Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Injection

  • Percutaneou ethanol injection
  • acetonide injection
  • acid injection
  • acute injection
  • alcohol injection
  • anaesthetic injection
  • bevacizumab injection
  • bilateral injection
  • bolus injection
  • bolus intravenous injection
  • bont-a injection
  • botox injection
  • botulinum toxin injection
  • brdu injection
  • btx-a injection
  • carrageenan injection
  • carrier injection
  • caudal injection
  • cell injection
  • central injection
  • charge injection
  • co2 injection
  • conjunctival injection
  • consecutive injection
  • contrast injection
  • corticosteroid injection
  • current injection
  • daily injection
  • daily insulin injection
  • daily intraperitoneal injection
  • daily subcutaneous injection
  • direct injection
  • dna injection
  • double injection
  • drug injection
  • dye injection
  • electrokinetic injection
  • electron injection
  • endotoxin injection
  • epidural injection
  • epidural steroid injection
  • epinephrine injection
  • ethanol injection
  • fat injection
  • filler injection
  • first injection
  • flow injection
  • fluid injection
  • formalin injection
  • gas injection
  • glutamate injection
  • h post injection
  • heparin injection
  • hole injection
  • i.c.v. injection
  • i.m. injection
  • i.p. injection
  • i.v. injection
  • im injection
  • initial injection
  • insulin injection
  • intermittent injection
  • intra-arterial injection
  • intra-articular injection
  • intra-peritoneal injection
  • intraarticular injection
  • intracavernosal injection
  • intracavernou injection
  • intracerebral injection
  • intracerebroventricular injection
  • intracoronary injection
  • intracytoplasmic sperm injection
  • intradermal injection
  • intrahippocampal injection
  • intralesional corticosteroid injection
  • intralesional injection
  • intralesional steroid injection
  • intramuscular injection
  • intraocular injection
  • intraperitoneal injection
  • intraprostatic injection
  • intrastriatal injection
  • intratesticular injection
  • intrathecal injection
  • intratumoral injection
  • intravascular injection
  • intravenous bolus injection
  • intravenous injection
  • intravitreal bevacizumab injection
  • intravitreal injection
  • intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection
  • intravitreal triamcinolone injection
  • ip injection
  • iv injection
  • last injection
  • liquid injection
  • local anaesthetic injection
  • local injection
  • long-acting injection
  • lp injection
  • maternal injection
  • multiple daily injection
  • multiple daily insulin injection
  • multiple injection
  • needle injection
  • once-daily injection
  • one injection
  • ow injection
  • percutaneou ethanol injection
  • peribulbar injection
  • peripheral injection
  • peritumoral injection
  • placebo injection
  • point injection
  • post injection
  • pressure injection
  • rapid injection
  • repeat injection
  • repeated injection
  • repetitive injection
  • risperidone long-acting injection
  • s.c. injection
  • saline injection
  • sample injection
  • sc injection
  • second injection
  • sequential injection
  • sham injection
  • silicone injection
  • simultaneous injection
  • single i.p. injection
  • single i.v. injection
  • single injection
  • single intramuscular injection
  • single intraperitoneal injection
  • single intravenous injection
  • single intravitreal injection
  • single subcutaneous injection
  • solution injection
  • sperm injection
  • spin injection
  • spinal injection
  • stereotaxic injection
  • steroid injection
  • streptozotocin injection
  • stz injection
  • sub-tenon injection
  • subconjunctival injection
  • subcutaneous injection
  • subretinal injection
  • systemic injection
  • tail vein injection
  • toxin injection
  • tracer injection
  • transforaminal injection
  • triamcinolone acetonide injection
  • triamcinolone injection
  • trigger point injection
  • vascular injection
  • vehicle injection
  • vein injection
  • venom injection
  • water injection
  • weekly injection

  • Terms modified by Injection

  • injection alone
  • injection analysis
  • injection barrier
  • injection condition
  • injection current
  • injection cycle
  • injection dose
  • injection drug use
  • injection drug user
  • injection duration
  • injection experiment
  • injection frequency
  • injection group
  • injection layer
  • injection lead
  • injection level
  • injection method
  • injection methods
  • injection mode
  • injection model
  • injection molding
  • injection molding machine
  • injection molding process
  • injection pain
  • injection period
  • injection point
  • injection pressure
  • injection procedure
  • injection process
  • injection rate
  • injection regimen
  • injection sclerotherapy
  • injection series
  • injection site
  • injection site reaction
  • injection speed
  • injection system
  • injection technique
  • injection techniques
  • injection test
  • injection therapy
  • injection time
  • injection timing
  • injection velocity
  • injection volume

  • Selected Abstracts

    Immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: clinical benefits and its working mechanisms

    Y. Nakai
    Summary Pollen immunotherapy exerts greater efficacy in the pollen season when the pollen count is not high than when it is high. Every pollen season, around half or more patients who have received pollen immunotherapy for >5 years are judged as good responders; those who have received immunotherapy for <5 years generally do less well. Therefore, the clinical response seems to depend on natural pollen counts and the duration of immunotherapy. In this study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were sampled before and during the pollen season to examine IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-, levels. It was revealed that pollen immunotherapy could decrease IL-4 and -5 expression by pollen antigen-stimulated PBMCs. When patients under immunotherapy were divided into good and poor response groups, clinical effectiveness was related to the depressed level of IL-5 synthesis, but not to that of IL-4 synthesis. Our study suggests that a decrease of IL-5 expression during the pollen season is a key working mechanism of immunotherapy related to clinical effectiveness. In our patients, the incidence of systemic reactions was 5.8%/patient and <0.1%/injection. A higher incidence of systemic reactions was observed in patients with the presence or a past history of asthma, the presence but not a past history of atopic dermatitis, and higher levels of total IgE (>1000 U/mL). The incidence of systemic reactions in patients with 1 risk factor such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and high IgE was 16.9%/patient and 0.1%/injection, whereas that in those without risk factors was 1.6%/patient and <0.1/injection. [source]


    This paper examines the wealth effect on other banks by the public fund injection into Resona Bank. This paper finds that the injection initially conveyed the auditing firms' strict stance towards deferred tax assets. More importantly, the procedure that the government employed was regarded by market participants as a too-big-to-fail policy. Therefore, although the Resona injection was effective in obviating a financial crisis, the policy was inevitably accompanied with the moral hazard problem. [source]

    Stabilization of Radiation-Condensation Instability by Light Impurity Injection

    A. A. Pshenov
    Abstract As it has been shown in [1,2], Radiation-Condensation Instability (RCI) may initiate Microfaceted Asymmetric Radiation from the Edge (MARFE) in tokamaks (see also review papers [3-5]). Nevertheless, experiments demonstrate the stable regimes with strongly radiated edge plasmas after Ne injection [6-8] or in siliconized discharges. Two effects destabilize radiative plasmas, the decrease of radiation losses Q with the electron temperature Te increase, and the increase of Q with electron and impurity densities rise. The finite relaxation time of impurity distribution over ionization states [6] as well as the thermal force acting on the growth rate doesn't shift the instability margin. Hence, one can examine the stability margin using the approximation of the coronal equilibrium. Radiation losses of intrinsic impurities like beryllium, carbon and nitrogen usually decrease with the temperature increase at the temperature range typical for the edge (see Fig. 1, curve 1). The situation may be significantly different for impurity mixtures. Radiation losses L , Q /(nenI)normalized by electron and impurity densities ne and nI for the mixture of carbon and neon are shown in Fig. 1, curves 2-5. One can see that ,Q/,T > 0 for practically any temperature at the edge if the concentration ratio nNe/nC , 5. Hence, one can expect the stabilization of RCI by injection of additional impurity and achievement of stable regime with the strongly radiated edge plasmas. The stability of plasmas with few impurity mixtures is examined in the present paper numerically (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Treatment of a Recurrent Auricular Pseudocyst with Intralesional Steroid Injection and Clip Compression Dressing

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Early and Late Complications after a Nonabsorbable Hydrogel Polymer Injection: A Series of 14 Patients and Novel Management

    First page of article [source]

    Autologous Cultured Fibroblast Injection for Facial Contour Deformities: A Prospective, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Clinical Trial

    BACKGROUND Previous data indicate that injections of autologous fibroblasts increase collagen formation, accompanied by a concomitant increase in thickness and density of dermal collagen. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine efficacy and side effects of autologous living fibroblast injections versus placebo in a randomized Phase III trial for the treatment of various facial contour defects. METHODS This was a double-blind, randomized comparison of injectable living autologous fibroblast cells and placebo for the treatment of facial contour defects (N=215). Live fibroblasts (20 million/mL) or placebo (the transport medium without living cells) were given as three doses administered at 1- to 2-week intervals. Efficacy evaluations were performed 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months after the first injection. RESULTS Living fibroblasts produced statistically significantly greater improvements in dermal deformities and acne scars than did placebo. The difference between live fibroblast injections and placebo achieved statistical significance at 6 months (p<.0001). At 9- and 12-month follow-up, live fibroblast,treated patients continued to demonstrate benefit from treatment with response rates of 75.0 and 81.6%, respectively. No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that autologous fibroblast injections can safely and effectively produce improvements in rhytids, acne scars, and other dermal defects continuing for at least 12 months after injection. [source]

    Ice Minimizes Discomfort Associated with Injection of Botulinum Toxin Type A for the Treatment of Palmar and Plantar Hyperhidrosis

    BACKGROUND The value of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) for treatment of palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis (HH) has been limited by injection pain, which in the past has generally required administration of a nerve block. We describe the successful use of ice applied to the intended injection point followed immediately by application of either ice or vibration to skin adjacent to the injection point to reduce discomfort associated with injection of BTX-A for the treatment of palmar and plantar HH. RESULTS During needle insertion and injection of BTX-A, both the application of ice to the intended injection point followed by application of ice adjacent to the injection point (ice+ice) and the application of ice to the intended injection point followed by application of vibration adjacent to the injection point have been preferred by our patients to nerve block. These two techniques allow efficient treatment of both hands and/or both feet in a single session. CONCLUSION By eliminating the need for nerve blocks, the techniques described here will enlarge the pool of physicians who can administer BTX-A for palmar and plantar HH, and will enlarge the pool of patients who are willing to have this treatment. [source]

    Warm and Neutral Tumescent Anesthetic Solutions Are Essential Factors for a Less Painful Injection

    BACKGROUND Tumescent local anesthesia is widely used in dermatologic surgery. Minimizing pain associated with injections is crucial to successful surgical procedures. OBJECTIVE This study investigates the pain associated with warm and room temperatures in neutralized or nonneutralized tumescent anesthetic solutions injection. METHODS Thirty-six patients with axilla osmidrosis who underwent local anesthesia for surgery were randomly assigned to three groups. Group A received warm neutral (40°C) and room-temperature neutral (22°C) tumescent injections to each axillary region. Group B received warm neutral (pH 7.35) and warm nonneutral (pH 4.78) tumescent injections on each side of axilla. Group C received warm nonneutral and room-temperature nonneutral tumescent injections on each side of axilla. Pain associated with infiltration of anesthesia was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS A statistically significant decrease (p < .001) in pain sensation was reported on the warm, neutral injection side (mean rating, 32.7 mm) compared with the room-temperature, neutral injection side (mean rating, 53.3 mm). Patient-reported pain intensity was significantly lower on the side that received warm, neutral tumescent anesthesia (mean rating, 26.8 mm) than on the side receiving warm, nonneutral tumescent anesthesia (mean rating, 44.9 mm; p < .001). The difference in VAS scores between warm neutral (mean rating, 23.9 mm) and room-temperature nonneutral (mean rating, 61.2 mm) was statistically significant (p < .001). CONCLUSION The warm, neutral tumescent anesthetic preparation effectively suppressed patient pain during dermatologic surgical procedures. [source]

    Injection Necrosis of the Glabella: Protocol for Prevention and Treatment After Use of Dermal Fillers

    BACKGROUND Injection of filler materials into the dermis is well tolerated with few mild and transient side effects. Injection necrosis is a rare but clinically important potential complication caused by interruption of the vascular supply to the area by compression, injury, and/or obstruction of the vessel(s). The glabella is a particular danger zone for injection necrosis regardless of the type of filler used. OBJECTIVE We recommend a protocol that may be used to help prevent and treat injection necrosis of the glabella after injection with dermal fillers. CONCLUSION Injection necrosis in the glabellar region may be prevented by a knowledge of the local anatomy and an understanding of its pathophysiology and treated by a suggested protocol. [source]

    Deep Phenol Peeling and Fat Injection: Treatment Option for Perioral Wrinkles in a Scleroderma Patient

    Yitzhack Ramon MD
    Background Scleroderma is characterized by abnormal growth of connective tissue, often manifested with hard and tight skin. The viscous properties of the skin are impaired, and the main histologic changes include a thicker dermis, absence of pilosebaceous units, and a decreased space between collagen bundles. Often these patients have wound healing problems. Objective The objective was to demonstrate a case of scleroderma that had deep phenol perioral peeling and fat injection into the lips. According to our bibliographic search, this is the first report in the English literature of using these modalities in scleroderma patients. Methods A 64-year-old woman suffering from scleroderma for more than 20 years came for improvement of her perioral appearance. We decided to manage her deep perioral wrinkles by deep peeling using the Baker formula and concomitantly to use autologous fat injection to augment her thin lips. Results The healing of our patient after these two interventions was uneventful, and satisfactory results have been obtained. Conclusion Based on our experience, this intervention may be suggested for patients suffering from scleroderma after a detailed explanation of the possible wound healing difficulties is provided to the patients. [source]

    Plantar Hyperhidrosis and Pitted Keratolysis Treated with Botulinum Toxin Injection

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 12p2 2004
    Bhertha M. Tamura
    Background. Sulcate plantare keratolysis or pitted keratolysis (plantar keratolysis sulcatum) is a disease that is commonly found in tropical countries. Patients have also reported plantar hyperhidrosis. Objective. Two patients with pitted keratolysis resistant to topical and systemic treatments are described. Methods. Both patients were injected with botulinum toxin distributed evenly through the plantar extension. Results. The response to the treatment was excellent despite using a low dose of botulinum toxin with the plantar keratolysis healing completely. Conclusion. Hyperhidrosis may be considered the major etiologic factor for pitted keratolysis that does not respond to treatment. [source]

    Cutaneous Seeding of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Due to Percutaneous Ethanol Injection and Masquerading as a Pyogenic Granuloma

    Mei-Ching Lee MD
    Background. This investigation reports a 68-year-old man with a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed 2 years previously who developed a single, easy-bleeding, pyogenic granuloma (PG)-like lesion on his right upper abdomen, located in the area of previous therapeutic percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for HCC treatment. The lesion developed 3 months after the injection. The tumor was found to be identical to his previous HCC. Objective. To describe a case of cutaneous seeding of HCC during PEI presented as a PG-like lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in the literature. Methods. This is a case report and review the literature. Results. Immunostainings for ,-fetoprotein and hepatocyte monoclonal antibody confirmed the diagnosis. Besides, the patient had no other metastatic lesion. Conclusion. This tumor is believed to be caused by cutaneous seeding of HCC during PEI and is simulated clinically as a PG. [source]

    Wnt11r is required for cranial neural crest migration

    Helen K. Matthews
    Abstract wnt11r is a recently identified member of the Wnt family of genes, which has been proposed to be the true Xenopus homologue to the mammalian wnt11 gene. In this study we have examined the role of wnt11r on neural crest development. Expression analysis of wnt11r and comparison with the neural crest marker snail2 and the noncanonical Wnt, wnt11, shows wnt11r is expressed at the medial or neural plate side of the neural crest while wnt11 is expressed at the lateral or epidermal side. Injection of wnt11r morpholino leads to strong inhibition of neural crest migration with no effect on neural crest induction or maintenance. This effect can be rescued by co-injection of Wnt11r but not by Wnt11 mRNA, demonstrating the specificity of the loss of function treatment. Finally, neural crest graft experiments show that wnt11r is required in a non,cell-autonomous manner to control neural crest migration. Developmental Dynamics 237:3404,3409, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Abnormal venous and arterial patterning in chordin mutants

    Emmanuèle C. Délot
    Abstract Classic dye injection methods yielded amazingly detailed images of normal and pathological development of the cardiovascular system. However, because these methods rely on the beating heart of diffuse the dyes, the vessels visualized have been limited to the arterial tree, and our knowledge of vein development is lagging. In order to solve this problem, we injected pigmented methylsalicylate resins in mouse embryos after they were fixed and made transparent. This new technique allowed us to image the venous system and prompted the discovery of multiple venous anomalies in Chord,/, mutant mice. Genetic inactivation of Chordin, an inhibitor of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling pathway, results in neural crest defects affecting heart and neck organs, as seen in DiGeorge syndrome patients. Injection into the descending aorta of Chrd,/, mutants demonstrated how a very severe early phenotype of the aortic arches develops into persistent truncus arteriosus. In addition, injection into the atrium revealed several patterning defects of the anterior cardinal veins and their tributaries, including absence of segments, looping and midline defects. The signals that govern the development of the individual cephalic veins are unknown, but our results show that the Bone Morphogenetic Protein pathway is necessary for the process. Developmental Dynamics 236:2586,2593, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor decreases early cardiac neural crest migration in chicken embryos

    D.H. Cai
    Abstract During early embryonic development, cardiac neural crest (NC) cells emerge from the forming neural tube, migrate beneath the ectoderm, enter the pharyngeal arches, and subsequently participate in the septation of the heart. Like tumor cells, NC cells penetrate through basement membranes and invade extracellular matrix during their emigration and migration and, therefore, are liable to use similar invasive mechanisms. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc proteolytic enzymes known to be important in cell migration and invasion of normal and metastatic cells. In an earlier study, we found that the spatial and temporal distribution pattern of MMP-2 positively correlates with cardiac NC migration, suggesting MMP enzymatic activity may be important in mediating cardiac cell NC migration. To test this hypothesis, a synthetic MMP inhibitor, KB8301, was used to block MMP enzymatic activity during in vitro and in vivo cardiac NC cell migration in chick embryos. Injection of KB8301 into the cell-free space adjacent to the neural tube at the level of the second somite before the NC cells emigrated caused major morphologic anomalies in embryos and disrupted cardiac NC morphogenesis. Unilateral injection of KB8301 at lower concentrations, significantly decreased cardiac NC migration on the injected side compared with the noninjected side and compared with that of the injected controls. This decrease correlated with a decrease in MMP activity in the embryos and was not attributable to differences in embryo size or rate of embryonic development after injection. KB8301 also significantly decreased the rate of NC cell motility and distance NC cells migrated from explanted neural tubes and increased cell area and perimeter. These data suggest that MMP enzymatic activity is an important mediator of early cardiac NC migration and that perturbation of endogenous MMP activity may lead to NC-related congenital defects. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Gap junctional coupling between progenitor cells at the retinal margin of adult goldfish

    Fuminobu Tamalu
    Abstract We prepared living slice preparations of the peripheral retina of adult goldfish to examine electrical membrane properties of progenitor cells at the retinal margin. Cells were voltage-clamped near resting potential and then stepped to either hyperpolarizing or depolarizing test potentials using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings. Electrophysiologically examined cells were morphologically identified by injecting both Lucifer Yellow (LY) and biocytin. All progenitor cells examined (n = 37) showed a large amount of passively flowing currents of either sign under suppression of the nonjunctional currents flowing through K+ and Ca2+ channels in the cell membrane. They did not exhibit any voltage-gated Na+ currents. Cells identified by LY fills were typically slender. As the difference between the test potential and the resting potential increased, 13 out of 37 cells exhibited symmetrically voltage- and time-dependent current decline on either sign at the resting potential. The symmetric current profile suggests that the current may be driven and modulated by the junctional potential difference between the clamping cell and its neighbors. The remaining 24 cells did not exhibit voltage dependency. A gap junction channel blocker, halothane, suppressed the currents. A decrease in extracellular pH reduced coupling currents and its increase enhanced them. Dopamine, cAMP, and retinoic acid did not influence coupling currents. Injection of biocytin into single progenitor cells revealed strong tracer coupling, which was restricted in the marginal region. Immature ganglion cells closely located to the retinal margin exhibited voltage-gated Na+ currents. They did not reveal apparent tracer coupling. These results demonstrate that the marginal progenitor cells couple with each other via gap junctions, and communicate biochemical molecules, which may subserve or interfere with cellular differentiation. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Neurobiol 48: 204,214, 2001 [source]

    Efficacy of Humalog® injections before an afternoon meal and their acceptance by children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 12 2002
    D. Martin
    Abstract Aims To evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of an injection of insulin lispro, before an afternoon meal. Methods The subjects, 43 patients with Type 1 diabetes, 16 boys and 27 girls, aged 12.4 ± 2.4 years, were randomly assigned to the treatment (n = 20) or the untreated control group (n = 23). The treatment was an injection of insulin lispro immediately before the afternoon meal. The control group had no injection. The treatment and the control group consumed identical types of meals for 2 months. The mean before-dinner blood glucose was measured during the last 2 weeks of the study. Results Injection of insulin lispro resulted in a significant reduction in the before-dinner blood glucose compared with the untreated control group (10.4 ± 3.8 mmol/l vs. 14.7 ± 3.9 mmol/l, respectively). The number of days on which the blood glucose was > 10 mmol/l was reduced by half in the insulin lispro group. The difference in HbA1c between baseline and endpoint differed slightly but significantly between the two groups, in boys. Treated patients ate the meal less frequently (11.4 ± 3.0 times per 15 days) than the control patients (14.4 ± 0.6 times per 15 days) and injected themselves with insulin 8.9 ± 3.6 times per 15 days. The HbA1c increased significantly with the number of meals taken without injection. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of hypoglycaemia or changes in weight between the two groups. Conclusions We conclude that an injection of insulin lispro before the afternoon meal can effectively lower the before-dinner blood glucose, and in boys also lowers the HbA1c. Patients were satisfied with the lower blood glucose before dinner, and did not find the insulin lispro injection difficult. However, compliance with the protocol procedures decreased during a subsequent 6-month period. Diabet. Med. 19, 1026,1031 (2002) [source]

    Combined treatment of achalasia , botulinum toxin injection followed by pneumatic dilatation: long-term results

    R. Kroupa
    SUMMARY Injection of botulinum toxin (BT) and pneumatic dilatation are available methods in nonsurgical treatment of achalasia. Authors anticipate beneficial effect of prior BT injection on the success of pneumatic dilatation and duration of its effect. There are no long-term data available to assess efficacy of combined treatment. From 1998 to 2007, 51 consecutive patients (20 men and 31 women, age 24,83) with achalasia were included and prospectively followed up. Each patient received injection of 200 IU of BT into the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) during endoscopy and 8 days later pneumatic dilatation (PD) under X-ray control was performed. The follow-up was established every 3 months first year and then annually. The efficacy was evaluated by a questionnaire concerning patient's symptoms and manometry. Results were compared with 40 historical controls (16 men and 24 women, age 26,80) treated by PD alone using the same method and follow-up. Fifty-one patients underwent combined treatment. Four patients failed in follow-up and were not included for analysis. The mean duration of follow-up was 48 months with range 12,96 months. Thirty-four of forty-seven (72%) patients were satisfied with results with none or very rare and mild troubles at the time of the last visit. Forty-one patients were followed up more than 2 years. Effect of therapy lasted in 75% (31/41) of them. In 17 patients, more than 5 years after treatment, effect lasted in 12 (70%). Mean tonus of LES before therapy was 29 mm Hg (10,80), 3 months after therapy decreased to 14 mmHg (5,26). The cumulative 5 years remission rate (±95% CI) in combined treated patients 69% ± 8% was higher than in controls 50% ± 9%; however it, was not statistically significant (P= 0.07). In control group 1, case of perforation (2.5%) occurred. Eight patients (17%) with relapse of dysphagia were referred to laparoscopic Heller myotomy with no surgical complication. The main adverse effect was heartburn that appeared in 17 patients (36%). Initial injection of BT followed by PD seems to be effective for long-term results with fewer complications. But the combined therapy is not significantly superior to PD alone. [source]

    Enhanced Left Ventricular Endocardial Border Delineation with an Intravenous Injection of SonoVue, a New Echocardiography Contrast Agent:

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2000
    A European Multicenter Study
    The safety and efficacy of SonoVue (also referred to as BR1), a new contrast agent for delineating endocardial border of the left ventricle after intravenous administration, was assessed. Two hundred and eighteen patients with suspected coronary artery disease undergoing fundamental echocardiography for the assessment of left ventricle were enrolled in a prospective multicenter, single blind, cross-over study with random sequence allocation of four different doses of SonoVue. Endocardial border definition in the apical and parasternal views was scored as O = not visible, 1 = barely visible, and 2 = well visualized before and after contrast enhancement. Analysis was performed by two pairs of off-site observers. Safety of SonoVue was also assessed. Results of our study indicated that the mean improvements in the endocardial border visualization score were as follows: 3.1 ± 7.8 (95% CI, 2.5 and 3.7) for 0.5 ml, 3.4 ± 8.0 (95% CI, 2.8 and 4.0) for 1 ml, 3.4 ± 7.9 (95% CI, 2.8 and 4.0) for 2 ml, and 3.7 ± 8.0 (95% CI, 3.1 and 4.3) for 4 ml (P < 0.05 for all doses from baseline). Changes from baseline in endocardial visualization scores were also seen in the apical views (P < 0.05) and they were dose-dependent (P < 0.001). Similar enhancements of endocardial visualization scores were observed in the apical views in patients with suboptimal baseline echocardiographic images. Diagnostic confidence for assigning a score and image quality also were significantly better following contrast enhancement. No significant changes in the laboratory parameters and vital signs were noted following contrast enhancement, and the side effects were minimal. It was concluded that SonoVue is safe and effective in delineating endocardial border, including in patients with suboptimal baseline images. [source]

    Multiple-point electrochemical detection for a dual-channel hybrid PDMS-glass microchip electrophoresis device

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 19 2009
    Mario Castaño-Álvarez
    Abstract A new PDMS-based dual-channel MCE with multiple-point amperometric detection has been evaluated. Electrophoresis has been optimised in a single-channel device. Pretreatment with 0.1,M NaOH is very important for increasing and stabilising the EOF. The precision is adequate for a day's work in terms of both peak current and migration time. The RSD of the peak current for five successive signals was 1.9, 2.4 and 3.1% for dopamine, p- aminophenol and hydroquinone. RSD for the migration time was always less than 1.3%, which demonstrates the stability of the EOF and the possibility of running multiple experiments in the same microchip. The adequate inter-microchip precision as well as the rapid and simple manufacturing procedure indicates the disposable nature of the PDMS microchips. A dual-channel device with very simple multiple-point amperometric detection is proposed here. Elasticity of the PDMS allows removing the polymer slightly and aligning gold wires working electrodes. Injection can be performed from each of the sample reservoirs or from both simultaneously. The distance between the separation channels is critical for obtaining adequate signals as well as the introduction of a high-voltage electrode in the buffer reservoir. Simultaneous measurement of the same analytes in both channels is possible by applying the same potential. Moreover, since no cross-separation is produced, different analytes or samples can be simultaneously measured. [source]

    On-line preconcentration and enantioseparation of thalidomide racemates by CEC with the hyphenation of octyl and norvancomycin monoliths

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 4 2009
    An-Na Tang
    Abstract A method was developed for simultaneous preconcentration and chiral separation of thalidomide enantiomers in human urine by CEC in combination with self-concentration and solvent gradient effects. A 4,cm long octyl (C8) monolithic column was hyphenated with a 15,cm long norvancomycin (NVC)-bonded monolithic column via a fluorinated ethylene,propylene interface. Sample solution was injected into the C8 monolithic column, the two thalidomide enantiomers were first preconcentrated on the C8 monolithic column, and then separated with a further concentration on the NVC-bonded monolithic column by CEC. Injection of 34.8,mm plug of sample solution gave 278- and 298-fold enhancement in sensitivity, and detection limits of 90 and 94,,g/L for the two thalidomide enantiomers. Peak areas of the two isomers were linear in a range of 0.5,50,mg/L. The precision for five replicate injections of 10,mg/L were 0.8,0.9 and 1.1,2.3% for the migration time and peak height, respectively. The developed method was applied to the determination of racemic thalidomide in spiked human urine samples. [source]

    Injection of the insertion of the deep digital flexor tendon in horses using radiographic guidance

    J. D. C. Anderson
    Summary Insertional tendinopathies of the DDFT have been reported both as the sole lesion and as part of a multifocal lesion (Dyson et al. 2003). Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging allow specific diagnosis of deep digital flexor tendon lesions within the hoof capsule; however, direct intralesional treatment of such lesions is difficult because of the hoof's rigid structure. A technique designed to mimic intralesional injection of insertional tendinopathies of the DDFT in the standing horse using radiographic guidance was assessed. Radiographic and contrast CT imaging and sectioning of the limbs confirmed accurate injection in all cases although inadvertant administration of injectate into adjacent structures was also evident. [source]

    Intra-articular stabilisation of the equine cricoarytenoid joint

    Summary Reasons for performing study: The success of laryngoplasty is limited by abduction loss in the early post operative period. Objective: To determine the efficacy of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in stabilising the cricoarytenoid joint (CAJ) and reducing the force on the laryngoplasty suture. Hypothesis: Injection into the cricoarytenoid joint resists the forces produced by physiological laryngeal air flows and pressures thereby reducing the force experienced by the laryngoplasty suture. Methods: Ten cadaver larynges were collected at necropsy and PMMA was injected into one CAJ at selected random. Each larynx was subjected to physiological conditions with with constant (static) or cycling (dynamic) flow. The specimens were tested sequentially in each of 4 conditions: 1) bilateral full abduction (Control 1); 2) transection of the suture on the side without PMMA; 3) bilateral abduction achieved by replacing the suture (Control 2); and 4) cutting the suture on the PMMA side. Tracheal pressure and flow and pressure in the flow chamber were recorded using pressure and flow transducers. The strain experienced by each suture during bilateral abduction (Controls 1 and 2) was measured. Statistical comparison of the 4 conditions was performed using a mixed effect model with Tukey's post hoc test for multiple comparisons. The strain gauge data were analysed by paired comparison of the regression slopes. Results: In the static and dynamic states, tracheal pressure increased and tracheal flow decreased when the suture on the non-cement side was cut (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in any outcome measure between PMMA injected into the CAJ and bilaterally abducted specimens (Controls 1 and 2) for either condition. The rate of increase in strain with increasing translaryngeal pressure was significantly less on the suture with PMMA placed in the CAJ (P = 0.03). Conclusions: These data provide strong evidence that injecting PMMA into the CAJ resists the collapsing effect of physiological airflows and pressures in vitro and reduces the force experienced by the laryngoplasty suture during maximal abduction. Potential relevance: Augmentation of prosthetic laryngoplasty with this technique may reduce arytenoid abduction loss in the early post operative period. [source]

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress contact hypersensitivity reactions by blocking influx of effector T cells into inflamed tissue

    Sabine Ring Dr.
    Abstract CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) exert suppressive functions on effector T cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the exact cellular events that mediate this inhibitory action remain largely unclear. To elucidate these events, we used intravital microscopy in a model of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and visualized the leukocyte-endothelium interaction at the site of antigen challenge in awake C57BL/6 mice. Injection of Treg i.v. into sensitized mice at the time of local hapten challenge significantly inhibited rolling and adhesion of endogenous leukocytes to the endothelium. A similar inhibition of leukocyte recruitment could be recorded after injection of Treg-derived tissue culture supernatant. Thus, these data indicate that soluble factors may account for the suppressive effects. Accordingly we found that IL-10, but not TGF-,, was produced by Treg upon stimulation and that addition of anti-IL-10 antibodies abrogated the suppressive effects of Treg and tissue culture supernatant in CHS reactions. Moreover, CD4+CD25+ T cells isolated from IL-10,/, mice were not able to suppress the immune response induced by hapten treatment in C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, our data suggest that cytokine-dependent rather than cell-cell contact-dependent mechanisms play a pivotal role in the suppression of CHS reactions by Treg in vivo. [source]

    Systemic autoimmune disease induced by dendritic cells that have captured necrotic but not apoptotic cells in susceptible mouse strains

    Liang Ma
    Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder of a largely unknown etiology. Anti-double-stranded (ds) DNA antibodies are a classic hallmark of the disease, although the mechanism underlying their induction remains unclear. We demonstrate here that, in both lupus-prone and normal mouse strains, strong anti-dsDNA antibody responses can be induced by dendritic cells (DC) that have ingested syngeneic necrotic (DC/nec), but not apoptotic (DC/apo), cells. Clinical manifestations of lupus were evident, however, only in susceptible mouse strains, which correlate with the ability of DC/nec to release IFN-, and to induce the pathogenic IgG2a anti-dsDNA antibodies. Injection of DC/nec not only accelerated disease progression in the MRL/MpJ- lpr/lpr lupus-prone mice but also induced a lupus-like disease in the MRL/MpJ-+/+ wild-type control strain. Immune complex deposition was readily detectable in the kidneys, and the mice developed proteinuria. Strikingly, female MRL/MpJ-+/+ mice that had received DC/nec, but not DC/apo, developed a ,butterfly' facial lesion resembling a cardinal feature of human SLE. Our study therefore demonstrates that DC/nec inducing a Th1 type of responses, which are otherwise tightly regulated in a normal immune system, may play a pivotal role in SLE pathogenesis. [source]

    Knocking out IL-6 by vaccination

    Pia Galle
    Abstract Inappropriate expression of IL-6 plays a role in various inflammatory conditions, degenerative diseases, and cancers. Several model systems have been developed that can specifically block IL-6-receptor interactions. Here we present a simple and highly effective approach based on vaccination with a pool of specifically mutated IL-6 analogues to induce a neutralizing IL-6 antibody responsein mice. Judged by the ability of the analogues to bind to heterologous anti-IL-6 antibodies and cellular IL-6 receptors the IL-6 analogues seemed to have a three-dimensional structure comparable to that of wild-type IL-6. Injection of them broke self-tolerance and induced an immune response to IL-6, presumably because of the amino acid differences between the analogues and wild-type IL-6. This resulted in a long-lasting anti-IL-6 antibody-mediated IL-6 deficiency that blocked experimentally induced IL-6-mediated pathology. [source]

    Dendritic cell-derived IL-15 controls the induction of CD8 T,cell immune responses

    René Rückert
    Abstract The development and the differentiation of CD8+ T,cells are dependent on IL-15. Here, we have studied the source and mechanism of how IL-15 modulates CD8+ T,cell-mediated Th1immune responses by employing two delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) models. IL-15-deficient (IL-15,/,) mice or mice treated with soluble IL-15R, as an IL-15 antagonist showed significantly reduced CD8+ T,cell-dependent DTH responses, while activation of CD4+ T,cell and B,cell functions remained unaffected. Injection of antigen-labeled dendritic cells (DC) fromIL-15+/+, IL-15,/, or IL-15R,,/, mice revealed that DC-derived IL-15 is an absolute requirement for the initiation of DTH response. The re-establishment of the interaction of IL-15 with the IL-15R, by incubating IL-15,/, DC with IL-15 completely restored the capacity to prime T,cells for DTH induction in vivo. Moreover, IL-15 also enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by DC and triggered in vitro CD8+ T,cell proliferation and IL-2 release. Taken together, the data suggest that an autocrine IL-15/IL-15R, signaling loop in DC is essential for inducing CD8+ -dependent Th1 immune responses in mice. Therefore, targeted manipulation of this loop promises to be an effective, novel strategy for therapeuticmodulation of clinically relevant DTH reactions. [source]

    Neuropeptide Y suppresses absence seizures in a genetic rat model primarily through effects on Y2 receptors

    Margaret J. Morris
    Abstract Neuropeptide Y (NPY) potently suppresses absence seizures in a model of genetic generalized epilepsy, genetic absence epilepsy rats of Strasbourg (GAERS). Here we investigated the Y-receptor subtype(s) on which NPY exerts this anti-absence effect. A dual in vivo approach was used: the cumulative duration of seizures was quantified in adult male GAERS in 90-min electroencephalogram recordings following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of: (i) subtype-selective agonists of Y1 ([Leu31Pro34]NPY, 2.5 nmol), Y2 (Ac[Leu28,31]NPY24,36, 3 nmol), Y5 receptors [hPP1,17,Ala31,Aib32]NPY, 4 nmol), NPY (3 nmol) or vehicle; and following (ii) i.c.v. injection of antagonists of Y1 (BIBP3226, 20 nmol), Y2 (BIIE0246, 20 nmol) and Y5 (NPY5RA972, 20 nmol) receptors or vehicle, followed by NPY (3 nmol). Injection of the Y1 - and Y5 -selective agonists resulted in significantly less mean seizure suppression (37.4% and 53.9%, respectively) than NPY (83.2%; P < 0.05), while the Y2 agonist had similar effects to NPY (62.3% suppression, P = 0.57). Food intake was not increased following injection of the Y2 agonist, while significant increases in food intake were seen following NPY and the other Y-subtype agonists. Compared with vehicle, NPY injection suppressed seizures following the Y1 and Y5 antagonists (45.3% and 80.1%, respectively, P < 0.05), but not following the Y2 antagonist (5.1% suppression, P = 0.46). We conclude that NPY Y2 receptors are more important than Y1 and Y5 receptors in mediating the effect of NPY to suppress absence seizures in a genetic rat model. Y2 receptor agonists may represent targets for novel drugs against genetic generalized epilepsies without resulting in appetite stimulation. [source]

    Cardiovascular effects of noradrenaline microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray area of unanaesthetized rats

    Gislaine Garcia Pelosi
    Abstract The periaqueductal grey area (PAG) is a mesencephalic region that is involved in the modulation of cardiovascular changes associated with behavioural responses. Among the neurotransmitters present in the PAG, noradrenaline (NA) is also known to be involved in central nervous system cardiovascular regulation. In the present study we report the cardiovascular effects of the microinjection of NA into the dorsal portion of the PAG (dPAG) of unanaesthetized rats and the peripheral mechanism involved in their mediation. Injection of NA in the dPAG of unanaesthetized rats evoked a dose-dependent pressor response accompanied by bradycardia. The magnitude of the pressor responses was higher at more rostral sites in the dPAG and decreased when NA was injected into the caudal portion of the dPAG. The responses to NA were markedly reduced in urethane-anaesthetized rats. The pressor response was potentiated by i.v. pretreatment with the ganglion blocker pentolinium and blocked by i.v. pretreatment with the vasopressin antagonist dTyr(CH2)5(Me)AVP. The results suggest that activation of noradrenergic receptors within the dPAG can evoke pressor responses, which are mediated by acute vasopressin release. [source]

    Aberrant trajectory of thalamocortical axons associated with abnormal localization of neurocan immunoreactivity in the cerebral neocortex of reeler mutant mice

    Hong-Peng Li
    Abstract We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the thalamocortical pathway in the cerebral neocortex of normal and reeler mutant mice. During normal development of the mouse neocortex, thalamic axons immunoreactive for the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 rarely invaded the cortical plate and ran centered in the subplate which is immunoreactive for neurocan, a brain-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. On the other hand, in homozygous reeler mutant mice, thalamic axons took an aberrant course to run obliquely through the cortical plate. Injection of bromodeoxyuridine at embryonic day 11 specifically labeled subplate neurons in normal mice, whilst in the reeler neocortex it labeled cells scattered in the cortical plate as well as in the superficial layer (superplate). Neurocan immunoreactivity was associated with the bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells in the superplate, as well as being present in oblique bands within the cortical plate, along which L1-bearing thalamic axons preferentially ran. The present results support our previous hypothesis proposed for normal rats that a heterophilic molecular interaction between L1 and neurocan is involved in determining the thalamocortical pathway within the neocortical anlage [T. Fukuda et al. (1997)Journal of Comparative Neurology, 382, 141,152]. [source]