Initiating Factor (initiating + factor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Does gastroesophageal reflux contribute to the development of chronic sinusitis?

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 6 2006
A review of the evidence
SUMMARY., Although recent studies suggest that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may contribute to a variety of ear, nose and throat and pulmonary diseases, the cause-and-effect relationship for the vast majority remains far from proven. In this article, the evidence supporting a possible causal association between GERD and chronic sinusitis has been reviewed. The evidence would suggest that: (i) a higher prevalence of GERD and a different esophagopharyngeal distribution of the gastric refluxate occurs in patients with chronic sinusitis unresponsive to conventional medical and surgical therapy compared to the general population; (ii) a biologically plausible pathogenetic mechanism exists whereby GERD may result in chronic sinusitis; and (iii) clinical manifestations of chronic sinusitis respond variably to antireflux therapy. While these findings suggest that GERD may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis in some patients, it is apparent that the quality of the evidence supporting each of these three lines of evidence is low and therefore does not conclusively establish a cause-and-effect relationship. A number of unresolved issues regarding prevalence, pathophysiological mechanism, diagnosis and treatment exist that deserve further investigation in order to solidify the relationship between GERD and chronic sinusitis. In conclusion, given the possible relationship between GERD and chronic sinusitis, until more convincing data are available, it may be prudent to investigate for GERD as a potential cofactor or initiating factor in patients with chronic sinusitis when no other etiology exists, or in those whose symptoms are unresponsive to conventional therapies. [source]


Chlamydia pneumoniae infection promotes the transmigration of monocytes through human brain endothelial cells

JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 5 2003
A. MacIntyre
Abstract We have investigated the effects of Chlamydia pneumoniae on human brain endothelial cells (HBMECs) and human monocytes as a mechanism for breaching the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). HBMECs and peripheral blood monocytes may be key components in controlling the entry of C. pneumoniae into the human brain. Our results indicate that C. pneumoniae infects blood vessels and monocytes in AD brain tissues compared with normal brain tissue. C. pneumoniae infection stimulates transendothelial entry of monocytes through HBMECs. This entry is facilitated by the up-regulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 on HBMECs and a corresponding increase of LFA-1, VLA-4, and MAC-1 on monocytes. C. pneumoniae infection in HBMECs and THP-1 monocytes up-regulates monocyte transmigration threefold in an in vitro brain endothelial monolayer. In this way, C. pneumoniae infection in these cell types may contribute to increased monocyte migration and promote inflammation within the CNS resulting from infection at the level of the vasculature. Thus, infection at the level of the vasculature may be a key initiating factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as sporadic AD. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Altered localization of gene expression in both ectoderm and mesoderm is associated with a murine strain difference in retinoic acid,induced forelimb ectrodactyly,

BIRTH DEFECTS RESEARCH, Issue 6 2007
Hirohito Shimizu
Abstract BACKGROUND: Defects in digit number or fusion as a teratogenic response are well documented in humans and intensively studied in various mouse models. Maternal exposure to excess levels of all- trans -retinoic acid (RA) at gestational day 9.5 induces postaxial ectrodactyly (digit loss) in the murine C57BL/6N strain but not in the SWV/Fnn strain. METHODS: Whole-mount in situ hybridization was used to examine the differential expression of limb patterning genes at the transcriptional level between the two mouse strains following the maternal exposure to a teratogenic level of RA. The detection of a gene with altered expression was followed by either the evaluation of other genes that were synexpressed or with an assessment of downstream genes. RESULTS: In the C57BL/6N limb bud following maternal RA administration, gene-specific perturbations were observed within hours of the RA injection in the posterior pre-AER (apical ectodermal ridge) (Fgf8, Dlx3, Bmp4, Sp8, but not Dlx2 or p63), whereas these genes were normally expressed in the SWV/Fnn limb bud. Furthermore, although RA caused comparable reductions of Shh expression between the strains in the 12 h after administration, some Shh downstream genes were differentially expressed (e.g., Gli1, Ptc, and Hoxd13), whereas others were not (e.g., Fgf4, Bmp4, and Gremlin). CONCLUSIONS: It is proposed that altered gene expression in both pre-AER and mesoderm is involved in the pathogenesis of postaxial digit loss, and that because the alterations in the pre-AER occur relatively early in the temporal sequence of events, those changes are candidates for an initiating factor in the malformation. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


RECENT AND FUTURE MANAGEMENT CHANGES IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT: CONTINUING FOCUS ON RATIONALITY AND EFFICIENCY?

FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2008
Henk J. Ter Bogt
Dutch municipalities and provinces have recently introduced many changes relating to management control. This paper explores the role of economic and social rationality in the introduction of reforms, and the nature of possible future reforms. Based on interviews with politicians and professional managers and on documents, the paper examines experiences with recent management changes. In addition, it discusses ,change initiating factors'. Budget cuts and trends seem to be such change initiating factors. However, particularly more demanding citizens, increases in voters' volatility and politicians' uncertainty seemed to initiate changes. The paper speculates that in the near future, too, it could be a rational survival strategy for politicians and managers to focus on initiatives that are intended to enhance performance and efficiency. [source]


Assessment of endothelial function as a marker of cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RHEUMATIC DISEASES, Issue 3 2010
Faisel KHAN
Abstract The endothelium is a major regulator of cardiovascular function and maintains an atheroprotective role through several mechanisms, including vasodilatation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, having anticoagulant and profibrinolytic effects, and having an anti-inflammatory effect. Early changes in the normal functioning of the endothelium are key initiating factors in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. These changes are present well before the presentation of clinical symptoms. Thus, researchers have focused much attention on developing methods for reliable non-invasive testing of endothelial function to allow early detection and monitoring and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. To date, there is a wide range of methods in use to assess endothelial function, each with its own advantages and limitations. Ideally, the tests should be non-invasive to allow repeated measurements and be applicable in normal healthy subjects and also in children. Given the wide range of regulatory functions of the endothelium, it is not surprising that there is no single measure of endothelial function that provides all the necessary information regarding vascular integrity in different vascular beds. Therefore, a combination of tests examining different components of the vascular system is more appropriate. Since patients with rheumatoid arthritis have increased mortality due to cardiovascular disease, assessment of endothelial function could prove to be useful tools in the identification and monitoring of cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this review is to give a brief overview of some of the commonly used techniques for assessment of endothelial function, and in particular on those that have been used in studies of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. [source]


RECENT AND FUTURE MANAGEMENT CHANGES IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT: CONTINUING FOCUS ON RATIONALITY AND EFFICIENCY?

FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2008
Henk J. Ter Bogt
Dutch municipalities and provinces have recently introduced many changes relating to management control. This paper explores the role of economic and social rationality in the introduction of reforms, and the nature of possible future reforms. Based on interviews with politicians and professional managers and on documents, the paper examines experiences with recent management changes. In addition, it discusses ,change initiating factors'. Budget cuts and trends seem to be such change initiating factors. However, particularly more demanding citizens, increases in voters' volatility and politicians' uncertainty seemed to initiate changes. The paper speculates that in the near future, too, it could be a rational survival strategy for politicians and managers to focus on initiatives that are intended to enhance performance and efficiency. [source]