Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Initial

  • l'examen initial

  • Terms modified by Initial

  • initial activation
  • initial activity
  • initial administration
  • initial allocation
  • initial amount
  • initial analysis
  • initial antibiotic therapy
  • initial antiepileptic drug
  • initial appearance
  • initial application
  • initial approach
  • initial approximation
  • initial assessment
  • initial assumption
  • initial attempt
  • initial average weight
  • initial binding
  • initial biomass
  • initial biopsy
  • initial body mass
  • initial body weight
  • initial boundary value problem
  • initial burst
  • initial burst release
  • initial case
  • initial challenge
  • initial characterization
  • initial chemotherapy
  • initial choice
  • initial cleavage
  • initial clinical experience
  • initial clinical finding
  • initial clinical presentation
  • initial cohort
  • initial colonization
  • initial composition
  • initial concentration
  • initial concern
  • initial condition
  • initial configuration
  • initial conservative management
  • initial consultation
  • initial contact
  • initial content
  • initial cost
  • initial course
  • initial cycle
  • initial data
  • initial data set
  • initial day
  • initial decision
  • initial decline
  • initial decomposition temperature
  • initial decrease
  • initial delay
  • initial density
  • initial description
  • initial design
  • initial detection
  • initial development
  • initial diagnosis
  • initial diameter
  • initial difference
  • initial discovery
  • initial distribution
  • initial disturbance
  • initial divergence
  • initial dosage
  • initial dose
  • initial dye concentration
  • initial effort
  • initial electron-density map
  • initial endowment
  • initial enthusiasm
  • initial episode
  • initial equilibrium
  • initial establishment
  • initial estimate
  • initial evaluation
  • initial event
  • initial evidence
  • initial examination
  • initial experience
  • initial experiment
  • initial exploration
  • initial exposure
  • initial feasibility
  • initial feeding
  • initial field
  • initial film thickness
  • initial finding
  • initial focus
  • initial follow-up
  • initial form
  • initial formation
  • initial glucose concentration
  • initial group
  • initial growth
  • initial growth rate
  • initial growth stage
  • initial hospitalization
  • initial hypothesis
  • initial hypothesis set
  • initial identification
  • initial impact
  • initial implementation
  • initial improvement
  • initial increase
  • initial induction
  • initial infection
  • initial injection
  • initial injury
  • initial inoculum
  • initial insight
  • initial interaction
  • initial interview
  • initial introduction
  • initial invasion
  • initial investigation
  • initial investment
  • initial involvement
  • initial learning
  • initial lesion
  • initial level
  • initial loss
  • initial management
  • initial manifestation
  • initial mass
  • initial mass function
  • initial mean weight
  • initial mixture
  • initial model
  • initial modulus
  • initial moisture content
  • initial motivation
  • initial nitrogen concentration
  • initial nucleation
  • initial number
  • initial observation
  • initial online publication
  • initial onset
  • initial operation
  • initial orientation
  • initial parameter
  • initial part
  • initial particle size
  • initial pattern
  • initial period
  • initial periodontal therapy
  • initial periodontitis
  • initial permeability
  • initial ph
  • initial ph.
  • initial phase
  • initial phenol concentration
  • initial pool
  • initial population
  • initial porosity
  • initial portion
  • initial position
  • initial prediction
  • initial presentation
  • initial pressure
  • initial procedure
  • initial process
  • initial product
  • initial protein concentration
  • initial public offering
  • initial pulse
  • initial questionnaire
  • initial radiotherapy
  • initial radius
  • initial rate
  • initial rate method
  • initial ratio
  • initial reactant concentration
  • initial reaction
  • initial reaction rate
  • initial recognition
  • initial recommendation
  • initial reduction
  • initial regimen
  • initial release
  • initial reliability
  • initial report
  • initial requirement
  • initial research
  • initial resistance
  • initial response
  • initial result
  • initial return
  • initial review
  • initial rhythm
  • initial rise
  • initial round
  • initial sample
  • initial screen
  • initial screening
  • initial search
  • initial segment
  • initial session
  • initial set
  • initial severity
  • initial sign
  • initial site
  • initial size
  • initial skin biopsy
  • initial slope
  • initial solution
  • initial stability
  • initial stage
  • initial staging
  • initial state
  • initial states
  • initial step
  • initial stress
  • initial structure
  • initial studies
  • initial study
  • initial success
  • initial support
  • initial surgery
  • initial survey
  • initial symptom
  • initial target
  • initial teacher education
  • initial temperature
  • initial test
  • initial testing
  • initial therapy
  • initial time
  • initial transition
  • initial treatment
  • initial trial
  • initial use
  • initial validation
  • initial value
  • initial value problem
  • initial velocity
  • initial viscosity
  • initial visit
  • initial visual acuity
  • initial volume
  • initial wealth
  • initial week
  • initial weight
  • initial work
  • initial year

  • Selected Abstracts

    Motor units in cranial and caudal regions of the upper trapezius muscle have different discharge rates during brief static contractions

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2008
    D. Falla
    Abstract Aim:, To compare the discharge patterns of motor unit populations from different locations within the upper trapezius muscle during brief submaximal constant-force contractions. Methods:, Intramuscular and surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were collected from three sites of the right upper trapezius muscle distributed along the cranial-caudal direction in 11 volunteers during 10 s shoulder abduction at 25% of the maximum voluntary force. Results:, A total of 38 motor units were identified at the cranial location, 36 from the middle location and 17 from the caudal location. Initial discharge rate was greatest at the caudal location (P < 0.05; mean ± SD, cranial: 16.7 ± 3.6 pps, middle: 16.9 ± 4.0 pps, caudal: 19.2 ± 3.3 pps). Discharge rate decreased during the contraction for the most caudal location only (P < 0.05). Initial estimates of surface EMG root mean square values were highest at the most caudal location (P < 0.05; cranial: 32.3 ± 20.9 ,V, middle: 41.3 ± 21.0 ,V, caudal: 51.6 ± 23.6 ,V). Conclusion:, This study demonstrates non-uniformity of motor unit discharge within the upper trapezius muscle during a brief submaximal constant-force contraction. Location-dependent modulation of discharge rate may reflect spatial dependency in the control of motor units necessary for the development and maintenance of force output. [source]

    Evaluation of the Efficacy of Polidocanol in the Form of Foam Compared With Liquid Form in Sclerotherapy of the Greater Saphenous Vein: Initial Results

    Claudine Hamel-Desnos MD
    Background. Foamed sclerosing agents have been used with enthusiasm by phlebologists for more than 5 decades. Any type of varicose veins can and has been treated with this technique. Numerous publications have stressed the advantages of foamed sclerosing agents on the basis of empiric and experimental criteria and have described various individual techniques to prepare foams. Until now, however, no comparative study for the treatment of large varicose veins with foam or liquid exists. Objective. The purpose of this first randomized, prospective, multicenter trial was to study the elimination of reflux, the rate of recanalization, and possible side effects of foam sclerotherapy (FS) compared with conventional liquid sclerotherapy for the greater saphenous vein (GSV). Methods. Eighty-eight patients were randomized into two groups: One group was treated with sclerosing foam (45 patients) and the other with sclerosing liquid (43 cases). Sclerotherapy was performed with direct puncture of the vessel under duplex guidance. The reference sclerosing agent was polidocanol in a 3% solution. The foam was prepared using the Double Syringe System (DSS) method. Only one injection of 2.0 or 2.5 mL liquid or foam was allowed, depending on the diameter of the GSV. Results were assessed according to the protocol. Results. Follow-up after 3 weeks showed 84% elimination of reflux in the GSV with DSS foam versus 40% with liquid sclerosant (P < 0.01). At 6 months, six recanalizations were found in the liquid group versus two in the foam group. After 1 year, no additional recanalization was observed with either foam or liquid. Longer term studies are underway. Side effects did not differ between both groups. Conclusion. The efficacy of sclerosing foam (DSS) compared with sclerosing liquid in therapy of the GSV is superior, a finding that had already gained empirical recognition but for which there has not been any clinical evidence to date. [source]

    Mild peripheral neuropathy prevents both leg muscular ischaemia and activation of exercise-induced coagulation in Type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral artery disease

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2007
    F. Piarulli
    Abstract Aim, To study the influence of peripheral neuropathy on intermittent claudication in patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods, Twenty-five patients with T2DM were grouped according to the ankle/brachial index (ABI): 10 with ABI > 0.9 without peripheral artery disease (PAD; group T2DM) and 15 with ABI < 0.9 with PAD (group T2DM + PAD). Twelve individuals without T2DM with PAD (group PAD without T2DM) were also enrolled. Tests for peripheral neuropathy were performed in all patients. ABI, rate pressure product, prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 (F1+2), thrombin-anti-thrombin complex (TAT), and d -dimer were measured before and after a treadmill test. During exercise both initial and absolute claudication distance and electrocardiogram readings were recorded. Results, We found mild peripheral neuropathy in 20% of group T2DM and 46.7% of group T2DM + PAD (P < 0.01). After exercise, the rate pressure product increased in each group; ABI fell in T2DM + PAD (P < 0.0001) and in PAD without T2DM (P = 0.0005); the fall was greater in the latter group. Initial and absolute claudication distances were similar in PAD patients. In group T2DM + PAD, absolute claudication distance was longer in the subgroup without peripheral neuropathy (P < 0.05), whereas ABI and rate pressure products were similar. F1+2 values at rest were higher in group T2DM + PAD. After exercise, F1+2 values and TAT increased only in group PAD without T2DM. Conclusion, Only group PAD without T2DM experienced muscular ischaemia, whereas group T2DM + PAD did not. Mild peripheral neuropathy may have prevented them from reaching the point of muscular ischaemia during the treadmill test, because they stopped exercising with the early onset of pain. Reaching a false absolute claudication distance may induce ischaemic preconditioning. These findings suggest a possible protective role of mild peripheral neuropathy in T2DM patients with intermittent claudication, by preventing further activation of coagulation during treadmill testing. [source]

    Hodgkin's lymphoma: Diagnostic difficulties in fine-needle aspiration cytology

    D.Sc., Dilip K. Das M.B.B.S., F.R.C.Path., Ph.D.
    Abstract It is commonly believed that cytodiagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is much easier than that of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, recognition of certain NHL subtypes with Reed-Sternberg (R-S)-like cells and results of immunohistochemical studies point to the contrary. To study the limitations of cytology in diagnosis of HL, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smears of 130 lymphoma or suspected lymphoma cases were reviewed. Initial and reviewed cytodiagnoses were compared with histopathology in 89 cases. Immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical studies were performed in 56 and 59 cases, respectively. Among histologically diagnosed HL cases, definitive cytodiagnosis of HL (initial as well as reviewed) was significantly less frequent than cytodiagnosis of NHL among histologically diagnosed NHL cases (P = 0.0328 and = 0.0001, respectively). On the other hand, cytologically diagnosed HL/NHL cases were significantly more frequent in the former group (P = 0.0001 and = 0.0018, respectively). ALCL and TCRBCL were the two NHL subtypes which created confusion with HL in FNA smears. Twenty-one cytohistological concordant HL cases and equal number of discordant cases were compared. When compared with discordant group, the patients in concordant group were significantly younger (P = 0.045). Hodgkin/Hodgkin-like cells and typical R-S cells were significantly more frequent in FNA smears of the concordant group (P = 0.0478 and = 0.0431, respectively). Immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical studies showed good correlation with histological diagnosis of HL. It is suggested that proper interpretation of cytologic features, together with use of immunocytochemical parameters can help in reducing the margin of error in cytodiagnois of HL. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Initial, habitual and compulsive alcohol use is characterized by a shift of cue processing from ventral to dorsal striatum

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2010
    Sabine Vollstädt-Klein
    ABSTRACT Aims During the development of drug addiction, initial hedonic effects decrease when substance use becomes habitual and ultimately compulsive. Animal research suggests that these changes are represented by a transition from prefrontal cortical control to subcortical striatal control and within the striatum from ventral to dorsal domains of the striatum, but only limited evidence exists in humans. In this study we address this hypothesis in the context of alcohol dependence. Design, setting and participants Non-abstinent heavy social drinkers (n = 21, 5.0 ± 1.5 drinks/day, 13 of them were alcohol-dependent according to DSM-IV) and light social drinkers (n = 10, 0.4 ± 0.4 drinks/day) were examined. Measurements We used a cue-reactivity functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design during which pictures of alcoholic beverages and neutral control stimuli were presented. Findings In the dorsal striatum heavy drinkers showed significant higher activations compared to light drinkers, whereas light social drinkers showed higher cue-induced fMRI activations in the ventral striatum and in prefrontal areas compared to heavy social drinkers [region of interest analyses, P < 0.05 false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected]. Correspondingly, ventral striatal activation in heavy drinkers correlated negatively with obsessive-compulsive craving, and furthermore we found a positive association between cue-induced activation in the dorsal striatum and obsessive-compulsive craving in all participants. Conclusions In line with our hypothesis we found higher cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum in social compared to heavy drinkers, and higher dorsal striatal activation in heavy drinkers. Increased prefrontal activation may indicate that social drinkers activate cortical control when viewing alcohol cues, which may prevent the development of heavy drinking or alcohol dependence. Our results suggest differentiating treatment research depending on whether alcohol use is hedonic or compulsive. [source]

    Effects of lambda-cyhalothrln in two ditch microcosm systems of different trophic status

    Ivo Roessink
    Abstract The fate and effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin were compared in mesotrophic (macrophyte-dominated) and eutrophic (phytoplankton-dominated) ditch microcosms (,0.5 m3). Lambda-cyhalothrin was applied three times at one-week intervals at concentrations of 10, 25, 50, 100, and 250 ng/L. The rate of dissipation of lambda-cyhalothrin in the water column of the two types of test systems was similar. After 1 d, only 30% of the amount applied remained in the water phase. Initial, direct effects were observed primarily on arthropod taxa. The most sensitive species was the phantom midge (Chaoborus obscuripes). Threshold levels for slight and transient direct toxic effects were similar (10 ng/L) between types of test systems. At treatment levels of 25 ng/L and higher, apparent population and community responses occurred. At treatments of 100 and 250 ng/L, the rate of recovery of the macroinvertebrate community was lower in the macrophyte-dominated systems, primarily because of a prolonged decline of the amphipod Gammarus pulex. This species occurred at high densities only in the macrophyte-dominated enclosures. Indirect effects (e.g., increase of rotifers and microcrustaceans) were more pronounced in the plankton-dominated test systems, particularly at treatment levels of 25 ng/L and higher. [source]

    Interictal Psychoses in Comparison with Schizophrenia,A Prospective Study

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2007
    Yukari Tadokoro
    Summary Purpose: To prospectively investigate the incidence of interictal psychoses of epilepsy patients, and make a comparison between those with interictal psychoses and patients with schizophrenia in respect to their responses to antipsychotic drugs, as well as psychotic states. Methods: We undertook a two-part prospective investigation. In Part I, the psychotic episodes of 619 epilepsy patients were investigated, while 182 patients with psychotic syndromes were followed in Part II, of whom 59 were diagnosed with schizophrenia and 13 with epilepsy with interictal psychoses. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used for efficacy assessment. Results: The average annual incidence of interictal psychosis was 0.42% during the 56-month study period. A significant difference was found between patients with schizophrenia and epilepsy patients with interictal psychoses in respect to results on the negative subscale of the PANSS at the initial examination (mean scores of 18.1 and 13.2, respectively, p = 0.004). The response rates one year later for these groups were 27.1% and 53.8%, respectively, which showed a trend of better response to the antipsychotic medication by the epilepsy group (p = 0.098). Initial and maximum doses of antipsychotic drugs used for epilepsy patients with interictal psychoses were significantly lower than those used for patients with schizophrenia (p = 0.008 and p = 0.006, respectively). Conclusions: Schizophrenia and epileptic psychosis showed different symptom profiles. On average, epilepsy patients with interictal psychoses achieved higher remission rates with lower doses of antipsychotic drugs as compared to patients with schizophrenia in the present 1-year follow-up study. [source]

    The impact of a motivational assessment interview on initial response to treatment in adolescent anorexia nervosa

    S. G. Gowers
    Abstract This study was a pilot for a larger study to evaluate a time-limited outpatient programme for adolescent anorexia nervosa, to explore the ability of an assessment interview to change self-reported motivation and ascertain the extent to which this predicted engagement with treatment and early behavioural change. Forty-two adolescents with anorexia nervosa rated their motivation for change before and after attending a new-style assessment interview. Initial (6 week) effectiveness of the programme was evaluated by measuring engagement with treatment, weight change, clinician (HoNOSCA) and self-rated (EDI, MFQ, HoNOSCA-SR) outcome measures, overall and in relation to motivational status. The assessment interview significantly improved motivation. Motivational category after interview was unrelated to physical status, cognition or general functioning but predicted engagement with treatment. Whilst for the whole sample, treatment produced physical, cognitive and general improvements at 6 weeks, motivational status was a powerful predictor of weight gain. A client-centred assessment interview engaged 80% in an outpatient programme based on CBT. Motivational enhancement may improve engagement and specifically result in behavioural change and early weight gain. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Interaction of size, book-to-market and momentum effects in Australia

    ACCOUNTING & FINANCE, Issue 1 2010
    Michael A. O'Brien
    G110; G120; G140 Abstract This study seeks to disentangle the effects of size, book-to-market and momentum on returns. Initial results show that each characteristic has a role in explaining returns, but that there is interaction between size and momentum, as well as between size and book-to-market. Three key findings emerge. First, the size premium is the strongest, particularly in the loser portfolios. Second, the value premium is generally limited to the smallest portfolios. Third, the momentum premium is evident for the large- and middle-sized portfolios, but loser stocks significantly outperform winner stocks in the smallest size portfolio. When these interactions are controlled with multivariate regression, we find a significant negative average relation between size and returns, a significant positive average relation between book-to-market and returns, and a significant positive average relation between momentum and returns. [source]

    Intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis C in Egypt,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    Mostafa K. Mohamed
    The incidence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection and associated risk factors were prospectively assessed in a cohort of 6,734 Egyptians from 2 rural villages who were negative for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV). Initial and follow-up sera were tested for anti-HCV by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and possible incident cases were confirmed by using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) and tested for HCV RNA. All follow-up serum samples converting from negative to positive without detectable HCV-RNA were further tested by recombinant immunoblot assay. Over an average of 1.6 years, asymptomatic anti-HCV seroconversion occurred in 33 people (3.1/1,000 person-years [PY]), including 28 (6.8/1,000 PY) in the Nile Delta village (AES), where prevalence was 24% and 5 (0.8/1,000 PY) in the Upper Egypt village (baseline prevalence of 9%). The strongest predictor of incident HCV was having an anti-HCV,positive family member. Among those that did, incidence was 5.8/1,000 PY, compared (P < .001) with 1.0/1,000 PY; 27 of 33 incident cases had an anti-HCV,positive family member. Parenteral exposures increased the risk of HCV but were not statistically significant; 67% of seroconverters were younger than 20 years of age, and the highest incidence rate (14.1/1,000 PY) was in children younger than 10 who were living in AES households with an anti-HCV,positive parent. In conclusion, young children would especially benefit from measures reducing exposures or preventing infection with HCV. (HEPATOLOGY 2005.) [source]

    OH concentration time histories in n -alkane oxidation

    D. F. Davidson
    OH radical concentration time histories were measured behind reflected shocks in the oxidation of four n -alkanes: propane, n -butane, n -heptane, and n -decane. Initial reflected shock conditions of these measurements were 1357,1784 K, 2.02,3.80 atm, with fuel concentrations of 300,2000 ppm, and equivalence ratios from 0.8 to 1.2. OH concentrations were measured using narrow-linewidth ring-dye laser absorption of the R1(5) line of the A,X (0,0) transition at 306.5 nm. These concentration time-history measurements were compared to the modeled predictions of eight large n -alkane oxidation mechanisms currently available in the literature and the kinetic implications of these measurements are discussed. These data, in conjunction with recent measurements of n -alkane ignition times and ethylene yields in n -alkane pyrolysis experiments, also performed in this laboratory, provide a unique database of species concentration time histories for n -alkane mechanism validation. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 33: 775,783, 2001 [source]

    First-dose success with vardenafil in men with erectile dysfunction and associated comorbidities: RELY-I

    Summary First-dose success of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors may be adversely affected in patients with comorbidities. This article reports first-dose success rates for vardenafil 10 mg in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and associated comorbidities who participated in the challenge phase of the Reliability , Vardenafil for Erectile Dysfunction I study. This study involved an open-label, single-dose, 1-week challenge period where patients who achieved SEP-2 (penetration) success were randomised to vardenafil 10 mg or placebo for 12 weeks in a double-blind manner. The first-dose success rates for SEP-2 and SEP-3 (maintenance of erection to completion of intercourse) were stratified according to comorbidities. Safety was assessed using adverse events (AEs). Of 600 men who received a single 10 mg dose of vardenafil, 32% had hypertension, 16% had diabetes and 19% had dyslipidaemia. Vardenafil demonstrated overall effectiveness, including first-dose SEP-2 and SEP-3 success rates in patients with and without specific comorbidities. Initial overall success rates for SEP-2 and SEP-3 during the challenge phase were 87% and 74% respectively. First-dose SEP-2 and SEP-3 success rates were 84% and 66% in men with hypertension (n = 191); 84% and 72% in men with dyslipidaemia (n = 116); and 75% and 58% in men with diabetes (n = 95). Vardenafil was well tolerated and most AEs, including the most frequently reported flushing (3.5%), were mild to moderate in intensity. Vardenafil 10 mg is generally well tolerated and efficacious, providing first-dose success with a consistently high rate of reliability of penetration and maintenance of erection in men with ED and associated comorbidities. [source]

    Causes of hair loss and the developments in hair rejuvenation

    D. H. Rushton
    Synopsis Hair is considered to be a major component of an individual's general appearance. The psychological impact of hair loss results in a measurably detrimental change in self-esteem and is associated with images of reduced worth. It is not surprising that both men and women find hair loss a stressful experience. Genetic hair loss is the major problem affecting men and by the age of 50, up to 50% will be affected. Initial attempts to regenerate the lost hair have centred on applying a topical solution of between 2% to 5% minoxidil; however, the results proved disappointing. Recently, finasteride, a type II 5, reductase inhibitor has been found to regrow a noticeable amount of hair in about 40% of balding men. Further developments in treatments have lead to the use of a dual type I and type II inhibitor where 90% of those treated regrow a noticeable amount of hair. In women the major cause of hair loss before the age of 50 is nutritional, with 30% affected. Increased and persistent hair shedding (chronic telogen effluvium) and reduced hair volume are the principle changes occurring. The main cause appears to be depleted iron stores, compromised by a suboptimal intake of the essential amino acid l -lysine. Correction of these imbalances stops the excessive hair loss and returns the hair back to its former glory. However, it can take many months to redress the situation. Résumé Les cheveux sont considérés comme étant une composante majeure de l'aspect général d'un individu. L'impact psychologique de la perte des cheveux conduit à une diminution mesurable de l'estime de soi et s'associe à des images de contexte négatif. Il n'est pas surprenant que les hommes comme les femmes ressentent la perte de cheveux comme une expérience stressante. La perte génétique des cheveux est le problème principal qui touche les hommes et autour de l'âge de 50 ans, jusqu'à 50% seront concernés. Les premières tentatives de régénération des cheveux perdus se sont focalisées sur l'application topique d'une solution comprenant entre 2% et 5% de minoxidil; cependant, les résultats se sont avérés décevants. Récemment, le finastéride, un inhibiteur de la 5,-réductase de type II s'est avéré permettre la repousse d'une quantité significative de cheveux chez environ 40% des hommes dégarnis. Les développements ultérieurs des traitements ont conduit à l'utilisation d'un inhibiteur associant type I et type II pour lequel 90% des personnes traitées constatent une repousse significative des cheveux. Chez les femmes la cause principale de la perte des cheveux avant l'âge de 50 ans est d'origine nutritionnelle, avec 30% de la population affectée. Une perte de cheveux persistante et croissante (telogen effluvium chronique) et un volume des cheveux réduit sont les principaux effets qui se produisent. La cause principale semble être des réserves de fer épuisées, associées à une prise insuffisante de l'acide aminé essentiel L-lysine. La correction de ces déséquilibres stoppe la perte excessive de cheveux et rend aux cheveux leur éclat d'antan. Cependant, plusieurs mois peuvent être nécessaires pour redresser la situation. [source]

    Continental basalts in the accretionary complexes of the South-west Japan Arc: Constraints from geochemical and Sr and Nd isotopic data of metadiabase

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2000
    Hiroo Kagami
    Abstract The Ryoke Belt is one of the important terranes in the South-west Japan Arc (SJA). It consists mainly of late Cretaceous granitoid rocks, meta-sedimentary rocks (Jurassic accretionary complexes) and mafic rocks (gabbros, metadiabases; late Permian,early Jurassic). Initial ,Sr (+ 25, + 59) and ,Nd (, 2.1,,5.9) values of the metadiabases cannot be explained by crustal contamination but reflect the values of the source material. These values coincide with those of island arc basalt (IAB), active continental margin basalt (ACMB) and continental flood basalt (CFB). Spiderdiagrams and trace element chemistries of the metadiabases have CFB-signature, rather than those of either IAB or ACMB. The Sr,Nd isotope data, trace element and rare earth element chemistries of the metadiabases indicate that they result from partial melting of continental-type lithospheric mantle. Mafic granulite xenoliths in middle Miocene volcanic rocks distributed throughout the Ryoke Belt were probably derived from relatively deep crust. Their geochemical and Sr,Nd isotopic characteristics are similar to the metadiabases. This suggests that rocks, equivalent geochemically to the metadiabases, must be widely distributed at relatively deep crustal levels beneath a part of the Ryoke Belt. The geochemical and isotopic features of the metadiabases and mafic granulites from the Ryoke Belt are quite different from those of mafic rocks from other terranes in the SJA. These results imply that the Ryoke mafic rocks (metadiabase, mafic granulite) were not transported from other terranes by crustal movement but formed in situ. Sr,Nd isotopic features of late Cretaceous granitoid rocks occurring in the western part of the Japanese Islands are coincident with those of the Ryoke mafic rocks. Such an isotopic relation between these two rocks suggests that a continental-type lithosphere is widely represented beneath the western part of the Japanese Islands. [source]

    Genetics, epigenetics and pharmaco-(epi)genomics in angiogenesis

    Ian Buysschaert
    ,,Introduction ,,Angiogenesis is genetically pre-determined ,,Mutations causing vascular anomalies -,Venous anomalies -,Haemangiomas -,The transforming growth factor-ß in vascular anomalies -,Cerebral cavernous malformations ,,Translocations reveal novel angiogenic genes ,,Single nucleotide polymorphisms shape the angio-genome -,SNPs in VEGF and their association with cancer -,SNPs in VEGF pathway genes associated with other diseases -,Genetic variability in VEGFR-2 -,Genetic variability in HIF-1, -,SNPs in VEGFR-1 integrate angiogenesis within the P53 pathway -,Variations in angiogenic genes are linked with neurodegeneration -,Angiogenic factors in genome-wide association studies ,,Copy number variability affects angiogenesis ,,Epigenetic regulation of angiogenesis -,Methylation of anti-angiogenic factors -,Methylation as a second hit event in cancer -,Histone modifications determine angiogenesis ,,Micromanagers of angiogenesis ,,Perspectives Abstract Angiogenesis is controlled by a balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. Studies in mice and human beings have shown that this balance, as well as the general sensitivity of the endothelium to these factors, is genetically pre-determined. In an effort to dissect this genetic basis, different types of genetic variability have emerged: mutations and translocations in angiogenic factors have been linked to several vascular malformations and haemangiomas, whereas SNPs have been associated with complex genetic disorders, such as cancer, neurodegeneration and diabetes. In addition, copy number alterations of angiogenic factors have been reported in several tumours. More recently, epigenetic changes caused by aberrant DNA methylation or histone acetylation of anti-angiogenic molecules have been shown to determine angiogenesis as well. Initial studies also revealed a crucial role for microRNAs in stimulating or reducing angiogenesis. So far, most of these genetic studies have focused on tumour angiogenesis, but future research is expected to improve our understanding of how genetic variants determine angiogenesis in other diseases. Importantly, these genetic insights might also be of important clinical relevance for the use of anti-angiogenic strategies in cancer or macular degeneration. [source]

    Optimization and analysis of nickel adsorption on microwave irradiated rice husk using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Magesh Ganesa Pillai
    Abstract BACKGROUND: The removal of heavy metals using adsorption techniques with low cost biosorbents is being extensively investigated. The improved adsorption is essentially due to the pores present in the adsorbent. One way of improving the porosity of the material is by irradiation of the precursor using microwaves. In the present study, the adsorption characteristics of nickel onto microwave-irradiated rice husks were studied and the process variables were optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). RESULT: The adsorption of nickel onto microwave-irradiated rice husk (MIRH) was found to be better than that of the raw rice husk (RRH). The kinetics of the adsorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution onto MIRH was found to follow a pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibbs free energy (,G°), standard enthalpy (,H°), and standard entropy (,S°) were also evaluated. The thermodynamics of Ni(II) adsorption onto MIRH indicates that it is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the design parameters for the present process. CONCLUSION: Microwave-irradiated rice husk was found to be a suitable adsorbent for the removal of nickel(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity of the rice husk was found to be 1.17 mg g,1. The optimized parameters for the current process were found as follows: adsorbent loading 2.8 g (100 mL),1; Initial adsorbate concentration 6 mg L,1; adsorption time 210 min.; and adsorption temperature 35 °C. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Contribution of Cellular Structure to the Large and Small Deformation Rheological Behavior of Kiwifruit

    A.M. Rojas
    ABSTRACT: The relative contribution of turgor pressure, cell wall and middle lamellae to the rheology of kiwifruit was studied by performing large deformation assays and using an empirical model proposed by our group. Results were compared with those obtained previously through dynamic testing. Initial (,0) and residual relaxation (,,) stresses determined under 14% constant deformation correlated significantly with complex moduli (G*) and they allowed to detect incipient plasmolysis but not to determine the individual contributions of cell wall and middle lamellae to tissue elasticity. Firmness (Fm) showed no correlation with G* because measurement of failure stress required tissue damage but it was affected by ripening allowing to determine the individual contributions of cell wall and middle lamellae to its value. [source]

    Initial and Follow-Up Results of the European SeaquenceÔ Coronary Stent Registry

    The primary objective of the present study was to assess the feasibility and the safety of the SeaquenceÔ stent (CathNet-Science) deployment for the treatment of coronary artery disease and the event-free survival of patients treated with this coronary stent. The study was conducted as a multicenter, prospective, observational registry. Patients with stable or unstable angina pectoris who were candidates for percutaneous coronary intervention with elective stenting of one single de novo lesion in a native coronary artery ,3 mm in diameter were included in the study. Clinical follow-up was performed at 1 month and 9 months. Major adverse coronary events (MACE), that is, cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization (re-PTCA or CABG), were recorded over a period of 9 months. Using this stent, a 99% in-hospital success rate was achieved. A total of 17 patients presented MACE (8.7%) during the whole follow-up period and target lesion revascularization was needed for 14 (7.1%) patients. Using multivariate analysis only some clinical parameters (patients treated for unstable angina, with a history of CABG or of female gender) were found as independent predictors of MACE after coronary stenting. Procedural related factors, angiographic characteristics, or reference diameter were not found to influence clinical outcome. Because the study was performed in patients with a high proportion of complex lesions (relative high-risk nonselected population with nearly one third calcified lesions, many long and type B2 and C lesions) we can conclude that the coronary SeaquenceÔ stent can be considered as a stent of reference in routine practice. (J Interven Cardiol 2004;17:9,15) [source]

    Comparison of lipid-rich necrotic core size in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque: Initial results

    Vincent C. Cappendijk MD
    Abstract Purpose To investigate the potential difference in the size of the lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) in carotid plaques of symptomatic patients versus asymptomatic patients. Pathological studies established that a large LRNC is an important feature of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Previously, we have demonstrated a high correlation between semiquantitative analysis of the LRNC size in T1-weighted (w) turbo field echo (TFE) MR images and histology. Materials and Methods Thirty-seven patients with carotid stenosis >70% with (n = 26) or without (n = 11) symptoms were included. Three independent MR readers quantified the amount of LRNC with a T1w TFE pulse sequence. The relative amount of LRNC (LRNC score) was defined as sum of cross-sectional area percentages LRNC per carotid plaque. Results Interreader agreement for the three MR readers was good, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, 95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.72 (0.57,0.83). All three MR readers on average found a larger LRNC in the symptomatic group of patients, although this was not statistically significant. The mean LRNC score was 116 ± 129 and 59 ± 62 for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively (P = 0.13). Symptomatic patients showed wide ranges in LRNC scores (0,424), while the range was much lower in the asymptomatic group (0,170). Conclusion Single-sequence T1w TFE may be a promising technique to study atherosclerotic plaque at risk of stroke. Larger studies are warranted to confirm these promising results. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2008;27:1356,1361. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Problem management maturity within corrective maintenance

    Mira Kajko-Mattsson
    Abstract CM: Problem Management is a first detailed descriptive problem management process model to be utilized within corrective maintenance. It is the result of a long-term empirical study of industrial corrective maintenance processes. It has been developed at ABB and evaluated for its industrial relevance within 17 non-ABB organizations. Playing the role of a descriptive model, CM: Problem Management specifies what a problem management process should look like. It also structures it into three maturity levels, Initial, Defined, and Optimal, where each level offers a different grainedness of process visibility. In this paper, we present the CM levels of problem management process maturity within corrective maintenance and match them against the industrial state of practice. Our goal is to establish the current status of problem management maturity using CM: Problem Management as an evaluation model. Our evaluation results show that the industrial processes today suffice to attend to software problems within corrective maintenance. Very few of them, however, do learn from the past in order to prevent future problems and to improve development or maintenance processes. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hepatic arterial cannulation using the side holed catheter

    Masashi Watanabe MD
    Abstract Background Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) has been recognized as one of the effective treatments for patients with hepatic metastatic tumor. However it is difficult to perform HAIC in the long term without complications. This report describes the laparotomic approach using the side holed catheter, which is a novel method of implanting a catheter-port system. Methods and Results We designed a new anti-thrombotic catheter for HAIC. This catheter is tapered from 5F (diameter of shaft) to 3.3F (diameter at tip), and a side hole is opened 7 cm from the tip of catheter. This catheter is inserted from the gastroduodenal artery to the common hepatic artery (CHA), and the tip is put in the aorta or in the splenic artery. The side hole is adjusted distal to the CHA. In our surgical department, our new catheter was inserted in four patients at the time of their abdominal surgery. The cannulation was performed successfully in all patients. In two of them, HAIC was finished without problems at 6 months after starting, and two were still treated by HAIC at 9 and 8 months after starting. Conclusions Initial results from a study of a new method of implanting a catheter-port system in the hepatic artery using the new tapering side hole catheter suggest that this method may enable operators to avoid complicated selective coiling and may lower the incidence of hepatic artery occlusion in patients receiving long-term HAIC. J. Surg. Oncol. 2005;91:145,149. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Applying incremental tree induction to retrieval from manuals and medical texts

    Kieran J. White
    The Decision Tree Forest (DTF) is an architecture for information retrieval that uses a separate decision tree for each document in a collection. Experiments were conducted in which DTFs working with the incremental tree induction (ITI) algorithm of Utgoff, Berkman, and Clouse (1997) were trained and evaluated in the medical and word processing domains using the Cystic Fibrosis and SIFT collections. Performance was compared with that of a conventional inverted index system (IIS) using a BM25-derived probabilistic matching function. Initial results using DTF were poor compared to those obtained with IIS. We then simulated scenarios in which large quantities of training data were available, by using only those parts of the document collection that were well covered by the data sets. Consequently the retrieval effectiveness of DTF improved substantially. In one particular experiment precision and recall for DTF were 0.65 and 0.67 respectively, values that compared favorably with values of 0.49 and 0.56 for IIS. [source]

    Personality Trait Profiles of Missionary Adolescents

    Terry L. Dwelle
    Background: The study objective was to compare the Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis secondary population norms for adolescents, to test results of Assemblies of God missionary adolescents, and determine if the mission's experience had significant impact on personality traits. Methods: A retrospective record review study of Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis test results administered to all missionary adolescents aged 13- to 18-years-old, having attended a yearly school of missions from 1986 to 1994, was performed. A two-sample, two-tailed t -test was used for statistical analysis. Test results were compared with standard adolescent and adult norms. Initial, and second test results when available, were compared for significant personality trait changes in adolescents over a 2,3 year interval, while in the mission's program. Subpopulation norms were calculated for the study group. Results: Initial tests from 438 study group adolescents demonstrated significant differences in 7 of 9 personality trait categories for males, and 8 of 9 for females, compared with test adolescent norms. Initial, and second test comparisons were performed in 67 adolescents, and showed no significant changes in the personality trait scores in males and females. Personality trait profiles for females more closely resembled adult than adolescent norms, with 8 of the 9 personality trait categories showing no significant difference between adult female norms and study females. Conclusions: Clinicians and mission's sending agencies should be aware of the unique Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis test patterns for missionary adolescents, and that Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis norm tables for adolescents seem inadequate in evaluating missionary adolescents. Appropriate subpopulation norms are likely necessary. The impact of missions on personality trait categories of missionary adolescents seems negligible, but needs further research with methods that assure follow-up testing. These considerations could apply to other subpopulations and psychological tests. [source]

    Initial results of remediation activities to restore hypereutrophic Villerest Reservoir (Roanne, France)

    Abstract We examined the impacts of remediation activities aimed at improving the water quality of hypereutrophic Villerest Reservoir, in which Microcystis aeruginosa dominated during the summer. We also compared nutrients and chlorophyll a data from this study with the results of a previous study on the reservoir. Between the two studies, the nitrogen and phosphorus loads into the reservoir from the main tributary decreased by 70% and 80%, respectively. Within the reservoir, the quantities of ammonia-nitrogen were similar in the two studies, and the total nitrogen was significantly higher in this study compared to the initial study. Both the phosphate-phosphorus and total phosphorus concentrations decreased significantly between the two studies. However, the statistically significant decrease in phosphate-phosphorus and total phosphorus did not always lead to a significant decrease in chlorophyll a concentrations. The nitrogen/phosphorus mass ratio during the present study remained well above five, the critical value below which summer blooms of Microcystis aeruginosa were observed in Villerest Reservoir. These study results indicated that the remediation activities being used to improve the water quality of Villerest Reservoir were off to a good start. [source]

    Direction sensitive sensor probe for the evaluation of voluntary and reflex pelvic floor contractions,

    Christos E. Constantinou
    Abstract Aims The development of a vaginal probe for the evaluation of the dynamics of pelvic floor function is described. Fundamental criteria in the design of this probe involves the incorporation of a means of assessing whether the isotonic forces closing the vagina are equally distributed or whether they are greater in some directions than others. The aim of this study is to present the design of directionally sensitive multi-sensor probe, having circumferential spatial resolution, constructed to identify the distribution of anisotropic forces acting on the vagina following voluntary and reflex pelvic floor contractions. Materials and Methods Probe system consists of four pairs of force/displacement sensors mounted on leaf springs enabling isotonic measurements of voluntary and reflex contractions. Assembly is retractable to 23 mm for insertion, and expandable to 60 mm for measurement. Simultaneous measurements were made of force and displacement with the sensors oriented in the anterior/posterior and left/right orientation of the vagina. Using this probe, measurements were carried out to identify the temporal and spatial characteristic response of the vaginal wall. Data were analyzed with respect to voluntary pelvic floor and cough-induced contractions of nine subjects having a mean age of 64 years. Results A robust probe system was developed and measurements were successfully made. Initial results show that the maximum force and displacement occurs during reflex contractions in the anterior aspect of the vagina validating the anisotropic nature of the forces acting on the vaginal wall. The data also show that both the force and displacement produced by the cough-induced has a higher magnitude than voluntary pelvic floor contraction. Conclusions A directional multi-sensor vaginal probe has been developed to evaluate the force and displacement produced during isotonic pelvic floor contractions. Analysis of the results provided new biomechanical data demonstrating the anisotropic nature of vaginal closure as a consequence of pelvic floor contractions. Neurourol. Urodynam. 26:386,391, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Aging Experience of Well Elderly Women: Initial Results

    Wendy Duggleby
    In aging research, the concentration of the majority of studies on the effects of disease and other problems has resulted in a view of aging that focuses on losses (Agen, 1998). However, little is actually understood about the aging experience in well elderly women and how they adapt to changes in aging. The purpose of this study was to explore the aging experience among well community-living older women participating in activities at a seniors' center. The specific aims were: (i) describe the experience of aging; and (ii) describe how participants deal with aging. A descriptive qualitative focus group design was used. Fourteen women who attend a seniors' center in a large urban multi-purpose recreation center in north central Texas participated in focus groups based on their age: young,old (65,74); old,old (75,84) and oldest old (85 years of age and older). The focus group interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis methodology. One member from each focus group confirmed the results. All three age groups described changes in interests, loss of friends, loss of spouse, and retirement. The ,old,old' and ,oldest old' groups described physical changes that interfered with ,doing what they did before'. All three groups said the best part about growing older was a sense of freedom and the most difficult was loss of spouse. They all dealt with the changes by maintaining relationships with family and friends, faith, staying physically and mentally active and staying involved. The participants identified seniors' programs as helping them with changes. However, transportation was an issue. They also described how they needed others to be patient with them as they dealt with their changes. [source]

    UV emission on a Si substrate: Optical and structural properties of ,-CuCl on Si grown using liquid phase epitaxy techniques

    A. Cowley
    Abstract Considerable research is being carried out in the area of wide band gap semiconductor materials for light emission in the 300,400 nm spectral range. Current materials being used for such devices are typically based on II,VI and III-nitride compounds and variants thereof. However, one of the major obstacles to the successful fabrication of III-N devices is lattice mismatch-induced high dislocation densities for epitaxially grown layers on non-native substrates. ,-CuCl is a direct bandgap material and an ionic wide bandgap I,VII semiconductor with a room temperature free exciton binding energy of ,190 meV (compared to ,25 meV and ,60 meV for GaN and ZnO, respectively) and has a band gap of 3.4 eV (, , 366 nm). The lattice constant of ,-CuCl (0.541 nm) is closely matched to that of Si (0.543 nm). This could, in principle, lead to the development of optoelectronic systems based on CuCl grown on Si. Research towards this end has successfully yielded polycrystalline ,-CuCl on Si(100) and Si(111) using vacuum-based deposition techniques [1]. We report on developments towards achieving single crystal growth of CuCl from solution via Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) based techniques. Work is being carried out using alkali halide flux compounds to depress the liquidus temperature of the CuCl below its solid phase wurtzite-zincblende transition temperature (407 °C [2]) for solution based epitaxy on Si substrates. Initial results show that the resulting KCl flux-driven deposition of CuCl onto the Si substrate has yielded superior photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) behavior relative to comparitively observed spectra for GaN or polycrystalline CuCl. This enhancement is believed to be caused by an interaction between the KCl and CuCl material subsequent to the deposition process, perhaps involving a reduction in Cl vacancy distributions in CuCl. This paper presents a detailed discussion of a CuCl LPE growth system as well as the characterization of deposited materials using X-ray diffraction (XRD), room temperature and low temperature PL, and XEOL. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Off-line pyrolysis and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of lignin moieties: a new method for determining the fate of lignin residues in soil,

    Jennifer A. J. Dungait
    Off-line pyrolysis was used to liberate lignin moieties from dung and soil and, after trimethylsilylation, the ,13C values of these derivatives were determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Initial ,13C values determined for 4-vinylphenol, syringol, 4-vinylguaiacol, 4-acetylsyringol, 4-vinylsyringol, 4-(2- Z -propenyl)syringol, 4-(2- E -propenyl)syringol and 4-(2-propenone)syringol pyrolysis products of the lignin polyphenol structure from C4 (,13Cbulk,=,,12.6%) and C3 (,13Cbulk,=,,30.1,) dung confirmed the robust and reproducible nature of the off-line preparation technique. C4 dung was used as a treatment in a randomised field experiment to assess the short-term sequestration of dung carbon in managed grasslands. Since lignin was on average 3.5, depleted in 13C compared with bulk dung ,13C values, this may have resulted in an under-estimation of dung C incorporation based on bulk ,13C values. Therefore, an investigation of the compound-specific ,13C values of dung-derived lignin moieties extracted from soils sampled up to 372 days was undertaken. ,13C values between lignin moieties extracted from treated and untreated soils showed that dung-derived lignin was not especially resistant to degradation and suggested that individual moieties of the lignin macromolecule must: (i) move into soil, (ii) be degraded, or (iii) be transformed diagenetically at different rates. This adds to a gathering body of evidence that lignin is not particularly stable in soils, which has considerable significance for the perceived role of different biochemical components in the cycling of C in soils. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Biological rhythm development in preterm infants: Does health status influence body temperature circadian rhythm?

    Karen A. ThomasArticle first published online: 18 JUL 200
    Abstract Twenty-six preterm infants, postconceptional age from 28 to 35 weeks and postnatal age approximately 14 days, were included in a study of the development of temperature circadian rhythm. Insulated abdominal skin temperature and incubator air temperature were recorded continuously at 1-min intervals for 24 hr. Using cosinor analysis, cycle mesor, amplitude, and acrophase were determined. Initial results from regression analysis did not confirm a predicted linear relationship between postconceptional age and amplitude; however, dividing the sample according to health status into sick (N,=,15) and not sick (N,=,11) groups revealed differing regression models. For not sick infants, amplitude increased with postconceptional age (R2,=,.405), whereas no relationship was found between postconceptional age and cycle amplitude in sick infants (R2,=,.069). These results indicate that healthy preterm infants demonstrate emergence of circadian temperature rhythm. Implications include potential time-based periods of vulnerability, overheating and hyperthermia, and management of incubator operation. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Res Nurs Health 24: 170,180, 2001 [source]

    Follow-up of Probably Benign Lesions (BI-RADS 3 category) in Breast MR Imaging

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 3 2010
    Elke Hauth MD
    Abstract:, The purpose of our study was to determine the frequency of BI-RADS 3 lesions in breast MR imaging in a clinical patient population and their frequency of malignancy in follow-up breast MR imaging. In 44/698 (6.3%) patients with breast MR imaging, 56 lesions were categorized to BI-RADS 3. These lesions were all not palpable and not detectable at conventional mammography or ultrasound. In follow-up, lesions were score in complete resolved (CRL), partial resolved (PRL), stable lesions (SL), and progressive lesions (PL). Initial signal enhancement of lesions was coded by color intensity (bright for high, medium for medium, dark for low), the postinitial signal enhancement by color hue (blue for increase, green for plateau, red for wash-out). In first follow-up breast MR imaging 23/56 (41%) lesions were PRL, 14/56 (25%) lesions were CRL, 14/56 (25%) lesions remained SL. In one of five PL lesions, histopathology revealed a malignant tumor. In initial breast MR imaging, CRL showed significant fewer high pixels (p = 0.002), medium pixels (p = 0.006) significant more low pixels (p = 0.005) and significant more increase pixels (p = 0.037) than PRL. In a clinical patient population the frequency of malignancy of BI-RADS 3 lesions in breast MR imaging and their frequency of malignancy are similar to that in conventional mammography. In initial breast MR imaging, complete resolved lesions showed less suspicious contrast kinetics than other lesions. In follow-up, the increase of lesion size should warrant histopathological diagnosis. [source]