iNO Therapy (ino + therapy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Nitric oxide inhalation therapy in very low-birthweight infants with hypoplastic lung due to oligohydramnios

Naoki Uga
AbstractBackground: Although nitric oxide inhalation (iNO) therapy improves arterial oxygenation and reduces the rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in term neonates, the efficacy of this therapy in premature infants is controversial. The objective of the present study was to determine whether iNO therapy improves the survival of very low-birthweight infants with pulmonary hypoplasia due to prolonged rupture of membrane. Methods: A retrospective comparative study of very low-birthweight infants with pulmonary hypoplasia due to oligohydramnios who had or had not been treated with iNO therapy, was performed (iNO-treated group, eight infants; control group, 10 infants). A neonate was considered to have pulmonary hypoplasia due to oligohydramnios if the following conditions were satisfied: (i) artificial surfactant treatment did not improve the respiratory distress; (ii) prolonged rupture of membrane (PROM) continued for more than 5 days with oligohydramnios; and (iii) sufficient arterial oxygenation did not occur even after giving 100% oxygen, and more than 8 cm H2O of mean airway pressure was needed to maintain arterial oxygenation. Results: Nitric oxide inhalation improved arterial oxygenation rapidly and consistently in all eight infants with pulmonary hypoplasia. All eight iNO-treated infants survived longer than 28 days, while five of the 10 control infants died within 24 h of birth (P < 0.05). Before starting iNO, seven of the eight treated infants had shown persistent pulmonary hypertension, which was confirmed by echocardiography. No iNO-treated infant had IVH greater than grade 1, while one control infant had grade 2 IVH. All six long-term survivors in the iNO-treated group are developing normally, while only two of the control infants are developing normally as of February 2002. Conclusions: The majority of the infants with pulmonary hypoplasia due to oligohydramnios had persistent pulmonary hypertension. iNO improved the arterial oxygenation and significantly improved the survival rate. A controlled study to determine whether iNO therapy improves the survival rate of preterm infants with pulmonary hypoplasia due to oligohydramnios is necessary. [source]

Methaemoglobinaemia risk factors with inhaled nitric oxide therapy in newborn infants

I Hamon
Abstract Background:, Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), commonly used for hypoxic neonates, may react with haemoglobin to form methaemoglobin (MetHb). MetHb monitoring during iNO therapy has been questioned since low doses of iNO are used. Aim:, To evaluate the incidence of and identify risk factors associated with elevated MetHb in neonates treated with iNO. Methods:, Neonates who were treated with iNO and had at least one MetHb measurement were included. Demographic characteristics and methods of iNO administration (dosage, duration) at the time of each MetHb measurement were analysed. Results:, Four hundred and fifty-two MetHb measurements from 81 premature and 82 term and near-term infants were analysed. MetHb was above 5% in one-term infant, and between 2.5,5% in 16 infants. A higher maximum dose of iNO (22.7 vs 17.7 p.p.m.), but not gestational age, was a significant risk factor for elevated MetHb. Significantly higher oxygen levels (75.5% vs 51.7%) were associated with higher MetHb in term infants. Preterm infants had no risk for high MetHb when iNO was kept below 8 p.p.m. These data suggest the possibility of limiting blood withdrawal when low doses iNO are used. Conclusion:, High MetHb is exceptional in neonates treated with low dose iNO. Associated risk factors are related to high iNO dose and the simultaneous use of high concentrations of oxygen. [source]

Use of inhaled nitric oxide in the new born period: results from the European inhaled nitric oxide registry

Chris Dewhurst
Abstract Aims:, The aim of this study was to present data relating to the use of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in newborn infants included in the European Inhaled Nitric Oxide Registry. Methods:, Demographic, clinical and therapeutic data from seven European centres are reported. Univariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with acute response to iNO and survival without extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Results:, A total of 112 newborn infants received iNO, with 40% being less than 34 weeks gestational age. The commonest indication for iNO was secondary pulmonary hypertension. Acute response to iNO was more common in infants with a higher oxygenation index (median OI 32.7 vs 22.6, p = 0.040), although acute response did not predict survival without ECMO. Infants who survived without ECMO had a lower OI prior to therapy (median OI 24 vs 43, p = 0.009), were commenced on a higher starting dose (median dose 20 ppm vs 10 ppm p = 0.013) and received a lower maintenance dose (median dose 10 vs 17 ppm, p = 0.027) than those who died or received ECMO. Conclusion:, Collating and reporting data about iNO therapy in neonates across a number of European centres using a web-based system is feasible. These data may be used to monitor the clinical use of iNO, identify adverse effects, generate research hypotheses and promote high standards in the clinical use of iNO. [source]

Inhaled nitric oxide improves oxygenation in very premature infants with low pulmonary blood flow

R Desandes
Aim: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is used to reduce right-to-left extrapulmonary shunting by decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance in term or near-term infants. The objectives of this study were to determine, first, the pulmonary blood flow status of very preterm infants with hypoxaemic respiratory failure, then the response of oxygenation to iNO therapy according to pulmonary blood flow (PBF) and, finally, to verify the lack of adverse side effects of iNO on the ductus arteriosus. Methods: Infants below 32 wk gestational age (GA) with hypoxic respiratory failure and aAO2 < 0.22 were randomized as the control or iNO group. PBF was evaluated by pulsed Doppler measurement of mean pulmonary blood flow velocity (MPBFV) in the left pulmonary artery. Low PBF (LPBF) was defined as MPBFV >0.2m/s. Results: Seventy infants of 23 to 31 wk GA with hypoxic respiratory failure were randomized either to receive or not to receive 5 ppm iNO in addition to optimal care. Twenty-eight infants were diagnosed with LPBF (11/35 in iNO vs 17/35 in the control groups). Thirty minutes after receiving iNO the number of LPBF infants dropped to 8/35. In the iNO group, aAO2 increased significantly from 0.14 0.05 to 0.24 0.08 after iNO, but only in the LPBF infants (mean SD; p= 0.027). Conclusion: In infants below 32 wk GA with hypoxic respiratory failure, Doppler echocardiographic assessment of LPBF seems to be able to determine which patients are likely to benefit from iNO therapy on systemic oxygenation. [source]