGING ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE UNDER CHANGING TERMS OF TRADE: REAL GROSS DOMESTIC INCOME OR REAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT?

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 4 2008
    Dr WILLIAM COLEMAN
    The paper presents a simple theoretical case for the superiority of the notion of Real Gross Domestic Income to Gross Domestic Product. It is shown that, in a multi-period version of the familiar neoclassical model of a small, open economy, a temporary improvement in its terms of trade will increase welfare and RGDI, and produce a trade surplus in current prices; but will decrease real GDP, on account of it creating a trade deficit at constant prices. [source]


    EXITS FROM HOMEOWNERSHIP: THE EFFECTS OF RACE, ETHNICITY, AND INCOME,

    JOURNAL OF REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
    Tracy M. Turner
    ABSTRACT This paper examines the extent to which populations experiencing low homeownership rates in the U.S. also experience high homeownership exit rates. We determine whether low-income Hispanic and black households that achieve homeownership are as likely as white and high-income households to sustain it. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics spanning the years 1970,2005, we find that low-income homeowners consistently have higher homeownership exit rates, Hispanic households have higher raw exit rates prior to but not subsequent to 1997, and a black/white sustainability gap appears to arise post-1997. [source]


    ASSESSING GLOBAL POVERTY AND INEQUALITY: INCOME, RESOURCES, AND CAPABILITIES

    METAPHILOSOPHY, Issue 1-2 2005
    Ingrid Robeyns
    Abstract: Are global poverty and inequality on the rise or are they declining? And is the quality of life of the world's poorest people getting worse or better? These questions are often given conflicting answers by economists, the World Bank, and social activists. One reason for this is that assessments of quality of life can be made in terms of people's income, their resources, or their functionings and capabilities. This essay discusses the pros and cons of these evaluative approaches, and it argues that all approaches have complementary strengths and should therefore in principle all be considered. Moreover, being aware that assessments of poverty and inequality can be made using these different frameworks helps us to understand the conflicting claims. [source]


    GROWTH, COMMODITY PRICES, INFLATION AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME

    METROECONOMICA, Issue 1 2007
    Harry Bloch
    ABSTRACT A primary commodity price boom is underway. Given the role of internationally traded primary commodities as inputs into the productive process in the industrialized world, an important question arises: namely what effects will this price-boom exert upon wage and price inflation in industrialized countries? In order to address this question, we specify and estimate a system of equations in which the key dependent variables are world commodity prices, the domestic inflation rate for finished goods and the rate of domestic industrial wage inflation. This model is estimated against data for each of three major industrialized countries: Japan, the UK and the USA and the implications of the results thus obtained are explored. [source]


    A COMPARISON OF THE POVERTY IMPACT OF TRANSFERS, TAXES AND MARKET INCOME ACROSS FIVE OECD COUNTRIES

    BULLETIN OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Issue 4 2010
    Sami Bibi
    D31; I32; I38 ABSTRACT This paper compares the poverty reduction impact of income sources, taxes and transfers across five OECD countries. Since the estimation of that impact can depend on the order in which the various income sources are introduced into the analysis, it is done by using the Shapley value. Estimates of the poverty reduction impact are presented in a normalized and unnormalized fashion, in order to take into account the total as well as the per dollar impacts. The methodology is applied to data from the Luxembourg Income Study database. [source]


    SENSORY EXPECTATIONS OF CHILDREN FROM DIFFERENT HOUSEHOLD INCOMES FOR A BRANDED CONFECTIONARY PRODUCT

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 2 2006
    MIRIAM SOSA
    ABSTRACT The influence of brand and price on the sensory acceptability of alfajor (an individual cake covered in chocolate) among children from different household incomes was measured. Two brands of alfajores, "cheap" and "expensive," were used. A total of 120 children, half from low-income households (LI) and half from medium- to high-income households (M,HI), participated in the study. They tasted the alfajores in three conditions: blind, package-alone and package + product. The LI children were not influenced by brand. For the M,HI children, an assimilation effect was observed. The findings highlight the importance of socioeconomic factors in sensory expectation. In the blind condition, if the price is very high, no matter how much a child likes an alfajor he/she will not buy it. If the price is low, the overall liking will highly influence the choice. Implications of results for manufacturers, money providers and nutritional education agencies are discussed. [source]


    Taxable Income as a Performance Measure: The Effects of Tax Planning and Earnings Quality,

    CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTING RESEARCH, Issue 1 2009
    Benjamin C. Ayers
    First page of article [source]


    GAUGING ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE UNDER CHANGING TERMS OF TRADE: REAL GROSS DOMESTIC INCOME OR REAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT?

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 4 2008
    Dr WILLIAM COLEMAN
    The paper presents a simple theoretical case for the superiority of the notion of Real Gross Domestic Income to Gross Domestic Product. It is shown that, in a multi-period version of the familiar neoclassical model of a small, open economy, a temporary improvement in its terms of trade will increase welfare and RGDI, and produce a trade surplus in current prices; but will decrease real GDP, on account of it creating a trade deficit at constant prices. [source]


    RETURNS TO EDUCATION IN AUSTRALIA

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 3 2008
    ANDREW LEIGH
    Using data from the 2001,2005 waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey, and taking account of existing estimates of ability bias and social returns to schooling, I estimate the economic return to various levels of education. Raising high school attainment appears to yield the highest annual benefits, with per-year gains as high as 30% (depending on the adjustment for ability bias). Some forms of vocational training also appear to boost earnings, with significant gains from Certificate Level III/IV qualifications (for high school dropouts only), and from Diploma and Advanced Diploma qualifications. At the university level, bachelor degrees and postgraduate qualifications are associated with significantly higher earnings, with each year of a bachelor degree raising annual earnings by about 15%. For high schools, slightly less than half the gains are due to increased productivity, with the rest being due to higher levels of participation. For vocational training, about one-third of the gains are from productivity, and two-thirds from greater participation. For universities, most of the gains are from productivity. I find some evidence that the productivity benefits of education are higher towards the top of the distribution, but the effects on hours worked are higher towards the bottom of the conditional earnings distribution. [source]


    Access to Telephone Services and Household Income in Poor Rural Areas Using a Quasi-natural Experiment for Peru

    ECONOMICA, Issue 304 2009
    ALBERTO CHONG
    We take advantage of a quasi-natural experiment in Peru in which a privatized telecommunications company was required by the government to randomly install and operate public pay phones in small rural towns throughout the country. Using an especially designed household survey for a representative sample of rural towns, we are able to link access to telephone services with household income. We find that, regardless of income measurement, most characteristics of public telephone use are positively linked with income. Remarkably, the benefits are given at both non-farm and farm income levels. The findings hold when using propensity score matching methods. [source]


    Robust International Comparisons of Distributions of Disposable Income and Regional Public Goods

    ECONOMICA, Issue 303 2009
    NICOLAS GRAVEL
    The paper provides robust normative comparisons of 12 OECD countries based on their distributions of disposable income and access to two regional public goods: infant mortality and pupil,teacher ratios at public schools. Comparisons are performed using two and three-dimensional dominance criteria that coincide with the unanimity of utilitarian judgments taken over specific classes of utility functions. The criteria succeed in ranking conclusively about 30% of all possible comparisons in the two-dimensional case, compared with 67% for one-dimensional income-based comparisons and 6% for three-dimensional ones. Introducing local public goods seems to worsen the relative standing of Anglo-Saxon countries. [source]


    Monetary Economics: An Integrated Approach to Credit, Money, Income, Production and Wealth.

    ECONOMICA, Issue 300 2008
    By WYNNE GODLEY, MARC LAVOIE
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Financial stress, smoking cessation and relapse: results from a prospective study of an Australian national sample

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2006
    Mohammad Siahpush
    ABSTRACT Aims Our aim was to examine the association between financial stress and subsequent smoking cessation among smokers, and relapse among ex-smokers. Design and participants Data came from the first two waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. The size of the subsample of smokers was 2076, and that of ex-smokers was 2717. Data collection was based on face-to-face interviews. Measurement Eight questionnaire items (e.g. difficulty paying electricity, gas or telephone bills and going without meals due to shortage of money) were used to construct a nine-point financial stress index. Findings Smokers with more financial stress were less likely to quit, with the odds of quitting reducing by 13% (95% CI: 4,21%; P = 0.008) per unit of the financial stress index. Ex-smokers with more financial stress were more likely to relapse (P < 0.001). Conclusions Special programmes may have to be implemented to counter the potentially adverse effects of tobacco price increases on smokers who have financial stress and fail to quit smoking. [source]


    Funding a PAYG pension system: the case of Italy

    FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 4 2001
    Lorenzo Forni
    Abstract Italy is characterised by a mature pay-as-you-go social security system and by particularly adverse population projections. Given these trends, the social security contribution rate is expected to increase above its current high level. This hinders the development of employer-provided pension funds and introduces a significant wedge between labour cost and earnings that discourages both labour demand and labour supply. Any proposal to reduce payroll taxes and to reform the system in the direction of partial funding has to cope with the state of Italian public finances. Italy has to comply with the Stability and Growth Pact that imposes constraints on budget deficit and debt trends. Using micro data from the Bank of Italy's Survey of Household Income and Wealth and official population projections, we estimate future employment trends under different demographic and macroeconomic scenarios and compute the cost of the transition. We show that it would be substantially reduced if positive effects on employment were induced by the payroll tax reduction. [source]


    The Changing Distribution of Income: Evidence and Explanations

    GERMAN ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 1 2000
    Anthony B. Atkinson
    This article is concerned with the economics of the distribution of income, emphasizing aspects which have been missing from the recent literature. It begins with factor shares and the rise in real interest rates. These are important in their own right and in relation to the determination of wage differentials. The paper questions the conventional wisdom which locates rising inequality and unemployment solely in a shift in demand away from unskilled workers. This explanation is too partial in its approach, is hard to reconcile with the empirical evidence, and ignores labour market institutions and the role of social norms. In seeking to explain the experience of different countries, we need to look not just at wages but also at the capital market, and should not be limited to a simple competitive supply-and-demand story. [source]


    Labor Market Dynamics During a Period of Structural Change: California inEarly 1990s

    GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 1 2000
    Alejandra Cox Edwards
    This paper contributes to the literature on labor market dynamics in four ways. First, unlike most of the existing literature, it uses the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). This panel survey, with a 32-month window of observation, allows a more precise measure of employment flows than other data sources. It was found that one out of three workers experiences a job transition during the observation period. Second, it focuses on the state of California during an economic cycle. According to these estimates, the net decline in employment represents just 2.6 percent of all job rotations (separations offset by accessions), and gross job flows were as important during the downturn as they were during the economic expansion. Third, it estimates gross flows by sector, and finds significant variation in gross flows relative to employment across sectors of economic activity. Fourth, it examines the coexistence of cyclical and structural changes of California in the early 1990s. The results suggest a labor market link between structural changes and economic cycles. [source]


    The national cancer data base report on squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue,,

    HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 8 2004
    Weining Zhen MD
    Abstract Background. This study provides the largest contemporary overview of presentation, care, and outcome for base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods. We extracted 16,188 cases from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Chi-square analyses were performed on selected cross-tabulations. Observed and disease-specific survival were used to analyze outcome. Results. Three-quarters had advanced-stage (III,IV) disease. Radiation therapy alone (24.5%) and combined with surgery (26.9%) were the most common treatments. Five-year observed and disease-specific survival rates were 27.8% and 40.3%, respectively. Poorer survival was significantly associated with older age, low income, and advanced-stage disease. For early-stage disease, surgery with or without irradiation had higher survival than irradiation alone. For advanced-stage disease, surgery with irradiation had the highest survival. Conclusions. Survival rates were low for base of tongue SCC, with most deaths occurring within the first 2 years. Income, stage, and age were significant prognostic factors. In this nonrandomized series, surgery with radiation therapy offered patients with advanced-stage disease the best survival. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 26: 660,674, 2004 [source]


    Lay understandings of the effects of poverty: a Canadian perspective

    HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, Issue 6 2005
    Linda I. Reutter RN PhD
    Abstract Although there is a large body of research dedicated to exploring public attributions for poverty, considerably less attention has been directed to public understandings about the effects of poverty. In this paper, we describe lay understandings of the effects of poverty and the factors that potentially influence these perceptions, using data from a telephone survey conducted in 2002 on a random sample (n = 1671) of adults from eight neighbourhoods in two large Canadian cities (Edmonton and Toronto). These data were supplemented with interview data obtained from 153 people living in these same neighbourhoods. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to determine the effects of basic demographic variables, exposure to poverty and attribution for poverty on three dependent variables relating to the effects of poverty: participation in community life, the relationship between poverty and health and challenges facing low-income people. Ninety-one per cent of survey respondents agreed that poverty is linked to health, while 68% agreed that low-income people are less likely to participate in community life. Affordable housing was deemed especially difficult to obtain by 96%, but other resources (obtaining healthy food, giving children a good start in life, and engaging in healthy behaviours) were also viewed as challenging by at least 70% of respondents. The regression models revealed that when controlling for demographics, exposure to poverty explained some of the variance in recognising the effects of poverty. Media exposure positively influenced recognition of the poverty,health link, and attending formal talks was strongly related to understanding challenges of poverty. Attributions for poverty accounted for slightly more of the variance in the dependent variables. Specifically, structural and sociocultural attributions predicted greater recognition of the effects of poverty, in particular the challenges of poverty, while individualistic attributions predicted less recognition. Older and female respondents were more likely to acknowledge the effects of poverty. Income was positively associated with recognition of the poverty,health link, negatively associated with understanding the challenges of low-income people, and unrelated to perceptions of the negative effect of poverty on participation in community life. [source]


    Dynamics of work limitation and work in Australia

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 6 2010
    *Article first published online: 5 JUN 200, Umut Oguzoglu
    Abstract This paper examines the impact of self-reported work limitations on the labour force participation of the Australian working age population. Five consecutive waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey are used to investigate this relationship. A two-equation dynamic panel data model demonstrates that persistence and unobserved heterogeneity play an important role in work limitation reporting and its effect on labour force participation. Unobserved factors that jointly drive work limitation and participation are also shown to be crucial, especially for women. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Health status and labour force participation: evidence from Australia

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 3 2006
    Lixin Cai
    Abstract This paper examines the effect of health on labour force participation using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. The potential endogeneity of health, especially self-assessed health, in the labour force participation equation is addressed by estimating the health equation and the labour force participation equation simultaneously. Taking into account the correlation between the error terms in the two equations, the estimation is conducted separately for males aged 15,49, males aged 50,64, females aged 15,49 and females aged 50,60. The results indicate that better health increases the probability of labour force participation for all four groups. However, the effect is larger for the older groups and for women. As for the feedback effect, it is found that labour force participation has a significant positive impact on older females' health, and a significant negative effect on younger males' health. For younger females and older males, the impact of labour force participation on health is not significant. The null-hypothesis of exogeneity of health to labour force participation is rejected for all groups. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Employment of People with Disabilities Following the ADA

    INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, Issue 1 2003
    Douglas Kruse
    Studies finding a negative effect of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) on the employment of people with disabilities have used the work disability measure, which has several potential problems in measuring employment trends. Using Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data that permit alternative measures of disability, this study finds decreased employment among those reporting work disabilities in the first few years after the ADA was passed but increased employment when using a more probably appropriate measure of ADA coverage (functional and activity limitations that do not prevent work). State-by-state variation in labor market tightness is used to find that people with disabilities may have especially procyclical employment, but the contrary results in overall employment trends remain after accounting for labor market tightness. Given the problems in measuring who is covered by the ADA, there is reason to be cautious of both positive and negative findings. [source]


    More on Marriage, Fertility, and the Distribution of Income*

    INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 3 2003
    Jeremy Greenwood
    According to Pareto (1896), the distribution of income depends on "the nature of the people comprising a society, on the organization of the latter, and, also, in part, on chance." In the model developed here the "nature of the people" is captured by attitudes toward marriage, divorce, fertility, and children. Singles search for mates in a marriage market. Married agents bargain about work, and the quantity and quality of children. They can divorce. Social policies, such as child support requirements, reflect the "organization of the (society)." Finally, "chance" is modeled by randomness in income, marriage opportunities, and marital bliss. [source]


    Which little piggy goes to market?

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONSUMER STUDIES, Issue 3 2009
    Characteristics of US farmers' market shoppers
    Abstract The growth in farmers' markets in the US has raised questions about whether they are a niche market or appeal to a broader population. Using a simple, random sample of US food shoppers, this study uses a test of means to examine whether there are differences in characteristics between those who shop at farmers' markets and those who do not. A key finding was that there was no significant difference in the level of food expenditures between shoppers and non-shoppers. In addition, a probit model was used to examine the marginal effects of attitudinal, behavioural and demographic variables on the probability of shopping at a farmers' market. The probability was significantly increased by the following: enjoyment and frequency of cooking, being female and the presence of another adult in the household. Income did not significantly influence the probability of shopping at a farmers' market. However, the probability of shopping at a farmers' market was significantly reduced if respondents perceived that cost was the most important characteristic of food. These characteristics imply limited appeal of farmers' markets currently to convenience-oriented, single-person, and single-parent households. [source]


    Being well and doing well: on the importance of income for health

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WELFARE, Issue 2006
    S.V. Subramanian
    Income is robustly associated with health status. Higher income is associated with lower mortality and morbidity, both cross-nationally and within societies. This relationship is not just confined to low levels of income, but extends well beyond median levels of income in society with diminishing marginal returns to health status with additional increments in income. Drawing upon the absolute and relative interpretations of income and conceptualising them simul-taneously at the individual and community level, we develop a typology of income,health relationships and discuss the distinctiveness of, and connections between, each type. We conclude that a multilevel conceptual and methodological framework is most appropriate to understand the income,health relationship. [source]


    Finding an Adequate Job: Employment and Income of Recent Immigrants to Israel

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, Issue 2 2003
    Haya Stier
    Summary The study examines the early market experience of recent immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union (FSU) and their mobility patterns a few years after migration. The Labour Utilization Framework, proposed by Clogg and Sullivan (1983), was analysed to identify the employment difficulties immigrants experienced upon arrival, their short-term mobility in the labour market, and the income consequences of their disadvantaged position in the market. Using a panel study of immigrants who arrived in Israel during 1990, we found that although most of them found employment, only a minority did not experience employment hardships. Four years after their arrival, most immigrants were still employed in occupations for which they were over-qualified, and only a small portion of the group managed to find adequate employment. Women had more severe employment hardships and a lower rate of mobility into the better positions. For men and women alike, almost any deviation from a stable adequate employment entailed wage penalties. [source]


    The Use of Remittance Income in Mexico

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW, Issue 4 2007
    Jim Airola
    Immigration affects sending countries through the receipt of remittance income. The impact of these cash transfers on households and communities has brought attention to remittances as a development mechanism. This study attempts to understand the degree to which household consumption is affected by the receipt of remittance income and the ways in which the broader communities may be impacted. Using household income and expenditure data for Mexico, expenditure patterns of remittance-receiving households are analyzed. Regression analysis indicates that remittance-receiving households spend a greater share of total income on durable goods, healthcare, and housing. [source]


    Labor Migration, Remittances and Household Income: A Comparison between Filipino and Filipina Overseas Workers,

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW, Issue 1 2005
    Moshe Semyonov
    The major purpose of the research is to examine gender differences in patterns of labor market activity, economic behavior and economic outcomes among labor migrants. While focusing on Filipina and Filipino overseas workers, the article addresses the following questions: whether and to what extent earnings and remittances of overseas workers differ by gender; and whether and to what extent the gender of overseas workers differentially affects household income in the Philippines. Data for the analysis were obtained from the Survey of Households and Children of Overseas Workers (a representative sample of households drawn in 1999,2000 from four major "labor sending" areas in the Philippines). The analysis focuses on 1,128 households with overseas workers. The findings reveal that men and women are likely to take different jobs and to migrate to different destinations. The analysis also reveals that many more women were unemployed prior to migration and that the earnings of women are, on average, lower than those of men, even after controlling for variations in occupational distributions, country of destination, and sociodemographic attributes. Contrary to popular belief, men send more money back home than do women, even when taking into consideration earnings differentials between the genders. Further analysis demonstrates that income of households with men working overseas is significantly higher than income of households with women working overseas and that this difference can be fully attributed to the earnings disparities and to differences in amount of remittances sent home by overseas workers. The results suggest that gender inequal- [source]


    Beyond Miami: The Ethnic Enclave and Personal Income in Various Cuban Communities in the United States,

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW, Issue 2 2004
    Carla P. Davis
    It is frequently noted that Cubans living in Miami are successful because they benefit from the formation of an enclave economy. Using the 1990 Census Public Use Microdata, this study broadens the examination beyond Miami to address the question of why Cubans living elsewhere have higher earnings than those in Miami. Specifically, I address the question of whether there is a relationship between Cuban ethnic enclave participation and Cuban income. Findings indicate that Cubans in Miami have the lowest personal income. Cubans living in areas with the lowest Cuban populations have the highest incomes. These findings are evidence against the enclave economy hypothesis. [source]


    Lone mothers, workfare and precarious employment: Time for a Canadian Basic Income?

    INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SECURITY REVIEW, Issue 1 2009
    Patricia M. Evans
    Abstract The growth of precarious employment poses significant challenges to current social assistance income support policies yet it remains largely neglected in policy-making arenas. Drawing upon qualitative data from a study in Ontario, Canada, this paper examines the particular implications of these challenges for lone mothers, who figure prominently both in non-standard employment and as targets for workfare policies. In the context of changing labour markets, the article considers the potential strengths and limitations of Basic Income approaches to achieving economic security for lone mothers. [source]


    Cooperation between social security and employment services: Evaluation of a reform strategy in the Netherlands

    INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SECURITY REVIEW, Issue 3 2002
    Jan Terpstra
    Since the early 1990s in the Netherlands a process of restructuring social security has been going on. A central element is the introduction of regional Centres of Work and Income, stimulating people living on benefits to return to paid work and making services more client,oriented. In these centres, social security organizations and employment services are supposed to cooperate. In practice this cooperation is hard to accomplish. The intended activation of clients is hardly realized. The problems encountered by this policy are characteristic of a top,down reform strategy in a corporatist welfare state like the Netherlands. [source]