Initial Survey (initial + survey)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Walking function, pain, and fatigue in adults with cerebral palsy: a 7-year follow-up study

Aim, To compare walking function, pain, and fatigue in adults with cerebral palsy (CP) 7 years after an initial survey. Method, A multidimensional questionnaire was mailed to 226 people with unilateral (hemiplegic) or bilateral (diplegic) spastic CP who had participated in a 1999 survey. People with additional diagnoses were excluded. Special emphasis was placed on participants with deterioration in walking. The questionnaire was the same as in 1999. Results, One hundred and forty-nine participants (76 males, 73 females; mean age 40y 5mo, SD 10y 7mo, range 24,76y) with a diagnosis of unilateral (n=81) or bilateral (n=68) spastic CP responded. Fifty-two per cent of all participants reported deterioration in walking function since debut of walking, compared with 39% 7 years previously. In participants with bilateral CP, 71% reported deteriorated walking, compared with 37% of participants with unilateral CP. Participants with deteriorated walking function had greater pain frequency, pain intensity, impact of pain on daily activities, and physical fatigue and reduced balance. The number of people reporting overall mobility problems was almost double compared with 7 years previously. Interpretation, The main finding was an increased prevalence of deteriorated walking, significantly associated with bilateral spastic CP, pain, fatigue, and reduced balance. Rehabilitation programmes addressing these areas are needed. [source]

Inter-rater and test,retest reliability of three contingent valuation question formats in south-east Nigeria

Obinna Onwujekwe
Abstract This paper examines the inter-rater and test,retest reliability of willingness to pay (WTP) for insecticide-treated mosquito nets and net re-treatment using the bidding game (BG), binary with follow-up (BWFU) and a novel structured haggling technique (SH). Inter-rater reliability was evaluated by having two sets of interviewers administer questionnaires to 109 (BG), 110 (BWFU) and 103 (SH) randomly selected household heads. Test,retest reliability was investigated by repeating interviews on 146 (BG), 161 (BWFU) and 139 (SH) household heads one month after an initial survey. Data analysis used testing of means, Spearman's correlation and Pearson's correlation coefficient for test of reliability, while non-parametric analysis was used to determine factors causing a variation in WTP. The study was conducted in Southeast Nigeria. Inter-rater reliability coefficients were estimated for the individual's WTP for own nets, WTP for others and WTP for re-treatment. Using WTP for own nets as the best reliability estimate, the coefficients were high at values of 0.77 (C.I. 0.72,0.86), 0.75 (C.I. 0.64,0.81) and 0.74 (C.I. 0.63,0.82) in the BG, BWFU and SH, respectively. In test,retest reliability coefficients, the coefficients for WTP for own nets were low-to-moderate at values of 0.51 (C.I. 0.40,0.62), 0.41 (C.I. 0.28,0.53) and 0.56 (C.I. 0.41,0.65) for the BG, BWFU and SH groups, respectively. Factors such as gender, change in income, unplanned expenditures, stated WTP in first survey, time-to-think, external information, and subjecting respondents to more than one interview explained the lower test,retest reliability coefficients. We conclude that the CVM was reliable in the study area and the question formats had similar levels of reliability. The lower coefficients in the test,retest reliability were due to the influence of factors affecting demand that had changed in the intervening period. Standard formats for determining reliability within CVM should be developed for easy comparison of results from different studies. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A high-resolution radio survey of Class I protostars

P. W. Lucas
We report the results of a survey of low-mass Class I protostars in the cm continuum. In the initial survey, seven sources in the Taurus star formation region were observed with the VLA at 0.25-arcsec resolution. All seven sources drive CO outflows and display Herbig,Haro flows in the optical or near-infrared (NIR) wavebands. Four out of seven sources were detected, two of which are new discoveries in systems of very low luminosity, one being the lowest luminosity system detected to date in the cm continuum. Notably, three sources were not detected to a 3, limit of 0.10 mJy/beam, which indicates that significant cm continuum emission is not a universal feature of Class I systems with outflow activity. Subsequent observations of HH30, a more evolved Class II system, found no emission to a 3, limit of 0.03 mJy/beam. After comparison with near infrared data, we suggest that the discriminating feature of the detected systems is a relatively high ionization fraction in the stellar wind. Temporal variability of the outflow may also play a role: only recently ejected knots may have sufficiently dense plasma to be optically thick to free,free emission, and hence produce detectable flux. The one relatively bright source, IRAS 04016+2610 (L1489 IRS), is clearly resolved on a 0.4-arcsec scale at 2 and 3.5 cm. Additional imaging with MERLIN did not detect this source with a 0.04-arcsec beam, indicating that the radio emission is generated in a region with a radius of ,25 au, which is broadly similar to the radius of the bipolar cavities inferred from models of NIR data. Interpretation of this system is complicated by the existence of a quadrupolar outflow, i.e. two bipolar outflows along roughly perpendicular axes, which we originally detected through polarimetric imaging. We present an NIR H2 image in which a bow shock in the secondary outflow is clearly seen. This complicated structure may have been caused by a gravitational interaction between two protostars. [source]

Adolescent quality of life: A school-based cohort study in Western Australia

Lynn B. Meuleners
AbstractBackground:,Quality of life (QOL) has received increasing attention in pediatrics medicine recently. Improving QOL is the primary justification for many interventions, medications and therapies. The present study is a school-based longitudinal study which aims to investigate the factors affecting QOL of adolescents in Western Australia over a 6-month period. Methods:,A generic self-reported questionnaire was administered twice to participants from 20 schools in Perth at 6 months apart. In addition to QOL scores and physical health status, demographic and other information was also collected. For the cohort of 363 students who participated in the initial survey, 300 of them completed the second questionnaire. Results:,A significant change in QOL score between baseline and 6 months was observed. Results from fitting a hierarchical mixed regression model indicated that 55% of the variation in QOL was due to differences between individuals, and was significantly associated with age, control, opportunities and perceptions of physical health, while the remaining variance component could be attributed to within-individual changes. Improved control and opportunities appeared to have a significant positive impact on QOL, whereas increasing age and deterioration in physical health had the opposite effect. Conclusions:,The hierarchical regression analysis has enabled valid inferences to be made based on the observed longitudinal data. Perceptions of physical health, age, control and opportunities available are related to adolescent QOL. The findings have implications on evidence-based practices and childhood health issues. [source]

Intervention for prevention of low back pain in Japanese forklift workers

DrMedSc, Toshiaki Shinozaki MD
Abstract Background The effectiveness of two different approaches for the prevention of low back pain (LBP) was compared in forklift workers. The first approach (personal) consisted of providing lumbar support, arctic jacket and physical exercise, and the second (facility approach) included the improvement of forklift seats and tires. Methods The self-reported prevalence of LBP was surveyed three times before and after the two forms of interventions, in 260 male blue-collar workers including 27 forklift workers, and 55 male white-collar workers of a copper smelter. Results The initial prevalence of LBP was 63% in the forklift workers, which was significantly higher than that found in the other blue-collar workers (32%) and in the white-collar workers (22%). One year after the first intervention (personal approach) to the forklift workers, the prevalence of LBP fell to 56%. The second intervention (facility approach), which was mainly comprised of a reduction in whole body vibration, was subsequently added, and 9 months later the prevalence of LBP in the forklift workers further decreased to 33%. The reduction of the prevalence from the initial survey was significant (P,=,0.008), and that from the second survey was nearly significant (P,=,0.070). Conclusions These findings suggest that the facility approach is more effective for a reduction of LBP than the personal approach. Am. J. Ind. Med. 40:141,144, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Assessment of non-response bias in a survey of residential magnetic field exposure in Taiwan

Chung-Yi Li
Abstract We assessed potential non-response bias in obtaining information on residential extremely low-frequency power frequency magnetic field (MF) in Taiwan. All households occupied by children aged less than 7 years in two study districts, one in an urban town and the other in a rural town, were visited and solicited for on-site measurements in late 2003. The initial response rate was only 32% (33/104, urban) and 60% (61/101, rural). In the same season 1 year later, we performed a second survey of those who declined to be measured at the initial survey and successfully measured another 77 residences (50 and 27 for urban and rural districts, respectively). The two districts were selected mainly because the local public health officers were quite willing to assist the initial survey and to inform residents of the second survey. Except for meteorological conditions, the two surveys came up with very similar findings regarding residential characteristics and power facilities surrounding the houses. The mean residential MF for the urban residences was .121 and .140 micro-Tesla (T) (P,=,.620) for the two surveys. The corresponding figures for the rural residences were .119 and .115 T (P,=,.802). Although limited in its scope, this study tends to indicate that measurement studies of residential MF are less likely to suffer from serious selection bias if sampling is confined within a small district where people have similar socioeconomic characteristics. Bioelectromagnetics 28:340,348, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Drug allergy claims in children: from self-reporting to confirmed diagnosis

E. Rebelo Gomes
Summary Background Poorly documented self-reported drug allergy (DAll) is a frequent problem in daily clinical practice and has a considerable impact on prescription choices. The diagnostic work-up of drug hypersensitivity (DHs) allows a better classification of the reactions and provides patients with more reliable information and recommendations for future treatments. Objective To assess the prevalence of self-reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and DAll in a paediatric population and to investigate children reporting suspected DAll in order to achieve a firm diagnosis. Design The first phase was based on a cross-sectional survey assessing the life occurrence of ADRs and self-reported DAll carried out at the outpatient clinic of a paediatric hospital. The second phase was based on the diagnostic work-up in children with parent-reported DAll, including detailed anamnesis and in vitro and in vivo investigations (skin and provocation tests). Participants One thousand four hundred and twenty-six parents responded to the initial survey. Sixty of the 67 patients with reported DAll were evaluated at the allergy clinic. Results The prevalences of self-reported ADRs and DAll were 10.2% and 6.0%, respectively. Most of the suspected allergic reactions were non-immediate cutaneous events attributable to ,-lactam antibiotics and occurred in very young children. Thirty-nine of the 60 patients consulting for evaluation had a plausible clinical history and were recommended further investigation. DHs was diagnosed in three children only, based on positive responses in skin (n=1) and oral provocation (n=2) tests. Conclusion ADRs are frequently reported in children, and many children are classified as having a DAll. After complete evaluation, only a few of these reactions can be attributed to DHs and DAll. Most of the patients (94% in this study) could actually tolerate the initially suspected drug. [source]

The accuracy of matrix population model projections for coniferous trees in the Sierra Nevada, California

Summary 1We assess the use of simple, size-based matrix population models for projecting population trends for six coniferous tree species in the Sierra Nevada, California. We used demographic data from 16 673 trees in 15 permanent plots to create 17 separate time-invariant, density-independent population projection models, and determined differences between trends projected from initial surveys with a 5-year interval and observed data during two subsequent 5-year time steps. 2We detected departures from the assumptions of the matrix modelling approach in terms of strong growth autocorrelations. We also found evidence of observation errors for measurements of tree growth and, to a more limited degree, recruitment. Loglinear analysis provided evidence of significant temporal variation in demographic rates for only two of the 17 populations. 3Total population sizes were strongly predicted by model projections, although population dynamics were dominated by carryover from the previous 5-year time step (i.e. there were few cases of recruitment or death). Fractional changes to overall population sizes were less well predicted. Compared with a null model and a simple demographic model lacking size structure, matrix model projections were better able to predict total population sizes, although the differences were not statistically significant. Matrix model projections were also able to predict short-term rates of survival, growth and recruitment. Mortality frequencies were not well predicted. 4Our results suggest that simple size-structured models can accurately project future short-term changes for some tree populations. However, not all populations were well predicted and these simple models would probably become more inaccurate over longer projection intervals. The predictive ability of these models would also be limited by disturbance or other events that destabilize demographic rates. [source]