Initial Trial (initial + trial)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

One-way gates: Initial trial of a potential tool for preventing overpopulation within fenced reserves

Helen Crisp
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

New method for the determination of fecal consistency and its optimal value in the general population

Abstract Background : Although fecal consistency is an important factor, there has been only one study measuring this parameter. We developed a new method to measure fecal consistency and studied the relationship between fecal consistency and other fecal factors, including water content and weight. Methods : The new method is a modification of the method of Exton-Smith and used an even balance. Subjects in the initial trial were 26 healthy women. Subsequently, fecal consistency was measured in a representative sample of the general Japanese population, in order to evaluate the optimal value to maintain large bowel function. Results : Correlations between fecal consistency and fecal water content and weight were statistically consistent, although not highly correlated with each other. The optimal mean value was around 300 cm2: ,normal' in ,subjective defecatory state', 295.5 cm2 and 305.2 cm2; ,once/day' in ,defecation frequency', 296.1 cm2 and 310.2 cm2; ,soft and plump' in ,fecal characteristics', 293.6 cm2 and 298.3 cm2, in males and females, respectively. The coefficient of variation of this method ranged from 5.2% to 6.3%. Conclusions : This method is thought to be applicable to large-scale epidemiological surveys. The optimal value of fecal consistency in the general population was evaluated at approximately 300 g/cm2. © 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd [source]

Trial of fenobam, an mGluR5 antagonist, in adults with Fragile X Syndrome

R. Hagerman
Background: Recent advances in the study of the Fragile X knockout mouse model have demonstrated enhanced activity of the metabolic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) pathway. The use of mGluR5 antagonists has rescued behavioural, cognitive and dendritic structural abnormalities in the knockout mouse. An initial phase II trial in adults with FXS was approved by the FDA. Method: We have completed this initial trial of fenobam (50 mg to 150 mg/dose) in twelve adults with FXS (mean age 23.9 (SD 5.4; range 18.7,30.7 years) seen either at UC Davis MIND Institute or at RUSH, University in Chicago, to assess safety, side-effects, and metabolism after a single dose. Results: Outcome measures included prepulse inhibition (PPI) and a continuous performance task (CPT). All patients tolerated this single dose without significant side-effects. The metabolism of fenobam in patients with FXS is similar to controls and peaks at approximately 180 minutes after oral dose. Fifty percent of the patients had a 20% or more improvement in PPI that is significantly different from test-retest changes in PPI previously reported in individuals with FXS (p = 0.03). This effect was more pronounced in males. The majority of patients scored at ceiling on the CPT so it was not a helpful measure to assess medication benefits. Conclusion: This work documents the safety and aspects of the metabolism of fenobam in patients with FXS and will facilitate further expansion of fenobam trials in patients with FXS. Although fenobam is a targeted treatment for FXS, subgroups of autism may also benefit from fenobam treatment. [source]


ABSTRACT Most consumers, given two identical food samples, express a preference for one, rather than choosing a no-preference option. The stability and potential causes of this seemingly irrational preference were examined across three trials under different conditions, specifically, when the first test pair was identical or different, and when participants were explicitly told that the pairs would often be identical. Choice of no preference typically increased from the first to second trial, especially for groups who saw a pair of different samples on the first trial. The explicit instruction that samples might be the same failed to reduce expressing a preference on the initial trial although it had some effect on later trials. Analysis, by individuals, of sequences of preference or no-preference responses across trials support independence of sequential responses and argue against stable personal traits as a predictor of preference choice. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS More research needs to be done to understand the origins and operation of biases in preference tests. When tested under conditions in which the samples differ only slightly, participants tend to avoid the no-preference option. This is potentially important when interpreting the results of preference tests and assigning practical significance to their outcomes. Also, single trial testing may produce somewhat different results from multi-trial testing, the latter allowing for examination of effects of variation in recent experience. [source]

The Application of Hydrogen Peroxide as a Treatment for the Ectoparasite Amyloodinium ocellatum (Brown 1931) on the Pacific Threadfin Polydactylus sexfilis

Dee Montgomery-Brock
Ectoparasite infections can cause death or a decline in the general health of farm-raised finfish. This paper reports the findings from two studies conducted to evaluate the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide as a therapeu-tant for the control of infections of Amyloodinium sp. on cultured Pacific threadfin Polydactylus sexfilis (locally called "moi"). Threadfin with amyloodiniasis collected from a commercial farm were used in both trials. Prior to the trials, and following hydrogen peroxide treatment, the extent of infection was determined by a gill biopsy procedure. An initial trial was conducted in the laboratory to assess the response of juvenile threadfin and Amyloodinium sp. trophonts to hydrogen peroxide exposure at four dosages: 0, 75, 150, or 300 mg/L for 30 min. In a trial on a commercial farm, a hydrogen peroxide treatment at 75 mg/L for 30 min was applied to juvenile threadfin in a grow-out tank. In both trials, hydrogen peroxide was immediately flushed from the culture system with sea-water after the 30 min exposure period. In the laboratory trial, treatment with 300 mg/L hydrogen peroxide resulted in 100% mortality of the exposed group of fish. However, single treatments with hydrogen peroxide at concentrations of 75 or 150 mg/L eliminated Amyloodinium sp. trophonts without causing loss of fish. In the field trial, a single treatment with 75 mg/L hydrogen peroxide greatly reduced levels of Amyloodinium infestation, and a second treatment 6 d later reduced Amyloodinium trophonts to a nondetectable level. These findings suggest that hydrogen peroxide is a suitable chemical for the treatment of amyloodiniasis of cultured, juvenile Pacific threadfin. [source]

Re-treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients after relapse: efficacy of peginterferon-alpha-2a (40 kDa) and ribavirin

C. Berg
Summary., We conducted a randomized multinational study to determine whether 48 weeks of re-treatment with peginterferon-alpha-2a (40 kDa) plus ribavirin would induce a sustained virological response (SVR) in relapsed chronic hepatitis C patients. Patients who had previously relapsed during 24 weeks of untreated follow-up, after having achieved an end-of-treatment virological response with 24 weeks of peginterferon-alpha-2a (40 kDa)/ribavirin combination therapy, within a phase III trial, were studied. Although the recommended dosage was the same as that used at the end of the initial trial, adjustments were permitted. Data on serious adverse events, or adverse events that resulted in dose reductions or discontinuations, were collected. Following re-treatment, the overall SVR rate in the 64 patients was 55%. The SVR rates in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 and non-1 genotypes were 51% and 63%, respectively. Early (week 12) virological responses were seen in 39 patients (61%) and were predictive of an SVR. Re-treatment was well tolerated. The most frequent adverse events recorded were fatigue (5%) and abdominal pain (3%). Dosages of peginterferon-alpha-2a (40 kDa) and/or ribavirin were modified because of adverse events in 3% and 13% of patients, and because of laboratory abnormalities in 23% and 5% of patients, respectively. Thus, a 48-week course of peginterferon-alpha-2a (40 kDa) plus ribavirin induces an SVR in 55% of patients who relapsed during follow-up after 24 weeks of combination therapy. Physicians should not hesitate to offer re-treatment to patients who relapse after an initial, 24-week course of combination therapy, or who have prematurely stopped treatment because, for example, of laboratory abnormalities. [source]

Feasible identification of Staphylococcus,epidermidis using desferrioxamine and fosfomycin disks,

APMIS, Issue 1 2008
Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (CoNS) have emerged as predominant pathogens in hospital-acquired infections, as well as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance, increasing the necessity of developing reliable methods for identification of the most frequent species. The aim of this study was to propose a simplified method for identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis. A total of 490 isolates of CoNS were identified by Bannerman's method. Taking into account distinct approaches for identification of S. epidermidis, among CoNS, we proposed the use of only two disks: desferrioxamine for the initial trial, and fosfomycin to match the final identification. Of the 320 isolates susceptible to desferrioxamine, Bannerman's method identified 238 S. epidermidis and 73 S. hominis, while we achieved identification of 239 S. epidermidis and 76 S. hominis. Compared to Bannerman's method, the method proposed here obtained a sensitivity of 99.5%, and had a positive predictor value of 99.2%. We also used a genotypic method for identification of S. epidermidis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the tuf gene. In conclusion, the method proposed here has proved to be useful for the identification of S. epidermidis, the most frequent species of CoNS isolated from blood cultures in clinical microbiology laboratories. [source]