Initial Screening (initial + screening)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction of a glycerophosphodiesterase from Enterobacter aerogenes

Colin J. Jackson
The metallo-glycerophosphodiesterase from Enterobacter aerogenes (GpdQ) has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Initial screening of crystallization conditions for this enzyme resulted in the identification of needles from one condition in a sodium malonate grid screen. Removal of the metals from the enzyme and subsequent optimization of these conditions led to crystals that diffracted to 2.9,Å and belonged to space group P213, with unit-cell parameter a = 164.1,Å. Self-rotation function analysis and VM calculations indicated that the asymmetric unit contains two copies of the monomeric enzyme, corresponding to a solvent content of 79%. It is intended to determine the structure of this protein utilizing SAD phasing from transition metals or molecular replacement. [source]

Concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and AUDIT zones in defining levels of severity among out-patients with alcohol dependence in the COMBINE study

ADDICTION, Issue 12 2006
Dennis M. Donovan
ABSTRACT Aims To examine among alcohol-dependent out-patient clients the concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) total score and ,zones' suggested by the World Health Organization for defining levels of severity of alcohol use problems. Design Participants were classified into AUDIT zones (AUDIT total score = 8,15, 16,19, 20,40) and compared on measures of demographics, treatment goals, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences, severity of dependence, physiological dependence, tolerance, withdrawal and biomarkers of alcohol use. Setting Eleven out-patient academic clinical research centers across the United States. Participants Alcohol dependent individuals (n = 1335) entering out-patient treatment in the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions (COMBINE) study. Measurements The AUDIT was administered as part of an initial screening. Baseline measures used for concurrent validation included the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) Disorders, the Alcohol Dependence Scale, the Drinker Inventory of Consequences, the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale, the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment, the Thoughts about Abstinence Scale, the Form-90, %carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Findings Indicators of severity of dependence and alcohol-related problems increased linearly with total score and differed significantly across AUDIT zones. The highest zone, with scores of 20 and above, was markedly different with respect to severity from the other two zones and members of this group endorsed an abstinence goal more strongly. Conclusions The AUDIT total score is a brief measure that appears to provide an index of severity of dependence in a sample of alcohol-dependent individuals seeking out-patient treatment, extending its potential utility beyond its more traditional role as a screening instrument in general populations. [source]

Fragrance materials and their environmental impact

Daniel T. Salvito
Abstract A brief discussion on the environmental fate and effects of fragrance materials was recently presented in Cadby et al.1. This paper has been prepared as a more detailed discussion of the environmental effects associated with fragrance materials. Cadby et al.1 presented a detailed discussion of the rigorous science employed to protect the consumer and the environment from adverse effects from these materials. The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) has established a comprehensive environmental research and testing programme to determine the potential environmental risks posed by fragrance materials to the environment. Sponsored research and testing includes ecotoxicological studies, the biotransformation of fragrance materials in wastewater treatment, and their fate in the terrestrial environment. RIFM has published a conservative screening level risk assessment model following established environmental risk assessment paradigms (i.e. the predicted environmental concentration: predicted no effect concentration quotient; the PEC,PNEC ratio).2 In an initial screening of all discrete fragrance materials, using only volume of use and available physical-chemical parameters, 92% of these materials are shown to pose an acceptable environmental risk, i.e. their PEC,PNEC ratio is less than 1. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Telithromycin-associated hepatotoxicity: Clinical spectrum and causality assessment of 42 cases,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
Allen D. Brinker
Telithromycin is the first of a new class of ketolide antibiotics with increased activity against penicillin-resistant and erythromycin-resistant pneumococci. This agent received approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2004 for treatment of upper and lower respiratory infections. Following market introduction, spontaneous reports of telithromycin-associated hepatotoxicity, including frank liver failure, were received. To address these reports, an ad hoc group with expertise in spontaneous adverse events reporting and experience in evaluating drug-induced liver injury was formed, including members of the FDA, other federal agencies, and academia. The primary objective of this group was to adjudicate case reports of hepatic toxicity for causal attribution to telithromycin. After an initial screening of all cases of liver injury associated with telithromycin reported to FDA as of April 2006 by one of the authors, 42 cases were comprehensively reviewed and adjudicated. Five cases included a severe outcome of either death (n = 4) or liver transplantation (n = 1); more than half were considered highly likely or probable in their causal association with telithromycin. Typical clinical features were: short latency (median, 10 days) and abrupt onset of fever, abdominal pain, and jaundice, sometimes with the presence of ascites even in cases that resolved. Concurrence in assignment of causality increased after agreement on definitions of categories and interactive discussions. Conclusion: Telithromycin is a rare cause of drug-induced liver injury that may have a distinctive clinical signature and associated high mortality rate. Consensus for attribution of liver injury to a selected drug exposure by individual experts can be aided by careful definition of terminology and discussion. (HEPATOLOGY 2009;49:250-257.) [source]

Genetic heterogeneity and functional properties of intestinal bifidobacteria

J. Mättö
Abstract Aims:, The aim of the present study was to compare several molecular methods for the identification and genotyping of bifidobacteria, and further to investigate genetic heterogeneity and functional properties of bifidobacterial isolates from intestinal samples of Finnish adult subjects. Methods and Results:, A total of 153 intestinal bifidobacterial isolates were included in initial screening and 34 isolates were further characterized. Identification results obtained with PCR,ELISA and ribotyping were well in accordance with each other, while randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) gave tentative identification only to Bifidobacterium bifidum and to 65% of the B. longum isolates. The most commonly detected species were B. longum biotype longum followed by B. adolescentis and B. bifidum. In addition, B. animalis (lactis), B. angulatum and B. pseudocatenulatum were found. Ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) proved to be discriminatory methods for bifidobacteria, but also RAPD revealed intraspecies heterogeneity. Besides two B. animalis (lactis) isolates with very close similarity to a commercially available probiotic strain, none of the intestinal isolates showed optimal survival in all tolerance (acid, bile and oxygen) or growth performance tests. Conclusions:, Several species/strains of bifidobacteria simultaneously colonize the gastrointestinal tract of healthy Finnish adults and intestinal Bifidobacterium isolates were genetically heterogeneous. Functional properties of bifidobacteria were strain-dependent. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Applicability of ribotyping with the automated RiboPrinter® System for identification and genotyping of bifidobacteria was shown in the present study. [source]

Comparison of Commonly Used Assays for the Detection of Microalbuminuria

Douglas E. Busby MD
There are a variety of methods for assessing urinary albumin excretion, extending from the very low-range microalbuminuria to higher ranges extending into macroalbuminuria or proteinuria. The recommendation for the initial screening of a new patient is to use a urine dipstick to assess for microalbuminuria. If positive, a spot urine for albumin:creatinine should be measured and reassessed annually. All patients with kidney disease, diabetes, or hypertension and metabolic syndrome should be screened for albuminuria. New methodologies using high-performance liquid chromatography are much more sensitive and specific when compared with older methods of detection and may prove very useful for earlier identification of high-risk patients. This is important since studies have shown that albuminuria levels below the microalbuminuria range, determined by conventional methodologies in uncomplicated essential hypertensive men, are associated with an adverse cardiovascular and metabolic risk profile. High performance liquid chromatography methodology, in contrast to older studies, detects all intact albumin and enables clinicians to assess disease severity and monitor therapeutic effectiveness with confidence in the accuracy of the microalbuminuria data reported to them. [source]

In Vitro,Potential of,Ascophyllum nodosum,Phenolic Antioxidant-Mediated ,-Glucosidase and ,-Amylase Inhibition

E. Apostolidis
ABSTRACT:,Ascophyllum nodosum,is a brown seaweed that grows abundantly in the Northeast coastal region. In this study, the potential of,A. nodosum,for type 2 diabetes management through antioxidant-mediated ,-glucosidase and ,-amylase inhibition was investigated. After the initial screening of 4 locally harvested seaweeds,,A. nodosum,was chosen for its highest phenolic content and was subjected to water extraction. Among extraction ratios of 50 g to 100 to 1000 mL at room temperature, 50 g/400 mL yielded the highest phenolic content of 4.5 mg/g wet weight. For evaluation of extraction temperature ranging from 20 to 80 °C, 50 g/400 mL was chosen as a minimum amount of extractant. Among temperatures studied, extraction at 80 °C resulted in the highest total phenolic contents (4.2 mg/g wet weight). All extracts had similar levels of antioxidant activity in the range of 60% to 70% in terms of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity. The 80 °C extract had the highest ,-glucosidase and ,-amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.24 and 1.34 ,g phenolics, respectively, compared to the IC50 of acarbose, reference inhibitor, being 0.37 and 0.68 ,g. The results show that fresh,A. nodosum,has strong ,-glucosidase and mild ,-amylase inhibitory activities that correlated with phenolic contents. This study suggests a nutraceutical potential of,A. nodosum,based on phytochemical antioxidant and antihyperglycemia activities. [source]

Deletion of the OPHN1 gene detected by aCGH

I. Madrigal
Abstract Background The oligophrenin 1 gene (OPHN1) is an Rho-GTPase-activating protein involved in the regulation of the G-protein cycle required for dendritic spine morphogenesis. Mutations in this gene are implicated in X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Methods We report a deletion spanning exons 21 and 22 of the OPHN1 gene identified by a tiling path X-chromosome array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in a family with four males with intellectual disabilities. Results Patients harbouring mutations in this gene share the same clinical manifestations reinforcing the idea of a syndromic XLMR. The most important neurological findings are cerebellar hypoplasia and ventriculomegaly. Conclusions We recommend screening of the OPHN1 gene in male patients with XLMR and cerebellar anomalies. This case highlights the value of high-resolution techniques as Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA) and CGH array for a better characterization of copy number changes and suggests that MLPA technology may be very useful for an initial screening of small deletions and duplications in XLMR patients. [source]

Postpartum Depression Beyond the Early Postpartum Period

IBCLC, Janice H. Goodman MSN
Objective: To review the literature concerning maternal postpartum depression beyond the early postpartum period. Data Sources: A literature search was conducted using Cinahl, Medline, and PsychInfo electronic databases. Keywords included postpartum depression, postpartum depressive symptoms, course, prevalence, incidence, and remission. Study Selection: Studies selected included incidence of maternal depression or depressive symptoms, existing in the early postpartum period, and measured again at postpartum points from 6 months through 2 1/2 years after delivery. Only studies published in English were included. Twenty-three articles were located, and a recent relevant study conducted by the current author also was included. Data Extraction: Studies were reviewed and data organized according to year, sample characteristics, time of depression assessment, instrument used, cutoff score, rate of depression, and factors associated with depression at later postpartum time points. Data Synthesis: For a significant percentage of women, postpartum depressive symptoms continue for months or even years after giving birth. Factors associated with postpartum depression at later time points are identified. Conclusions: Continued evaluation of women with elevated depression levels at initial screening, and treatment for women whose depression does not remit spontaneously within the first few weeks or months postpartum is recommended. Further research is needed to understand the phenomenon of persistent postpartum depression. [source]

Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of selected marine oils and meals

Ioannis Giogios
Abstract BACKGROUND: Although volatile compounds characterising seafood have been studied extensively, no similar data are available regarding the volatiles of raw materials used in fish feed. Therefore the aim of this study was to make an initial screening of the volatiles of various common marine raw materials used in the aquaculture feed industry. Nine commercial marine oils (German (GFO1, GFO2 and GFO3) and Norwegian (NFO) fish oils and salmon (SO1 and SO2), tuna (TO), sardine (SRDO) and shrimp (SHO) oils) and eight commercial marine meals (Peruvian (PFM1 and PFM2), Danish (DFM1 and DFM2) and prime quality (PQFM1 and PQFM2) fish meals and Antarctic krill meals (KM1 and KM2)) were analysed for their fatty acid profiles and volatile flavour compounds. The relation between fatty acids and volatiles was examined. RESULTS: The highest polyunsaturated fatty acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5,3) contents and ,3/,6 ratio were found in NFO. The fatty acid composition of all marine meals except krill meals was found to be more variable among batches than that of marine oils. Regarding volatiles, all marine raw materials were characterised by the complete absence or negligible levels of eight- and nine-carbon alcohols and carbonyls. All marine oils were found to have high 2-ethyl furan, 2-methylenebutyl cyclopropane, hexanal, 2,4-octadiene and 3,5-octadiene contents. Marine meals, unlike marine oils, were characterised by the almost complete absence of unsaturated and cyclic hydrocarbons and terpenes and very low levels of furans. CONCLUSION: Volatiles of marine meals differ from those of marine oils. Unlike fatty acids which give useful traceability information, volatiles seem to fail in this role owing to their strong variability. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Are the bleeding time and PFA-100® useful in the initial screening of patients with mucocutaneous bleedings of hereditary nature?

M. Cattaneo
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the whale shark (Rhincodon typus)

Abstract In preparation for a study on population structure of the whale shark (Rhincodon typus), nine species-specific polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were developed. An initial screening of 50 individuals from Holbox Island, Mexico found all nine loci to be polymorphic, with two to 17 alleles observed per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.200 to 0.826 and from 0.213 to 0.857, respectively. Neither statistically significant deviations from Hardy,Weinberg expectations nor statistically significant linkage disequilibrium between loci were observed. These microsatellite loci appear suitable for examining population structure, kinship assessment and other applications. [source]

Characteristics of participants with self-reported hemochromatosis or iron overload at HEIRS study initial screening

James C. Barton
There are few descriptions of young adults with self-reported hemochromatosis or iron overload (H/IO). We analyzed initial screening data in 7,343 HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study participants ages 25,29 years, including race/ethnicity and health information; transferrin saturation (TS) and ferritin (SF) measurements; and HFE C282Y and H63D genotypes. We used denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography and sequencing to detect mutations in HJV, TFR2, HAMP, SLC40A1, and FTL. Fifty-one participants reported previous H/IO; 23 (45%) reported medical conditions associated with H/IO. Prevalences of reports of arthritis, diabetes, liver disease or liver cancer, heart failure, fertility problems or impotence, and blood relatives with H/IO were significantly greater in participants with previous H/IO reports than in those without. Only 7.8% of the 51 participants with previous H/IO reports had elevated TS; 13.7% had elevated SF. Only one participant had C282Y homozygosity. Three participants aged 25,29 years were heterozygous for potentially deleterious mutations in HFE2, TFR2, and HAMP promoter, respectively. Prevalences of self-reported conditions, screening iron phenotypes, and C282Y homozygosity were similar in 1,165 participants aged 30 years or greater who reported previous H/IO. We conclude that persons who report previous H/IO diagnoses in screening programs are unlikely to have H/IO phenotypes or genotypes. Previous H/IO reports in some participants could be explained by treatment that induced iron depletion before initial screening, misdiagnosis, or participant misunderstanding of their physician or the initial screening questionnaire. Am. J. Hematol., 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Outcomes and Efficacy of Newborn Hearing Screening: Strengths and Weaknesses (Success or Failure?),

S. Korres MD
Abstract Objective: To assess the outcomes of neonatal hearing screening with regard to the final diagnosis in a very large number of newborns and investigate related strengths and weaknesses of the program. Subjects: In this study, 76,560 newborns were assessed. Method: All neonates were assessed using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). Results: From the 76,560 neonates screened, 1,564 (2%) failed the test. According to the screening protocol, all parents of failed neonates were asked to bring their children 1 month following discharge to repeat the test. Of the 541 (34.6%) newborns who repeated the test, 303 (56%) were found normal and 238 (44%) again failed TEOAE. The latter children were referred to two special public centers for full audiology evaluation. In addition, 124 neonates were also referred due to other reasons revealed in the screening process (family history, high levels of bilirubin, etc.). Of the 362 children who were referred to the two special audiology centers, 113 (31.2%) were evaluated by these two centers. In addition, 42 children who had failed initial screening and did not show up for a follow-up appointment to repeat TEOAE were also assessed in the same centers. Of the 155 children who had a special audiologic evaluation, 56 (36.1%) were found to have hearing loss (HL) and 99 (63.9%) normal hearing. In detail, 28 had bilateral sensorineural HL greater than 40 dB, 10 had unilateral sensorineural HL greater than 40 dB, and 18 had otitis media with effusion or other conductive HL. Conclusions: Derived from the present study: 1) repeated testing of "failed" newborns in the maternity hospital and before discharge leads to an acceptable referral rate of 2%; 2) the 1-month follow-up of "failed" newborns further limits the false positive results but leads to high rate of newborns lost to follow-up; 3) a dedicated secretariat system should be implemented to follow-up each "failed" newborn and remind parents about their follow-up appointments; and 4) additional measures such as detailed educational material and parental friendly approach should also be implemented. [source]

The Validity and Reliability of the Reflux Finding Score (RFS),

Peter C. Belafsky MD
Abstract Background The evaluation of medical and surgical outcomes relies on methods of accurately quantifying treatment results. Currently, there is no validated instrument whose purpose is to document the physical findings and severity of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Objective To evaluate the validity and reliability of the reflux finding score (RFS). Methods Forty patients with LPR confirmed by double-probe pH monitoring were evaluated pretreatment and 2, 4, and 6 months after treatment. The RFS was documented for each patient at each visit. For test,retest intraobserver reliability assessment, a blinded laryngologist determined the RFS on two separate occasions. To evaluate interobserver reliability, the RFS was determined by two different blinded laryngologists. Results The mean age of the cohort was 50 years (± 12 standard deviation [SD]). Seventy-three percent were women. The RFS at entry was 11.5 (± 5.2 SD). This score improved to 9.3 (± 4.7 SD) at 2 months, 7.3 (± 5.5 SD) at 4 months, and 6.1 (± 5.2 SD) at 6 months of treatment (P <.001 with trend). The mean RFS for laryngologist no. 1 was 10.8 (± 4.1 SD) at the initial screening and 10.8 (± 4.0 SD) at the repeat evaluation (r = 0.95, P <.001). The mean RFS for laryngologist no. 2 was 11.1 (± 3.8 SD) at the initial screening and 10.9 (± 3.7 SD) at the repeat evaluation (r = 0.95, P <.001). The correlation coefficient for interobserver variability was 0.90 (P <.001). Conclusions The RFS accurately documents treatment efficacy in patients with LPR. It demonstrates excellent inter- and intraobserver reproducibility. [source]

Obesity and screening PSA levels among men undergoing an annual physical exam

THE PROSTATE, Issue 4 2008
Andrew Rundle
Abstract BACKGROUND Prior reports suggest that obesity is inversely associated with screening prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and may reduce screening sensitivity. METHODS We evaluated data on 10,623 men screened for prostate cancer during an annual physical examination program administered by EHE International, Inc., between 1/1/2004 and 6/30/2006. Of these, 3,623 men returned for additional physical exams during this period. We used multivariate linear regression analyses to determine whether higher BMI was inversely associated with PSA, and whether BMI, or change in BMI, was associated with change in PSA levels over time. We also developed a theoretical model for the effect of obesity on PSA levels in which increased plasma volume in the obese dilutes PSA levels. RESULTS After control for age and race/ethnicity, higher BMI was associated with lower PSA levels; men with a BMI ,40 had a geometric mean PSA level 0.14 ng/ml lower than men with a BMI <25 (P,<,0.001). Prospectively, BMI at initial screening and change in BMI over 2 years were not associated with change in PSA or PSA velocity. Our theoretical model accurately predicted observed PSA levels and suggests that a screening PSA of 4.0 ng/ml in normal weight and overweight men corresponds to 3.5 ng/ml in obese men and 3.1 ng/ml in morbidly obese men. CONCLUSION Across the study population, increased BMI was significantly inversely associated with lower PSA. Based on a theoretical model in which increased plasma volume in the obese dilutes PSA levels we propose new cut-points for a positive screening test. Prostate 68: 373,380, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics of Children With Low Working Memory

Tracy Packiam Alloway
This study explored the cognitive and behavioral profiles of children with working memory impairments. In an initial screening of 3,189 five- to eleven-year-olds, 308 were identified as having very low working memory scores. Cognitive skills (IQ, vocabulary, reading, and math), classroom behavior, and self-esteem were assessed. The majority of the children struggled in the learning measures and verbal ability. They also obtained atypically high ratings of cognitive problems/inattentive symptoms and were judged to have short attention spans, high levels of distractibility, problems in monitoring the quality of their work, and difficulties in generating new solutions to problems. These data provide rich new information on the cognitive and behavioral profiles that characterize children with low working memory. [source]

Early Intervention for Trauma: Current Status and Future Directions

Brett T. Litz
Although psychological debriefing (PD) represents the most common form of early intervention for recently traumatized people, there is little evidence supporting its continued use with individuals who experience severe trauma. This review identifies the core issues in early intervention that need to be addressed in resolving the debate over PD. It critiques the available evidence for PD and the early provision of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Based on available evidence, we propose that psychological first aid is an appropriate initial intervention, but that it does not serve a therapeutic or preventive function. When feasible, initial screening is required so that preventive interventions can be used for those individuals who may have difficulty recovering on their own. Evidence-based CBT approaches are indicated for people who are at risk of developing posttraumatic psychopathology. Guidelines for managing acutely traumatized people are suggested and standards are proposed to direct future research that may advance our understanding of the role of early intervention in facilitating adaptation to trauma. [source]