Initial Visit (initial + visit)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A multicentre investigation into the role of structured histories for patients with tooth avulsion at their initial visit to a dental hospital

Peter F. Day
Abstract ,,,A paper structured history (SH) is a sheet, which prompts or reminds the clinician to ask various important questions. The aim of this study was to examine avulsion cases with respect to the quality of clinical records. Hospitals studied used either a paper SH or had no specific structure in their recording of avulsion details, e.g. unstructured histories (USH). The most important prognostic items that should be recorded for avulsion cases at their first visit were identified by reviewing the literature. Clinical case records meeting strict inclusion criteria were retrospectively analyzed against 10 important prognostic items. Forty-seven patient records were identified in the SH group compared to 43 patient records in the USH group. Using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, the SH group were significantly better at recording the following: accident details (P < 0.001), loss of consciousness (P < 0.001), other teeth or tooth injuries (P < 0.05), extra-alveolar mediums (P < 0.01), total extra-alveolar time (P < 0.001), antibiotics given at time of injury (P < 0.05) and apical maturity (P < 0.001). In all the dental hospitals selected, two-thirds of the case records were completed by junior dentists not in specialist training and the improvement in history when using an SH form was most pronounced in these groups. It is concluded, therefore, that an SH should be taken for cases of avulsion as it was significantly better at collecting essential prognostic information. [source]

Persistence and Improvement of Nasolabial Fold Correction with Nonanimal-Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid 100,000 Gel Particles/mL Filler on Two Retreatment Schedules: Results up to 18 Months on Two Retreatment Schedules

BACKGROUND Nonanimal-stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) fillers are frequently used for facial soft tissue augmentation. Their long-term efficacy and the effects of different retreatment schedules are not well established. OBJECTIVE This is an 18-month interim analysis of a 30-month study to evaluate the efficacy and persistence of NASHA 100,000 gel particles/mL filler with two different retreatment schedules. METHODS This multicenter, randomized, evaluator-blinded study enrolled 75 patients with moderate to severe nasolabial folds. Patients were randomized to retreatment of one nasolabial fold at 4.5 months and the contralateral fold at 9 months after correction of both folds at the initial visit. RESULTS Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale scores improved significantly (p<.001) from baseline, with mean improvements ranging from 1.1 to 1.7 grades. Almost all patients (97%) responded satisfactorily, and the efficacy of the retreatment schedules did not differ significantly. Adverse events, primarily swelling and bruising, occurred in 33% of patients; none were serious. CONCLUSION The improvements seen after initial treatment with NASHA 100,000 gel particles/mL filler persisted for up to 18 months with one retreatment. The response was equivalent for retreatment at 4.5 and 9 months. [source]

Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections: a review of epidemiology, clinical features, management, and prevention

Philip R. Cohen MD
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CAMRSA) infection is a global problem of epidemic proportions. Many of the patients who develop CAMRSA skin lesions do not have infection-associated risk factors. Abscess, abscess with accompanying cellulitis, and cellulitis are the most common presentations of cutaneous CAMRSA infection; occasionally, these CARMSA-related lesions are misinterpreted as spider or insect bites. Other manifestations of cutaneous CAMRSA infection include impetigo, folliculitis, and acute paronychia. The management of CAMRSA skin infection includes incision and drainage, systemic antimicrobial therapy, and adjuvant topical antibacterial treatment. In addition, at the initial visit, bacterial culture of the lesion should be considered. Direct skin-to-skin contact, damage to the skin surface, sharing of personal items, and a humid environment are potential mechanisms for the acquisition and transmission of cutaneous CAMRSA infection. Measures that strive to eliminate these causes are useful for preventing the spread of CAMRSA skin infection. [source]

Physical Rehabilitation Alters Body Composition in Chronically Obese Cat

Sarah K. Abood
Successful weight loss in obese dogs and cats is difficult, and even more so in pets who don't exercise regularly or are inactive. Over the past 10 years, physical rehabilitation (or physio-therapy) as a treatment or wellness modality has been gaining popularity in small animal veterinary practice. This case report describes the use of physical rehabilitation to achieve weight loss and a decreased body condition score in a chronically obese cat. A 7-year old, female-spayed domestic, short-haired cat, weighing 15 lbs, was evaluated by the Nutrition Support Service at Michigan State University's Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a weight management consultation. The cat had a history of chronic obesity and the owner reported feeding a variety of reduced or restricted-calorie foods, both canned and dry versions, over the previous 5 years. The home environment included three other cats, none of which were overweight. All cats were fed once daily in the evening; separate food bowls were provided for each cat, but multiple water bowls and litter boxes were shared. A course of 8 weeks of physio-therapy was recommended, with a target weight of 12 lbs identified, to which the owner agreed. Body weight, body condition score and circumference measures of axillary, rib and flank areas were taken at the initial visit, and at 3 weeks and 8 weeks. At the beginning of the 8th week, the cat's body weight had dropped from 15 lbs to 14.2 lbs, and the body condition score shifted down from 9 to 8 out of 9. More dramatically, however, were changes measured in body circumference: from 43 cm to 38.6 cm in the axilla (11% decrease); 50.3 cm to 42.5 cm in the ribs (15.5% decrease); 46 cm to 41 cm in the flank (11% decrease). To the author's knowledge, this is the first report confirming weight loss, reduced body condition score, and altered body composition in a cat as a direct result of physical rehabilitation. [source]

Changes in vasoactive intestinal peptide in gingival crevicular fluid in response to periodontal treatment

Gerard J. Linden
Abstract Aims: To evaluate the role of the anti-inflammatory neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in periodontal health and disease and to determine the effects of periodontal treatment, resulting in a return to periodontal health, on the levels of VIP in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Methods: At baseline, 10 subjects with periodontitis (nine females, one male, mean age 43.0, SD 7.3) started a course of non-surgical periodontal treatment. Clinical indices were measured at one periodontitis and one clinically healthy site at an initial visit and at 8 weeks after the completion of treatment in each subject. A 30-s sample of GCF was collected from each test site using perio paper strips. The volume of GCF was measured and each sample subsequently analysed for VIP by radioimmunoassay. One healthy site was sampled from each member of a control group (10 females, mean age 29.9, SD 8.2 years) with clinically healthy gingiva and no periodontitis. Results: The clinical condition of all periodontitis sites improved as a result of periodontal treatment. The levels of VIP (pg/30 s sample) in periodontitis-affected sites fell significantly from 302.0 (SD 181.2) at the initial visit to 78.0 (54.4) after treatment, p = 0.007. The reduction in the concentration of VIP (pg/µL) in GCF from 524.3 (322.3) to 280.8 (280.2) was not statistically significant. The levels of VIP in clinically healthy sites fell from 115.5.5 (74.3) to 77.8 (32.3), n.s. and the concentration changed little from 883.8 (652.1) to 628.7 (323.3), n.s. There were substantially smaller amounts of VIP (25.8, SD 12.8) pg in healthy sites sampled from control subjects. Conclusions: VIP is present in GCF in greater quantities in periodontitis-affected than clinically healthy sites. In addition, the reduction in inflammation resulting from effective periodontal treatment is associated with a reduction in the levels of VIP in gingival crevicular fluid. [source]

Science learning in a leisure setting

John H. Falk
Abstract Most people visit a science center in order to satisfy specific leisure-related needs; needs which may or may not actually include science learning. Falk proposed that an individual's identity-related motivations provide a useful lens through which to understand adult free-choice science learning in leisure settings. Over a 3-year period the authors collected in-depth data on a random sample of visitors to a large recently opened, hands-on, interactive science center; collecting information on why people visited, what they did within the science center, what they knew about the subject presented upon entering and exiting, and what each individual's long-term self-perceptions of their own learning was. Presented is a qualitative analysis of visitor interviews collected roughly 2 years after the initial visit. Although there was evidence for a range of science learning outcomes, outcomes did appear to be strongly influenced by visitor's entering identity-related motivations. However, the data also suggested that not only were the motivational goals of a science center visit important in determining outcomes, so too were the criteria by which visitors judged satisfaction of those goals; in particular whether goal satisfaction required external or merely internal validation. The implications for future informal science education research and practice are discussed. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 47:194,212, 2010 [source]

Screening for High- and Moderate-Risk Drinking During Pregnancy: A Comparison of Several TWEAK-Based Screeners

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2001
Deborah A. Dawson
Purpose: This study investigated the use of the TWEAK and nine alternative screeners for predicting high-risk and moderate-risk drinking during pregnancy. Method: The analysis was based on self-reports from 404 lifetime drinkers who presented for an initial visit at nine prenatal clinics in Washington, DC. Data were collected anonymously by having women directly enter their responses onto an audio, computer-assisted interview that was programmed onto a laptop computer. Pregnancy risk drinking status was based on both average daily volume of intake and frequency of drinking 3+ drinks in a day. Each of the alternative screeners was constructed by adding one additional risk indicator to the TWEAK, and three different scoring options were explored. Results: Using thresholds of 2 points for high-risk drinking and 1 point for moderate-risk drinking, the TWEAK demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 70.6% and 73.2% for high-risk drinking and a sensitivity and specificity of 65.6% and 63.7% for any (high- or moderate-) risk drinking during pregnancy. None of the alternative screeners resulted in significant improvement, but the addition of current smoking status showed enough promise to warrant further testing in larger samples. Conclusions: Despite some loss in sensitivity and specificity, the TWEAK, in its original or a modified form, can be extended to measures of high-risk drinking that incorporate infrequent heavy intake and can be used to test for moderate- as well as high-risk drinking. Because identification of moderate-risk drinkers substantially increases the pool of women targeted for intervention, cost implications must be considered in designing appropriate interventions. [source]

Spontaneous Feline Hypertension: Clinical and Echocardiographic Abnormalities, and Survival Rate

Valerie Chetboul
Systemic hypertension was diagnosed in 58 of 188 untreated cats referred for evaluation of suspected hypertension-associated ocular, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and urinary disease, or diseases frequently associated with hypertension (hyperthyroidism and chronic renal failure). Hypertensive cats were significantly older than normotensive subjects (13.0 ± 3.5 years versus 9.6 ± 5.0 years; P < .01), and had a greater prevalence of retinal lesions (48 versus 3%; P < .001), gallop rhythm (16 versus 0%; P < .001), and polyuria-polydipsia (53 versus 29%; P < .01). Blood pressure was significantly higher (P < .001) in cats with retinopathies (262 ± 34 mm Hg) than in other hypertensive animals (221 ± 34 mm Hg). Hypertensive cats had a thicker interventricular septum (5.8 ± 1.7 versus 3.7 ± 0.64 mm; P < .001) and left ventricular free wall (6.2 ± 1.6 versus 4.1 ± 0.51 mm; P < .001) and a reduced diastolic left ventricular internal diameter (13.5 ± 3.2 versus 15.8 ± 0.72 mm; P < .001) than control cats. Left ventricular geometry was abnormal in 33 of 39 hypertensive subjects. No significant difference was found in age or blood pressure at the initial visit between cats that died or survived over a 9-month period after initial diagnosis of hypertension. Mean survival times were not significantly different between hypertensive cats with normal and abnormal left ventricular patterns. Further prospective studies are needed to clearly identify the factors involved in survival time in hypertensive cats. [source]

Maternal pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in offspring

De-Kun Li
To determine whether maternal exposure to pre-eclampsia/eclampsia during pregnancy increases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in offspring, we conducted a population-based case,control study using the California linked birth and death certificate data. All infants who died of SIDS (ICD-9 code 798.0) during 1989,91 were identified as cases. More than 96% of the identified SIDS cases were diagnosed through autopsy. Ten controls who did not die from SIDS were randomly selected for each case from the birth certificate matched to the case on the year of birth. Among 2029 cases and 21 037 controls included in the final analysis, mothers of 49 cases (2.4%) and 406 controls (1.9%) had a diagnosis of either pre-eclampsia or eclampsia noted on the birth certificate. After adjustment for maternal age, prenatal smoking, race/ethnicity, parity, maternal education, gestational age at the initial visit for prenatal care, infant year of birth and infant sex, maternal pre-eclampsia/eclampsia during pregnancy was associated with a 50% increased risk of SIDS in the offspring (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1, 2.0). Potential under-reporting of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia on the birth certificates was likely to be non-differential and is unlikely to explain the finding. Fetal hypoxia resulting from pre-eclampsia/eclampsia or immunological aetiology affecting the risk of both pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and SIDS may explain the finding. [source]

The Effects Of Tizanidine HCL (Zanaflex®) In Patients With Fibromyalgia

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2000
Article first published online: 25 DEC 200
David McLain, MD, Brookwood Medical Center, Birmingham, AL This open-label, single-center, dose-finding study of Zanaflex (tizanidine hydrochloride) in 43 patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia showed some effectiveness in reducing pain and other symptoms of this syndrome. Fibromyalgia is a common syndrome characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain in all 4 quadrants and pain in 18 identified tender points. Effects on fatigue, pain, sleep, and tender points were assessed before and during treatment. Starting doses of 2 mg/day were increased to 4 mg/day after 5 days and increased further as tolerated. Most patients stayed at 4 mg/day or 8 mg/day, and the highest dosage achieved was 12 mg/day. After the initial visit, 6 patients discontinued Zanaflex because of side effects (headaches in 3, hallucinations in 1, hypotension in 1, asthenia in 1), and 11 did not return for a follow-up visit. Results are presented for the remaining 26 patients (25 females; average age 50 years (range, 36,64 years); 25 Caucasian, 1 African-American; 9 on disability or applying for it; all stable on one or more of the following concomitant medications: narcotic analgesics 15%, antidepressants 65%, NSAIDs 46%). On average, at the first follow-up visit (average time 7.8 weeks), patients showed reduction in tender points and improvement on global assessment (GA) scores, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) results, and visual assessment (VAS) scores for fatigue, pain, and sleep. The results for patients still working or retired were better than those for patients on disability or applying for it. Of the 26 patients in this ongoing study, 14 have had second follow-up visits (average time 13.3 weeks). Of these, 2 discontinued the drug at the second follow-up visit. Six of these patients responded especially well to long-term treatment (average age 51 years; range 46,60 years; 5 females; 1 on disability or applying for it) and showed the following averaged results: global assessment improved by 47%, FIQ by 35%, VAS-fatigue by 48%, VAS-pain by 40%, VAS-sleep by 37%, and tender points by 18%. Zanaflex appears to be effective in improving overall functioning, reducing pain and fatigue, improving sleep, and reducing the number of painful tender points in some patients with fibromyalgia, especially in those who are not on disability or applying for it. [source]

Scanning for chorionicity: comparison between sonographers and perinatologists

Boaz Weisz
Abstract Objective In most prenatal settings, twin pregnancies are initially evaluated by sonographers. Pregnancies diagnosed as monochorionic are subsequently referred to perinatologists or specialists in fetal medicine for the confirmation of chorionicity. In order to assess this screening strategy, we have compared the diagnosis of chorionicity made by the sonographers in the ultrasound department with the diagnosis done in the fetal medicine unit. Methods A cohort of women presenting with twin pregnancy and booked for prenatal care at University College London Hospitals over a 4-year period were investigated prospectively. All women were scanned at their initial visit at 11,14 weeks in the ultrasound department (US), and were subsequently referred to the Fetal Medicine Unit (FMU) for a second ultrasound evaluation. Ultrasound data were compared and diagnosis of chorionicity was confirmed by examination of the inter-twin membranes after delivery. Results Chorionicity was determined in 172 twin cases by the two different departments. The overall rate of concordant chorionicity determination between both units was 90.1%. The rate of discordant results in dichorionic pregnancies was extremely small, 1 in 119 pregnancies (0.8%). The rate of discordant results for monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies was 5.5%. Monoamniotic pregnancies were over-diagnosed by the US technicians. Discussion These results demonstrate that DC/DA chorionicity is accurately determined by sonographers at less than 14 weeks. In our opinion, it is both efficient and safe to rely on the diagnosis of the sonographers in DC/DA pregnancies in early pregnancy. In such pregnancies, a decision can be made either not to refer these patients for further evaluation of chorionicity by the fetal medicine team or to postpone the referral to after 14 weeks. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A Chinese,Japanese boy with black dot ringworm due to Trichophyton violaceum

ABSTRACT A 4-year and 8-month-old Chinese-Japanese boy, who had been visiting Dalian, China frequently, developed multiple alopecia lesions 1 year previously. At his initial visit to our department, multiple patchy alopecia with black dots was observed in the parietal scalp area. Multiple erythematous macules were also seen on the face, nape and right dorsum of the hand. A diagnosis of tinea capitis and tinea corporis was obtained on the basis of potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopic examination of hair and scales from the lesions. Colonies grown on Sabouraud cycloheximide-chloramphenicol agar culture were examined using Fungi-Tape and MycoPerm-blue, and numerous microconidia and a small number of macroconidia were observed. Trichophyton violaceum was identified as the causative organism on the basis of colony morphology, microscopic morphology and molecular biology technique. As T. violaceum infection is not often seen in Japan, we suspected that the patient was infected by T. violaceum during his stay in Dalian. Conidia formation is rarely observed with T. violaceum, and only five cases with T. violaceum macroconidia formation have been reported in Japan (including this case). We also report the method for visualizing conidia formation of T. violaceum using Fungi-tape and MycoPerm-blue. [source]

Real-Life Safety and Efficacy of Vardenafil in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction,Results from 30,010 U.S. Patients

Eric Cheng MD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Clinical trials show that vardenafil produces effective and satisfactory first-dose success rates and reliability for erection and intercourse in men with erectile dysfunction (ED). Aim., This study was conducted to evaluate real-life efficacy, safety, and acceptance of vardenafil in men with ED. Methods., This open-label, prospective study, conducted in 6,740 U.S. centers, included an initial visit and one or two follow-up visits within a 2-month period of the first vardenafil dose. Vardenafil was administered in 5,20 mg doses. Main Outcome Measures., Efficacy variables included first-dose success rates for vaginal penetration, maintenance of erection, and satisfaction based on physician and patient assessments. Safety was assessed by adverse events (AEs). Results., A total of 30,010 men were included in the safety/intent-to-treat (S/ITT) analysis, with 26,043 men in the adjusted S/ITT population. Vardenafil improved erectile function in 78% of men, with 75% rating overall efficacy as "satisfying" or "very satisfying." The overall rates of successful penetration and maintenance with vardenafil following the first dose were 78% and 68%, respectively. For men with mild and moderate ED, first-dose success rates for penetration were 89% and 82%, respectively, and for maintenance, 82% and 71%, respectively. First-dose penetration and maintenance of erection rates were 76% and 66%, respectively, for men with self-reported hypertension, and 70% and 60%, respectively, for men with diabetes mellitus. At study end, 67% of patients preferred to continue using vardenafil. The most frequently reported AEs were headache (4%) and flushing (2%). Vardenafil was well tolerated, with a "satisfied/very satisfied" tolerability rating in 75% of cases as assessed by the physician. Conclusions., This observational study demonstrated the tolerability and efficacy of vardenafil in men with ED and comorbidities. Vardenafil provided a high rate of first-dose intercourse success and a favorable safety profile in patients with and without comorbid disease. Cheng E. Real-life safety and efficacy of vardenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction,Results from 30,010 U.S. patients. J Sex Med 2007;4:432,439. [source]

Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis: A Longitudinal Study Comparing Severity Associated With Human Papilloma Viral Types 6 and 11 and Other Risk Factors in a Large Pediatric Population,

Brian J. Wiatrak MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: A database was developed for prospective, longitudinal study of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in a large population of pediatric patients. Data recorded for each patient included epidemiological factors, human papilloma virus (HPV) type, clinical course, staged severity of disease at each surgical intervention, and frequency of surgical intervention. The study hypothesizes that patients with HPV type 11 (HPV-11) and patients younger than 3 years of age at diagnosis are at risk for more aggressive and extensive disease. Study Design: The 10-year prospective epidemiological study used disease staging for each patient with an original scoring system. Severity scores were updated at each surgical procedure. Methods: Parents of children with RRP referred to the authors' hospital completed a detailed epidemiological questionnaire at the initial visit or at the first return visit after the study began. At the first endoscopic debridement after study enrollment, tissue was obtained and submitted for HPV typing using polymerase chain reaction techniques and in situ hybridization. Staging of disease severity was performed in real time at each endoscopic procedure using an RRP scoring system developed by one of the authors (B.J.W.). The frequency of endoscopic operative debridement was recorded for each patient. Information in the database was analyzed to identify statistically significant relationships between extent of disease and/or HPV type, patient age at diagnosis, and selected epidemiological factors. Results: The study may represent the first longitudinal prospective analysis of a large pediatric RRP population. Fifty-eight of the 73 patients in the study underwent HPV typing. Patients infected with HPV-11 were significantly more likely to have higher severity scores, require more frequent surgical intervention, and require adjuvant therapy to control disease progression. In addition, patients with HPV-11 RRP were significantly more likely to develop tracheal disease, to require tracheotomy, and to develop pulmonary disease. Patients receiving a diagnosis of RRP before 3 years of age had significantly higher severity scores, higher frequencies of surgical intervention, and greater likelihood of requiring adjuvant medical therapy. Patients with Medicaid insurance had significantly higher severity scores and required more frequent surgical debridement. Birth by cesarean section appeared to be a significant risk factor for more severe disease and necessity of more frequent surgical intervention. Conclusion: Statistical analysis of the relationships among epidemiological factors, HPV type, and clinical course revealed that patients with HPV-11 and patients younger than 3 years of age at RRP diagnosis are prone to develop more aggressive disease as represented by higher severity scores at endoscopic debridement, more frequent operative debridement procedures per year, a greater requirement for adjuvant therapy, and greater likelihood of tracheal disease with tracheotomy. [source]

Telephone Appointment Visits for Head and Neck Surgery Follow-up Care,,

Jeffrey Eaton MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis To test the hypothesis that patients with a variety of otolaryngologic diagnoses using telephone appointment visits would be equally as satisfied as patients receiving physician office visits, the study compared telephone appointment visits with physician office visits for health maintenance organization patients who needed routine follow-up care in a head and neck surgery clinic. Study Design Randomized, nonblinded cross-sectional study. Methods After their initial visit to either of two head and neck surgery clinics, new otolaryngology patients were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. Patients in the treatment group (n = 73) received follow-up care in the form of telephone appointment visits, and patients in the control group (n = 80) received physician office visits for follow-up care. Study data were collected using telephone interviews and physician trackingforms. Results Patients receiving telephone appointment visits were significantly less satisfied with their visits than patients receiving physician office visits (,2 = 25.4, P <.005). Patients who had physician office visits were significantly more likely than were patients in the treatment group to agree "somewhat" or "strongly" that 1) the physician addressed their questions and concerns (,2 = 24.0, P <.005); 2) the physician provided personal care and attention (,2 =29.9, P <.005); and 3) the physician provided high-quality care (,2 =34.5, P <.005). Conclusions Patients who received telephone appointment visits were statistically significantly less satisfied with all aspects of their follow-up appointment than were patients who had physician office visits. The study findings indicate that telephone appointment visits may not be an ideal type of follow-up visit for all patients. Despite these findings, one third of patients in the treatment group would consider receiving a telephone appointment visit for future routine follow-up care, and 21.9% had no preference, perhaps a factor indicating willingness to receive a telephone appointment for a follow-up visit. [source]

P-Wave Indices, Distribution and Quality Control Assessment (from the Framingham Heart Study)

Jared W. Magnani M.D.
Background: P-wave indices of maximum P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion have been examined in a broad array of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular disease states. The P-wave indices literature has been highly heterogeneous in measurement methodologies, described quality control metrics, and distribution of values. We therefore sought to determine the reproducibility of P-wave indices in a community-based cohort. Methods: P-wave indices were measured in sequential subjects enrolled in the Framingham Heart Study. Electrocardiograms were obtained at the 11th biennial visit of the Original Cohort (n = 250) and the initial visit of the Offspring Cohort (n = 252). We determined the mean P-wave durations, interlead correlations, and P-wave indices. We then chose 20 ECGs, 10 from each cohort, and assessed intrarater and interrater variability. Results: The maximum P-wave duration ranged from 71 to 162 ms with mean of 112 ± 12 ms. The minimum P-wave duration ranged from 35 to 103 ms with mean of 65 ± 10 ms. P-wave dispersion ranged from 12 to 82 ms. The mean P-wave dispersion was 48 ± 12 ms (40,56). The intrarater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was r = 0.80 for maximum P-wave duration and r = 0.82 for P-wave dispersion. The interrater ICC was 0.56 for maximum P-wave duration and 0.70 for P-wave dispersion. Conclusions: We demonstrated excellent intrarater reproducibility and fair interrater reproducibility for calculating P-wave indices. Reproducibility is frequently lacking in studies of P-wave indices, but is an essential component for the field's growth and epidemiologic contribution. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2010;15(1):77,84 [source]

Routine Packing of Simple Cutaneous Abscesses Is Painful and Probably Unnecessary

Gerald F. O'Malley DO
Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to determine whether the routine packing of simple cutaneous abscesses after incision and drainage (I&D) confers any benefit over I&D alone. Methods:, In a prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial, subjects with simple cutaneous abscesses (less than 5 cm largest diameter) underwent incision, drainage, irrigation, and standard abscess preparation in the usual manner. Subjects were then randomized to either packing or no-packing. Visual analog scales (VAS; 100 mm) of pain were recorded in the emergency department (ED). All patients received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), ibuprofen, and narcotic prescriptions, recorded twice daily VAS pain scores, and returned in 48 hours at which time dressings and packing, if present, were removed and a physician blinded to the randomization and not part of the initial visit repeated measurements and determined the need for further intervention. Results:, Forty-eight subjects were included in the final analysis. There were no significant differences in age, sex, abscess location, or initial pain scores between the two groups. There was no significant difference in need for a second intervention at the 48-hour follow-up between the packed (4 of 23 subjects) and nonpacked (5 of 25 subjects) groups (p = 0.72; relative risk = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4 to 4.2). Patients in the group that received packing reported higher pain scores immediately postprocedure (mean difference = 23.8 mm; p = 0.014, 95% CI = 5 to 42 mm) and at 48 hours postprocedure (mean difference = 16.4 mm; p = 0.03, 95% CI = 1.6 to 31.2 mm), as well as greater use of ibuprofen (mean difference = 0.32; p = 0.12, 95% CI = ,1.4 to 2.0) and oxycodone/acetaminophen (mean difference = 2.19; p = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.2 to 4.1). Conclusion:, In this pilot study, not packing simple cutaneous abscesses did not result in any increased morbidity, and patients reported less pain and used fewer pain medications than packed patients. [source]

Treatment of statin adverse effects with supplemental Coenzyme Q10 and statin drug discontinuation

BIOFACTORS, Issue 1-4 2005
Peter H. Langsjoen
Abstract Fifty consecutive new cardiology clinic patients who were on statin drug therapy (for an average of 28 months) on their initial visit were evaluated for possible adverse statin effects (myalgia, fatigue, dyspnea, memory loss, and peripheral neuropathy). All patients discontinued statin therapy due to side effects and began supplemental CoQ10 at an average of 240 mg/day upon initial visit. Patients have been followed for an average of 22 months with 84% of the patients followed now for more than 12 months. The prevalence of patient symptoms on initial visit and on most recent follow-up demonstrated a decrease in fatigue from 84% to 16%, myalgia from 64% to 6%, dyspnea from 58% to 12%, memory loss from 8% to 4% and peripheral neuropathy from 10% to 2%. There were two deaths from lung cancer and one death from aortic stenosis with no strokes or myocardial infarctions. Measurements of heart function either improved or remained stable in the majority of patients. We conclude that statin-related side effects, including statin cardiomyopathy, are far more common than previously published and are reversible with the combination of statin discontinuation and supplemental CoQ10. We saw no adverse consequences from statin discontinuation. [source]

1251: Diagnosis of adult ophthalmic tumours: role of clinical history, symptoms and signs

Purpose To summarise signs and symptoms useful in diagnosing adult ophthalmic tumours. Methods Personal experience of the author as a member of the European Ophthalmic Oncology Group. Results According to studies from the United Kingdom, Finland and United States, 28-42% of adult patients with intraocular tumours may experience delays because the lesion is either misdiagnosed (e.g. as macular degeneration, naevus, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment) or missed at the initial visit. Of these patients, 72-87% have symptoms attributable to the tumour such as blurred vision, photopsia, floaters, metamorphopsia, and visual field loss. These symptoms can also be caused by many benign conditions (e.g. vitreous detachment) but should not be interpreted as innocent without thorough clinical examination. Signs specific for iris and ciliary body tumours include a tumour mass, sentinel vessels, acquired astigmatism, and cataracts. Choroidal tumours may induce serous retinal detachments, subretinal and vitreous bleedings and, sometimes, lipid exudation. Finally, orange subretinal pigment suggests the diagnosis of a uveal melanoma whereas many drusen point to a long-standing naevus. Conclusion Signs and symptoms of ophthalmic tumours are mostly nonspecific, necessitating an appropriately high level of suspicion and a systematic approach to clinical examination to avoid delayed or missed diagnoses. Earlier diagnosis could be achieved especially if dilated fundus examinations were performed without exception and if all suspicious naevi were referred for a second opinion. [source]

Clinical evaluation of cessation of hyperopia in 123 children with accommodative esotropia treated with glasses for best corrected vision

Yoonae A. Cho
Abstract. Purpose:, This study aimed to determine age at successful cessation of hyperopic glasses, the influence of hyperopia on the esotropic angle and age at discontinuation of glasses in accommodative esotropia (AE) patients. Methods:, We performed a retrospective study in 123 AE patients who achieved complete emmetropization and maintained orthophoria without hyperopic glasses between March 1999 and February 2005. All patients had been prescribed the weakest possible glasses to provide best corrected vision and maintain fusion in hyperopia. Results:, Pure AE was found in 64 patients and partial AE in 59. At the initial visit, 56.1% of patients had refractive errors of 3.00,5.00 D (mean cycloplegic spherical equivalent [SE]). The angle of esotropia without correction was 30.90 ± 14.80 prism dioptres (PD) (mean ± standard deviation) in pure AE, and 42.70 ± 15.19 PD in partial AE (p = 0.000). The non-accommodative component in partial AE was 24.07 ± 14.90 PD. The mean age at cessation of glasses use was 13.50 ± 3.81 years. Stereopsis was noted in 70.2% of patients at the initial visit and 96.4% at the last visit. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) were 0.480 between the degree of hyperopia and amount of optically corrected esotropia (p = 0.000), and 0.434 between the degree of hyperopia and age at successful cessation of corrective glasses use (p = 0.000). Conclusions:, The mean age at resolution of hyperopia with good stereopsis was 13.5 years. The degree of hyperopia seemed to correlate with the angle of esotropia and the age of successful cessation of corrective glasses. [source]

Hospital Characteristics and Emergency Department Care of Older Patients Are Associated with Return Visits

DrPH, Jane McCusker MD
ObjectivesTo explore hospital characteristics and indicators of emergency department (ED) care of older patients associated with return visits to the ED. MethodsProvincial databases in the province of Quebec, Canada, and a survey of ED geriatric services were linked at the individual and hospital level, respectively. All general acute care adult hospitals with at least 100 eligible patients who visited an ED during 2001 were included (N= 80). The study population (N= 140,379) comprised community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and older who made an initial ED visit in 2001 and were discharged home. Characteristics of the hospitals included location, number of ED beds, ED resources, and geriatric services in the hospital and the ED. Indicators of ED care at the initial visit included day of the visit, availability of hospital beds, and relative crowding. The main outcome was time to first return ED visit; the authors also analyzed the type of return visit (with or without hospital admission at return visit, and return visits within seven days). ResultsIn multilevel multivariate analyses adjusting for patient characteristics (sociodemographic, ED diagnosis, comorbidity, prior health services utilization), the following variables were independently associated (p < 0.05) with a shorter time to first return ED visit: more limited ED resources, fewer than 12 ED beds, no geriatric unit, no social worker in the ED, fewer available hospital beds at the time of the ED visit, and an ED visit on a weekend. ConclusionsIn general, more limited ED resources and indicators of ED care (weekend visits, fewer available hospital beds) are associated with return ED visits in seniors, although the magnitude of the effects is generally small. [source]

Effectiveness of Lactobacillus -containing vaginal tablets in the treatment of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis

P. Mastromarino
Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Lactobacillus -containing vaginal tablets in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and in the restoration of a healthy vaginal flora. Thirty-nine women with BV were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients received either one Lactobacillus -containing tablet or placebo daily for 7 days. Clinical criteria, vaginal Gram stain scores and symptoms were compared with those at the initial visit and those at completion of therapy and 2 weeks later. After completion of therapy, all of the patients in the Lactobacillus -treated group (n = 18) were free of BV, showing a normal (83%) or intermediate (17%) vaginal flora, as compared with only two patients free of BV with intermediate flora (12%) from among the 16 placebo-treated women (p <0.001). Two weeks after completion of therapy, treatment was successful (score <7) in 61% of Lactobacillus -treated patients as compared with 19% of those in the placebo group (p <0.05). In the treatment group, the total number of symptomatic patients and the intensity of their symptoms, in particular vaginal malodour, were significantly reduced at both follow-up visits. The data indicate that intravaginal administration of exogenous selected strains of lactobacilli can restore a normal vaginal microbiota and be used in treating bacterial vaginosis. [source]